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1. IiauXos, Paul. The beginning of the Epistle, the inscription.^ 
The Scriptures of the New Testament, as compared with the 
books of the Old Testament, have the epistolary form ; and in 
those, not merely what has been written by Paul, Peter, James, 
and Jude, but also both the treatises of Luke, and all the writ- 
ings of John. Nay, it is of more consequence, that the Lord 
Jesus Christ Himself wrote seven letters in His own name, by 
the hand of John (Eev. ii. and iii.) ; and the whole Apocalypse 
is equivalent to an epistle written by Himself. Epistles were 
usually sent, not to slaves, but to free men, and to those espe- 
cially who had been emancipated ; and the epistolary style of 
writing is better suited, than any other, for extending, as widely 
as possible, the kingdom of God, and for the most abundant 
edification of the souls of men. Moreover, Paul alone laboured 
in this field more than all the other apostles put together ; for 

' [The Address, or Heading. — ^Bd.] The ancient Greeks and Eomans 
used to put, at the beginning of their letters, those things which now, ac- 
cording to our mode of Subscription, come under the name of the Address and 
previous Salutation, and this generally very brief, as if it were to be said : 
Paul iDishes health (sends compliments') to the Christians at Borne. But the 
apostle expresses those things, from a very large measure of spiritual feeling, 
in great exuberance of style, while he chiefly preaches Jesus Christ and His 
gospel, and forcibly declares his evangelical office of Apostle. — V. G. 



fourteen of his epistles are extant, of which various is the arrange- 
ment, various the division. He wrote one to the Hebrews, with- 
out prefixing his name to it; he added his name to the rest; 
and these were partly addressed to churches, partly to indivi- 
duals ; and in the present day they are arranged in volumes,^ in 
such a way as that the one with the greatest number of verses is 
put first. But the chronological order is much more worthy of 
consideration, of which we have treated in the Ordo temporum, 
cap. 6.'' When that matter is settled, both the apostohc history, 
and these very epistles, shed a mutual light on one another; and 
we perceive a correspondence of thoughts, and modes of expres- 
sion, in epistles written at one and the same time, and concern- 
ing the same state of affairs [as the apostolic history — the Acts — 
describes] ; and we also become acquainted with the spiritual 
growth of the apostle. There is one division, which, we think, 
ought to be particularly mentioned in this place. Paul wrote in 
one way to chm-ches, which had been planted by his own exer- 
tions, but in a different way to those churches, to which he was 
not known by face. The former class of epistles may be com- 
pared to the discourses, which pastors deliver in the course of 
their ordinary ministrations ; the latter class, to the discourses, 
which strangers deliver. The former are replete with the kind- 
ness, or else the severity, of an intimate friend, according as the 
state of the respective chm-ches was more or less consistent with 
the Gospel ; the latter present the truths of the Gospel as it were 
more unmixed, in general statements, and in the abstract ; the 
former are more for domestic and daily use, the latter are adapted 
to hoKdays and solemn festivals, — comp. notes on ch. xv. 30. 
This epistle to the Romans is mostly of this latter description. — 
douXog Ijiffou XpidTou, servant of Jesus Christ) This commence- 
ment and the conclusion correspond (xv. 15, etc.) Xpierdu — 
0EOU, of Christ — of God) Everywhere in the epistles of Paul, 
and throughout the New Testament, the contemplation of 
God and of Christ is very closely connected ; for example. Gal. 
ii. 19, etc. [And it is also our privilege to have the same access 
to God in Christ. — V. g.] — xXjjrJs amsrokog, a called apostle), 
[called to he an apostle. — ^Eng. vers.] Supply, of Jesus Christ ; 

» i.e., in the collected form,— Ed. * See Life of Bengel, sec. 22 

ROMANS ]. 2. 3 

for the preceding clause, a servant of Jesus Christ, is now more 
particularly explained. It is the duty of an apostle, and of a called 
apostle, to write also to the Romans. \The whole world is cer- 
tainly under obligation to such a servant as this. — ^V. g.] The 
other apostles, indeed, had been trained by long intercourse with 
Jesus, and at first had been called to be followers and disciples, 
and had been afterwards advanced to the apostleship. Paul, 
who had been formerly a persecutor, by a call became suddenly 
[without the preparatory stage of discipleship] an apostle. So 
the Jews were saints [set apart to the Lord] in consequence of 
the promise ; the Greeks became saints, merely fi-om their being 
called, ver. 6, etc. There was therefore a special resemblance and 
connection between one called to he an apostle, and those whom 
he addressed, called to be saints. Paul applies both to himself 
and to the Corinthians a similar title (1 Cor. i. 1, 2) ; and that 
similarity in the designation of both reminds us of the {jitorbviiieiv, 
pattern, or living exhibition [of Christ's grace ia Paul himself, 
as a sample of what others, who should beUeve, might expect], 
which is spoken of in 1 Tim. i. 16. While Christ is calling a 
man. He makes him what He calls him to be, — comp. ch. iv. 17 ; 
and that, too, quickly. Acts ix. 3-15. — aipupig/iivog, separated) 
The root, or origin of the term Pharisee, was the same as that 
of this word ; but, in this passage Paul intimates, that he was 
separated by God not only from men, from the Jews, and from 
the disciples, but also from teachers. There was a separation 
in one sense before (Gal. i. 15), and another after his call (Acts 
xiii. 2) ; and he refers to this very separation in the passage before 
us. — I'lg svayyeXiov, to the Gospel) The conjugate verb follows 
ver. 2, •nrpoiirnyyii' He had promised before. The promise was 
the Gospel proclaimed [announced beforehand], the Gospel is 
the promise fulfilled. Acts xiii. 32. God promised the Gospel, 
that is. He comprehended it in the promise. The promise was 
not merely a promise of the Gospel, but was the Gospel itself. "^ 

2. "O, which). The copiousness of Paul's style shows itself 
in the very inscriptions: and we must, therefore, watchftilly 
observe the thread of the parentheses. \_God promised that He 
would not. only display His grace in the Son, hit also that He 

' i.e., in germ. — Ed. 


wmiU publish that very fact to the whole world. Listen to it with 
the most profound attention.— V. g.j— ^^os^i/r^'^""' promisea 
afore) formerly, often, and solemnly. The truth of the promise, 
and the truth of its ftilfilment, mutually confirm each other.— 
d,& ra. ■^po<pr,rZv airou, bi/ His prophets) That which the pro- 
phets of God have spoken, God has spoken, Luke i. 70 ; Acts 
iii. 24.-7papa/j, in the Scriptures) ch. xvi. 26. The prophets 
made use of the voice, as weU as of writing, in the publication 
of their message ; and the voice was likely to have greater 
weight in the case of a single people [the Jews], than ainong 
the countries of the whole globe : therefore, the greater weight 
in delivering the message, would give an advantage to the voice 
over writing: notwithstanding, as much respect is paid to 
writing, with a view to posterity, as if there had been no voice. 
To such an extent does Scripture prevail over tradition. ^The 
believing Romans were, in part, originally Jews, and, in paH, 
originally Gentiles {exjudaei, Ex-Gentiles), and Paul parti- 
cularly has regard to the latter, ver. 13. — ^V. g.J 

3. Tlipi, concerning) The sum and substance of the Gospel 
is, concerning the Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord. An ex- 
planation is introduced in this passage, as to what this appella- 
tion, the Son of God, denotes, ver. 3, 4.' — rou 'y^voj^Uov), who was 
[made Engl. Vers.] bom. So Gal. iv. 4. — xarA, according to) 
The determinative particle, ver. 4 ; ix. 5. 

4. Tou opisSevTos u/'ou &iou, who was definitively marked as [de- 
clared to be, Engl. Vers.] the Son of God) He uses rou again, 
not xal or di. When the article is repeated, it forms an 

1 Jesos Christ is the Son op God. This is the foundation of all rightful 
access, on the part of Jesus Christ, to His Father and His God ; and, in 
like manner, of our approach by Him, as our Lord, to His Father and our 
Father, to His God and our God, wlio has delivered us to Him as His pecu- 
liar property. Even before His humiliation, He was indeed the Son of God ; 
but this Sonship was in occultation by His humiliation, and was at length 
fully disclosed to us after His resurrection. His justification depends on 
these facts, 1 Tim. iii. 16;] John ii 1 ; and that is the foundation of our 
justification, Rom. iv. 25. Hence, in His passion. He placed all His confi- 
dence in the Father, not on account of His works (for not even did the Son 
give first to the Father any thing, which the Father was bound to pay back 
to Him), but for this reason, because He was the Son ; and thus He went be- 
fore us in the way, as the leader and finisher of our faith. Heb. xii. 2. — V. g. 

ROMANS I. 4. 5 

epitasis. [See Append.] In many passages, where both na- 
tures of the Saviour are mentioned, the human nature is put 
first, because the divine was most distinctly proved to all, 
only after His resurrection from the dead. [Hence it is, that 
it is frequently repeated, He, and not any other. Acts ix. 20, 
22, etc. — V. g.] The participle op/gSevro; expresses much more 
than acpaipig/Lmi in ver. 1 ; for one, apopl^erai, out of a number 
of other persons, but a person, ipl^era,!, as the one and only 
person. Acts x. 42. In that well-known passage, Ps. ii. 7, 
pn [the decree] is the same as ipis/iog ; [the decree implying] 
that the Father has most deterrninatehj said. Thou art My Son. 
The avobii^ig, the approving of the Son, in regard to men, 
follows in the train of this o/>«f/iov. — ^Acts ii. 22, Paul particu- 
larly extols the glory of the Son of God, when writing to those 
to whom he had been unable to preach it face to face. Comp. 
Heb. X. 8, etc., note, —h dvm/j,ii, in (or with) power), most power- 
fully, most fully; as when the sun shines in duvdfiti, in his 
strength. — Rev. i. 16. — xaT& tcnZfia. ayiuguvris, according to the 
spirit of holiness) The word W^p ayiog, hoi]/, when the subject 
under discussion refers to God, not only denotes that blameless 
rectitude in acting, which distinguishes Him, but the God- 
head itself, or, to speak with greater propriety, the divinity, 
or the excellence of the Divine nature. Hence aymeivfi 
has a kind of middle sense between ayiorriTo, and kytaeihiv. — 
Comp. Heb. xii. 10, 14. \^' His holiness,^' ayioTni; "without 
ayiasfiog sanctification, no man shall see the Lord."] So that 
there are, as it were, three degrees, sanctification (sanctificatio), 
sanctity (or sanctimony, " sanctimonia,") holiness (sanctitas) 
Holiness itself (sanctitas) is ascribed to God the Father, and to 
the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. And since the Holy Spirit is 
not mentioned in this passage, but the Spirit of holiness {sanctity, 
sanctimoniae), we must inquire farther, what that expression, 
which is evidently a singular one, denotes. The name Spirit is 
expressly, and that too, very often, given to the Holy Spirit; 
but God is also said to be a Spirit ; and the Lord, Jesus Christ, 
is called Spirit, in antithesis indeed to the letter, 2 Cor. iii. 17. 
But in the strict sense, it is of use to compare with the idea here 
the fact, that the antithesis _flesh and spirit occurs, as in this pas- 
sage, so rather frequently, in passages speaking of Christ, 1 Tim. 


iii. 16, 1 Pet. iii. 18. And in these passages that is called 
Spirit, whatever belongs to Christ, independently of the flesh 
\assy,med through His descent from David, Luke, i. 35. — V. g.]? 
although that flesh was pure and holy ; also whatever supenor to 
flesh belongs to Him, owing to His generation by the Father, 
who has sanctified Him, John x. 36 ; in short, the Godhead itself. 
For, as in this passage, /esA and spirit, so at chap. ix. 5,f^sh 
and Godhead stand in contradistinction to each other. This 
spirit is not called the spirit of holiness (sanctitatis ay/oVjjros), 
which is the peculiar and solemn appellation of the Holy Spirit, 
with whom, however, Jesus was most abundantly fiUed and 
anointed, Luke i. 35, iv. 1, 18 ; John iii. 34 ; Acts x. 38 ; but in 
this one passage alone, the expression used is the spirit of sanctity 
(sanctimonise ayitasLvrig), in order that there may be at once im- 
plied the efficacy of that holiness (sanctitatis ay/or^ros) or divinity, 
of which the resurrection of the Saviour was both a necessary 
consequence, and which it most powerfully illustrates ; and so, 
that .spiritual and holy, or divine power of Jesus Christ glorified, 
who, however, has still retained the spiritual body. Before the 
resurrection, the Spirit was concealed under the flesh ; after the 
resurrection the Spirit of sanctity [sanctimonise] entirely con- 
cealed the flesh, although He did not lay aside the flesh ; but aU 
that is carnal (which was also without sin), Luke xxiv. 39. In 
respect of the former [His state before the resurrection]. He once 
used frequently to call Himself the Son of Man; in respect of 
the latter [His state after the resurrection ; and the spirit of 
sanctity, by which He rose again]. He is celebrated as the Son of 
God. His [manifested or] conspicuous state [as presented to 
men's view before His resurrection] was modified in various ways. 
At the day of judgment. His glory as the Son of God shall ap- 
pear, as also His body in the highest degree glorified. See also 
John VI. 63, note. — If avaerdgiug vixpSiv, by means of the resurrec- 
tion of the dead) 'Ex. not. only denotes time, but the connection of 
things (for the resurrection of Jesus Christ is at once the source 
and the object of our faith. Acts xvii. 31). The verb avfar^fj,, is 
also used without a preposition, as in Herodotus, amgrdvTig rut 
^aSpZv : therefore, amgTcceig vixpuv might be taken in this passage 
for the resurrection from the dead. But it is in reality taken in 
a more pregnant sense ; for it is intimated, th^t the resurrection 

ROMANS I. 5. 7 

of all is intimately connected witli the resurrection of Ghrist 
Comp. Acts iv. 2, xxiii. 6, xxvi. 23. Artemonius conjectures 
that the reading should be If avaeTdgeae ix nxpo\ Part I., cap. 
41, p. 214, etc., and this is his construction of the passage : •Kipi 
[ver. 3] l^avaeTdseiii iy- vexpZiv tov v'iou airou x.r.X. concerning the re- 
surrection of His Son from the dead, etc. But, I. There is a 
manifest Apposition, concerning His Son, Jesus Christ ; therefore, 
the words, which come between parenthetically, are all construed 
in an unbroken connection with one another. EC. There is an 
obvious antithesis : TOT yivojiinu EK KATA : TOT 6pis6hro; — 
KATA — EH. — m. avagraei;, not e^avdarag/c, if we are to have 
regard to Paul's style, is properly applied to Christ ; but Iga- 
avdgragig to Christians ; Comp. iiyiipi, i^iyipsT, 1 Cor. vi. 14. Ar- 
temonius objects that Christ was even previously the Son of 
G-od, Luke iii. 22 ; John x. 36 ; Acts ii. 22, x. 38. We answer, 
Paul does not infer the Sonship itself, but the opig/ihv, the [decla- 
ration] definitive marking of the Sonship by the resurrection. 
And in support of this point, Chrysostom compares with this the 
following passages : John ii. 19, viii. 28 ; Matt. xii. 39 ; and the 
preaching of the apostles follows close upon this opigiJ,6v, Luke 
xxiv. 47. Therefore, this mode of mentioning the resur- 
rection is exceedingly weU adapted to this introduction, as 
Gal. i. 1. 

5. A/' o5, hy whom), by Jesus Christ our Lord. — sXd^of^ev, we 
have received), we, the other apostles and I. — %«/>/!' xul amgroXriv, 
grace and the apostolic mission) These two things are quite 
distinct, but very closely connected. Grace, nay, a singular 
raeasirre of grace, fell to the lot of the apostles, and from it, not 
only their whole mission, Eph. iii. 2, but also all their actions 
proceeded, Kom. xii. 3, xv. 15, 16, 18. The word drngroX^ occurs 
in this sense in Acts i. 25. With the LXX. it signifies, sending 
away, a gift sent, etc. Obedience to the faith corresponds to grace 
and apostleship. — ilg v'jrax.oriv irigrsiii;, for obedience to the faith), that 
all nations may become and continue submissively obedient to the 
word of faith and doctrine concerning Jesus (Acts vi. 7), and 
may therefore render the obedience, which consists in faith itself. 
From its relation to the Gospel, the nature of this obedience is 
evident, ch. x. 16, xvi. 26 ; 1 Peter i. 2 : and Waxoi), obedience, is 
a,Koii f/jiS ivorayris, hearing with submission, ch. x. 3, at the close of 

8 ROMANS I. 6, 7. 

the verse. So, Maxy believing said, Behold, the handmaid of ilis 
Lord, Luke i. 38, 45 — h leaei roTg 'ihidiv, among all nations) As 
all nations outwardly obey the authority of the Eomans, so all 
nations, and so the Eomans themselves also ought, with their 
whole heart, to he obedient to the faith — b-Kip roU hmfiarog aurou), for 
the name of Him, even Jesus Christ our Lord. By Him grace 
has come, John i. 17 ; for Him, His ambassador's act ; 2 Cor. v. 
20 ; by Him faith is directed towards God, 1 Peter i. 21. 

6. 'Ek o/s), among which nations, that have been brought to the 
obedience of the faith by the calling of Jesus Christ — xocl v/itT;, 
ye also) Paul ascribes no particular superiority to the Eomans. 
— Comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 36. He, however, touches upon the reason 
for his writing to the Eomans. Presently, in the following 
verse, he directly addresses them — kXtitoI, called), ver. 7. 

V. 7. nam Tois ovgiv h 'Pw/ji,ri, to all that be in Home) Most of 
these were of the Gentiles, ver. 13, with whom, however, Jews 
were mixed. They had been either born and educated at Eome, 
or, at least, were residing there at that time. They were dwell- 
ing scattered throughout a very large city, and had not hitherto 
been brought into the form of a regularly constituted church. 
Only some of them were in the habit of assembhng in the house 
of Priscilla and Aquila, Eom. xvi. 5. What follows, beloved, etc., 
agrees with the word all ; for he does not address the idolaters 
at Eome — ayavYiToTs 0£oD, xXriToTs ayio/g) These two clauses 
want the copulative conjunction, and are parallel ; for he, who 
belongs to God, is holy [set apart]. Comp. Heb. iii. 1. The 
expression, the beloved of God, he particularly applies to the be- 
lieving Israelites, ch. xi. 28 ; called to be saints, to believers of the 
Gentiles. The Israelites are holy by descent from their fathers. 
Acts XX. 32, note. Comp. with annot. on ver. 1 of this chapter ; 
but believers of the Gentiles are said to be sanctified or called 
saints, holy by calhng, as Paul interprets it [' sanctified'], 
1 Cor. i. 2. We have here a double title, and I have referred 
the first part to the Israelites, the second to the Gentiles. Comp. 
ver. 5, 6, and add the passages, which have just now been quoted. 
The celebrated Baumgarten, in his German exposition of this 
Epistle, to which we shall often have occasion to refer, writes 
thus : " Hiedurch wilrde der gottesdienstliche Unterschied der 
Gldubigen und eingebildete Vorzug der Israeliten zu sehr hestdtigei 

ROMANS I. 7. 9 

warden seyn, den Paulus vielmelir bestreitet und ahgescliaffet oder 
aufgelioben zu seyn versichert." ^ We answer : The privilege of 
the Israelite (although he who is called holy, is as highly blessed, 
as he who is the beloved of God) is as appropriate to be mentioned 
in Paul's introduction, as the 'xpuTov, ch. i. 16 [to the 3 ew first], 
is appropriate in the Statement of his subject^ there ; which [the 
statement of the priority of the Jew, at ver. 16] Baumgarten de- 
fends enough and more than enough. — %a/>'s, grace, etc. This 
form of expression is the customary one in the writings of Paul. 
See the beginnings of his epistles, and also Eph. vi. 23. — u/i/i', to 
you) Supply, may there fall to your lot. — tlpm) peace) D1PK', 
peace : a form of salutation in common use among the Hebrews, 
before which is placed %ap;?, grace, a term altogether consonant 
to the New Testament, and to the preaching of the apostles. 
Grace comes from God ; then, in consequence, man is in a state 
of peace, ch. v. 2, note. — A-jrh ©sou '?ra.Tpbg nt'-uv xal Kvplou IrisZu 
XpisTou, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ) The 
solemn form of appellation used by the apostles, God and the 
Father, God our Father ; and, when they speak to one another, 
they do not often say Kvpiog, Lord, inasmuch as by it the proper 
name of God with four letters [nilT' were the four letters, tetra- 
grammatonl is intended ; but, in the Old Testament, they had 
said, Jehovah our God. The reason of the difference is : in the 
Old Testament they were, so to speak, slaves ; in the New Testa- 
ment they are sons ; but sons so know their father, as to render 
it unnecessary to call him often by his proper name. Comp. 
Heb. viii. 11. Farther, when Polytheism was rooted out, it was 
not so necessaiy, that the true God should be distinguished from 
false gods, by His proper name. Kvplou is construed, not with 
Viwv ; for God is declared to be the Father of Jesus Christ, and 
our Father, not, our Father, and the Father of Jesus Christ ; but 
[Kvpiou is construed] with a.'jrh, as is evident from 2 Tim, i. 2. 
There is one and the same grace, one and the same peace, from 

1 Here lay the difference in divine services among believers, and the ima- 
ginary superiority of the Israelites would have been too strongly confirmed,, 
which Paul, to make quite' sure of it, would much rather have disputed and 
cancelled or abolished. 

2 ' Proposition!' in the Latin : Cic. Inv. ii. 18, defines it as « per quem 
locus is breviter exponitur, ex quo vis omnis oportet emanet ratiocinationis." 

10 ROMANS I. 8, 9. 

God and Christ. Our confidence and prayers are directed to 
God, inasmuch as He is the Father of our Lord ; and to Jesus 
Christ, inasmuch as He makes us, through Himself, stand in the 
presence of the Father. 

8. lifiZTO),, first) A next does not always follow ; and in this 
passage, the affectionate feeling and emotion of the writer have 
absorhed it. — f/,h) The corresponding ds follows at ver. 13. You 
are, says he, already indeed in the faith ; but yet I am desirous 
to contribute something to your improvement. — evxapierZ, I give 
thanks) Even at the beginning alone [besides similar beginnings 
in other epistles] of this epistle, there are traces of all the 
spiritual emotions. Among these, thanksgiving takes the pre- 
eminence : and with it almost all the epistles commence. The 
categorical idea of the sentence is : You have found faith. 
Thanksgiving, which is an accessory idea, renders the discourse 
modal {i.e., shows the manner in which the subject and pre- 
dicate, in the categorical sentence, are connected), — comp. 
note to ch. vi. 17. Paul rejoices that, what he considered 
should be effected by him elsewhere, as a debtor to all, was 
already effected at Rome. — rffl 0£» i/,o\), my God) This phrase, 
my God, expresses faith, love, hope, and, therefore, the whole of 
true religion, Ps. cxliv. 15 ; Hab. i. 12. My God is the God 
whom I serve ; see next verse. — h&, through) The gifts of God 
come to us through Christ, our thanksgivings go to God through 
Christ. — 7] 'xiarii, faith) In congratulations of this kind, Paul 
describes either the whole of Christianity, Col. i. 3, etc., or 
some part of it, 1 Cor. i. 5. He therefore mentions faith in 
this passage, as suited to the object, which he has in view, 
ver. 12, 17. — ■/.arayyiWiTixi, is spoken of) An abbreviated mode 
of expression for, You have obtained faith ; I hear of it, for it 
is everywhere openly declared ; so, 1 Thess. i. 8, he says, that 
the faith of the Thessalonians is spread abroad in every place. — 
h oXwT(Z x6e/i(jj, throughout the whole world) The Divine good- 
ness and wisdom estabUshed the faith in the principal cities, 
especially in Jerusalem and Eome, from which it might be 
disseminated throughout the whole world. 

9. Maprv;, witness) A pious asseveration respecting' a matter 
necessary [Paul's secret prayer for them], and hidden from men, 
especially from those, who were remote and unknown, — 2 Cor. 

EOMANS I. 10-12. 11 

si. 31. — XarpeCoi, I serve), as an apostle, ch. xv. 16. The 
witness of God resounds [is often appealed to] in spiritual 
service ; and he who serves God, desires and rejoices, that 
as many as possible should serve God, 2 Tim. i. 3. — /ivelav i/^Sn, 
mention of you) Paul was wont to make distinct and explicit 
mention of the churches, and of the souls of their members. 

10. "Ei'jru; 7\bri mrs, The accumulation of the particles in- 
timates the strength of the desire. 

11. MeradSj, I may impart), in your presence, by the preach- 
ing of the Gospel, ver. 15, by profitable discourses, by prayers, 
etc. Paul was not satisfied with writing an epistle in the 
meantime, but retained this purpose, ch. xv. 24. There is 
much greater advantage in being present, than in sending 
letters, when the former falls out so [when one can be present 
in person]. — yafiei^a -jrviv/iaTixhn, spiritual gift) In these gifts, 
the Corinthians abounded, inasmuch as they had been favoured 
with the presence of Paul, 1 Cor. i. 7, xii. 1, xiv. 1 ; in like 
manner the Galatians, Gal. iii. 5. And those churches, which 
were gladdened by the presence of the apostles, had evidently 
distinguished privileges of this kind ; for example, fi:om the im- 
position of the apostles' hands. Acts xix. 2, 6, viii. 17, 18; and 
2 Tim. i. 6. But hitherto, at least, the Romans were much 
inferior in this respect ; wherefore also the enumeration of gifts 
at ch. xii. 6, 7, is extremely brief. He is, therefore, desirous 
to go to their assistance, that they may he established, for the tes- 
timony of Christ was confirmed by means of the gifts. — 1 Cor. 
i. 6. Peter had not, any more than Paul, visited Rome, before 
this epistle was written, as we learn from this passage, and 
indeed from the whole tenor of the epistle ; since Peter, had he 
been at Rome, would have imparted, what Paul was desirous 
to impart, to the Romans. Furthermore, Baronius thinks that 
this epistle was written a.d. 58 ; whereas the martyrdom of 
Peter took place a.d. 67 ; therefore, if he was at Rome at all, he 
could not have remained long at Rome. — (STnfi-)(piva,i, to he esta- 
blished) He speaks modestly ; It is the province of God to esta- 
blish, ch. xvi. 25. Paul intimates, that he is only the instrument. 

12. ToDro hi liri. Moreover, that is) He explains the words, to 
see you, etc. He does not say. Moreover, that is, that I may 
bring you into the form of a regularly constituted church. Pre- 

12 ROMANS I. 13, 14. 

caution was taken [by Divine foresight] lest the Church of Rome 
should be the occasion of any mischief, which nevertheless arose 
in after-times. — i/^Sn rs xaTi/iou, both of you and me) He not only 
associates with himself the Romans, together with whom he longs to 
be comforted [or stirred up together with whorri], but he even puts 
them first in the order of words, before himself. The style of the 
apostle is widely different from that of the Papal court at Rome. 

13. 'Ou — ayvoin, not — to be ignorant) A form of expression 
usual with Paul, which shows the candour of his mind. — adiX(poi, 
brethren) An address, frequent, holy, adapted to all, simple, 
agreeable, magnificent. It is profitable, in this place, to con- 
sider the titles, which the apostles use in their addresses. They 
rather seldom introduce proper names, such as Corinthians, 
Timothy, etc. Paul most fi'equently calls them brethren ; some- 
times, when he is exhorting them, beloved, or my beloved brethren. 
James says, brethren, my brethren, my beloved brethren ; Peter 
and Jude always use the word beloved ; John often, beloved ; 
once, brethren ; more than once, little, or my little children, as 
Paul, my son Timothy. — xap-jrhv eyu, I might have fruit) Have) 
a word elegantly placed midway between receive and give. What 
is profitable to others is a delight to Paul himself. He esteems 
that as th& fruit \ofhis labour'] (Phil. i. 22). In every place, he 
wishes to have something [a gift] put out at interest. He some- 
what modifies [qualifies] this desire of gain [spiritual gain], when 
he speaks of himself in the following verse as a debtor. He both 
demands and owes, ver. 12, 11. By the cords of these two forces, 
the 15th verse is steadied and strengthened. — xa^ws, even as) 
Good extends itself among as many as possible. 

14. '^Wnei Ti xal ^ap^dpoig, alike to the Greeks and to the 
barbarians). He reckons those among the Greeks, to whom he 
is writing in the Greek language. This division into Greeks 
and barbarians comprehends the entire Gentile world. There 
follows another division, alike to the wise and to the unioise; 
for there were fools even among the Greeks, and also wise men 
even aniong the Barbarians. To all, he says, I am debtor, by virtue 
of my divine commission to all, as being the servant of all (2 Cor. 
iv. 5.) Though men excel in wisdom or in power, the Gospel is 
still necessary to them ; others [beside the wise and powerful! 
are not excluded. — (Col. i. 28, note.) 

ROMANS I. 15, 16. IS 

15. oDt4), so), therefore. It is a sort of epiphonema [exclama- 
tion, which follows a train of reasoning], and a conclusion drawn 
from the whole to an important part. — rJ xar i/ie), that is, so fa?- 
as depends on me, or I for my part, so far as I am not prevented ; 
so !Ezra Vl.] 11, %ui 6 oTxog a'jrou ri xar i/is ^oitjdrjgirai, and his 
house, so far as it depends upon me, shall be made [a dunghill"]. 
— !!r^66v/ii,ov, ready) supply there is [readiness in me ; lam ready], 
3 Mac. V. 23, (26.) — ro 'jrpoUvfiOi roH ^aeiXiui b ini/icii xiiirSai, [the 
readiness of the king to continue in a state of preparation] — h 
'Pu/iji, at Rome), to the wise. — Comp. the preceding verse; to the 
powerful. — Comp. the following verse and 1 Cor. i. 24 ; therefore 
the following expression, at Rome, is emphati(;ally repeated. — 
(See ver. 7.) Eome, the capital and theatre of the whole world — 
ihayyi\ieaa6ai,to preach the Gospel) The Statement of the Subject 
of the epistle is secretly implied here ; I will write, what I would 
wish to have spoken in your presence concerning the Gospel. 

16. OJ yii.i> i<i:(t.ieyr{imtj,ai, for I am not ashamed) He speaks 
somewhat less forcibly, as in the introduction ; afterwards he 
says, I have whereof I may glory (ch. xv. 17). To the world, the 
Gospel is folly and weakness (1 Cor. i. 18) ; wherefore, in the 
opinion of the world, a man should be ashamed of it, especially 
at Eome ; but Paul is not ashamed (2 Tim. i. 8 ; 2 Cor. iv. 2). 
roD yrjpigrou, of Christ) Baumgarten gives good reasons, why Paul 
did not call it in this passage the Gospel of GoD, or of the Son 
OF God ; but the reasons, which he alleges, are as strong for 
reading the words nv Xpierov, as for omitting them. Arguments 
are easily found out for both sides ; but testimony ought to have 
the chief weight ; and in reference to this passage, the testimony 
for the omission is sufficient. — (See App. Crit., edit, ii., on this 
verse."^) — -dum/ns 0£oD, the power of God), great and glorious 
(2 Cor. X. 4.) — lie gairripiav, unto salvation) As Paul sums up 
the Gospel in this epistle, so he sums up the epistle in this and 
the following verse. Thi^ then is the proper place for presenting 
a connected view of the epistles. We have in it — 

I. The iNTEODTJCTIOIf, i. 1-15. 

^* ABCD* omit the words; also, AG, fg., Vulg. Orig. and Hilary. Birt 
Test has thera. — Ed. 

^^ KOMAJSS 1. 16. 

n. The Subject stated [PropositioJ, with a Summaiy of 
its Proof. 

1. Concerning Faith and Kighteousness. 

2. Concerning Salvation, or, in other words. Life. 

3. Cbnceming "Every one that beheveth," Jew and 
Greek, 16, 17. 

To these three divisions, of which the first is discussed 
from ch. i. 18 to eh. iv., the second from v. to viii. 
the thu-d from ix. to xi., not only this Discussion 
itself, but also the Exhortation derived from it, cor- 
respond respectively and in the same order. 

ni. The Discussion. '. 

1. On Justification, which results, 

I. Not through works : for aUke imder sin are 

The Gentiles, 18. 

The Jews, ii. 1. 

Both together, 11, 14, 17 ; iii. 1, 9. 

II. But through faith, 21, 27, 29, 31. 

III. As is evident from the instance of Abraham, and the 
testimony of David, iv. 1, 6, 9, 13, 18, 22. 

2. On Salvation, v. 1, 12 ; vi. 1 ; vii. 1, 7, 14 ; viii. 1, 
14, 24, 31. 

3. On "Every one that beheveth," ix. 1, 6, 14, 24, 30; 
X. 1, 11 ; xi. 1, 7, 11, 25, 33. 

rV. The Exhortation, xii. 1, 2. 

1. Concerning Faith, and (because the law is established 
through faith, ch. iii. 31) concerning love, which faith 
produces, and concerniag righteousness towards men, 
3. — xiii. 10. Faith is expressly named, ch. xii. 3, 6. 
Love, xii. 9, and ch. xiii. 8. The definition of 
Righteousness is given, xiii. 7, at the beginning of 
the verse. 

2. Concerning Salvation, xiii. 11-14. Salvation is 
expressly named, ch. xiii. 11. 

3. Concerning the joint union of Jews and Gentiles, 
xiv. 1, 10, 13, 19; xv. 1, 7-13. Express mention of 
both, XV. 8, 9. 

ROMANS I. 17. 15 

V. The Conclusion, xv. 14; xvi. 1, 3, 17, 21, 25. 

IouSat(ji, to the Jew) After the Babylonish captivity, all the 
Israelites, as Josephus informs us, were called Jews ; hence the 
Jew is opposed to the Greek. For a different reason, the Greek 
is opposed to the Barbarian ; ver 14. — •jrpuroi) concerning this 
particle, see App. Crit. Ed. ii.,^) on this verse. The apostle, 
as I have shown, treats of faith,, ch. i. to iv. ; of salvation, ch. 
V. to viii. ; of the Jew and the Greek, ch. ix. to xi. The 
knowledge of this division is very usefiil for the right under- 
standing of the epistle. The third part of the discussion, 
that concerning the Jew and the Greek, neither weakens 
nor strengthens the genuineness of the particle vpuTov. Paul 
uses it rather for the purpose of convicting [confiiting their 
notion of their own peculiar justification by the mere posses- 
sion of the law] the Jews, ii. 9, 10 ; but the Gospel is the 
power of God unto salvation, not more to the believing Jew, 
than to the Greek. 

17. Aixaioeuvri ©sou, the righteousness of God) The right- 
eousness of God is firequently mentioned in the New Testament, 
often in the books of Isaiah and Daniel, most often in the 
Psalms. It sometimes signifies that righteousness, by which God 
Himself is righteous, acts righteously, and is acknowledged to 
be righteous, ch. iii. 5 ; and also that righteousness, as it is 
termed ia the case of [when applied to] men, either particular or 
universal, in which grace, and mercy also, are included, and 
•which is shown principally in the condemnation of sin, and in 
the justification of the sinner ; and thus, in this view, the essen- 
tial righteousness of God is evidently not to be excluded from 
the business of justification, ch. iii. 25, etc. Hence it sometimes 
signifies this latter righteousness, by which a man (in conse- 
quence of the gift of God, Matt. vi. 33) becomes righteous, and 
is righteous ; and that, too, either by laying hold of the right- 
eousness of Jesus Christ through faith, ch. iii. 21, 22, or by 
imitating that [the former spoken of] righteousness of God, in 

^ The margin of the second edition considered the reading vpZros less 
firmly established, while the larger edition had left it to the decision of the 
reader. The German version gives no decisive opinion. — E.B. [ACD 
support Trparav; also, A/Vulg. and Origen. BG^, omit Tparoi/. — Ed.] 

16 ROMANS I. 17. 

the practice of virtue, and in the performance of good works, 
James i. 20. That righteousness of faith is caUed the righteousness 
of God by Paul, when he is speaking of justification ; because God 
has originated and prepared it, reveals and bestows it, approves and 
crowhs it with completion (comp. 2 Pet. i. 1), to which, there- 
fore, men's own righteousness is opposed, Eom. x. 3 ; with which 
comp. Phil. iii. 9. Moreover, we ourselves are also called the 
righteousness of God, 2 Cor. v. 21. In this passage, as well as 
in the statement of the subject [Proposition], the righteousness of 
God denotes the entire scheme of beneficence of God in Jesus 
Christ, for the salvation of the smner. —amxakfjitTirai, is revealed) 
Hence the necessity of the Gospel is manifest, without which 
neither righteousness nor salvation is capable of being known. 
The showing forth [' decfare.'— Engl, vers.] of the righteousness 
of God was made in the death of Christ, eh. iii. 25, etc. pi/Sf/g/v r. 
biTtaioevvni] ; the manifestation and revelation of that righteous- 
ness of God, which is through faith, are made in the Gospel : ch. 
iii. 21, and in this passage. Thus there is here a double reveh^ 
tion made ; (comp. ver. 18 with this verse) namely, of wrath and 
of righteousness. The former by the law, which is but little 
known to nature ; the latter, by the Gospel, which is altogether 
unknown to nature. The former precedes and prepares the way ; 
the latter follows after. Each is a matter of revelation {avoKo^ 
Xu-TTTerai), the word being expressed in the present tense, in op- 
position to the times of ignorance. Acts xvii. 30. — Ix iriantas s/'s 
viiSTiv, from faith to faith) Construe the righteousness which is of 
or from faith, as we have presently after the just from faith [i.e. 
he who is justified, — whose righteousness is, of faith]. The phrase, 
from faith to faith, expresses pure faith ; for righteousness of, or 
from faith, subsists in faith, without works. E/s denotes the 
destination, the boundary, and limit ; see ch. xii. 3, and notes 
on Chrysostom's work, De Sacerd, p. 415. So 1 Chron. xvii. 
5. / have gone [lit. in the Heb. I was or have been"] PiiK hii, ^nsD 
from tent to tent, where one and another tent [different tents] 
are not intended; but a tent[the tabernacle] as distinguished from 
[or independently of] a house or temple. Faith, says Paul, con- 
tinues to be faith ; faith is all in all [lit. the prow and stern'] in the 
case of Jews and Gentiles ; in the case of Paul also, even up to its 
very final consummation, Phil. iii. 7-12. Thus s/'s sounds with 

ROMANS I. 18. 17 

a beautiful effect after Ix, as a-Trh and e'lg, 2 Cor. iii. 18, concerning 
the purest glory. It is to avoid what might he disagreeable to 
his readers, that Paul does not yet expressly exclude works, of 
which, however, in this Statement of Subject [Proposition], an 
exclusion of some kind should otherwise have appeared. Further- 
more, the nature of a proposition, thus set forth, bears, that many 
other things may be inferred from this ; for inasmuch as it is 
not said, Ix rrig ■fflerioig elg r^v 'Tridnv, from the faith to the faith, but 
indefinitely ix, irisnoig ilg mem from faith to faith, so we shall say 
[we may say by inference] from one faith to another, from the 
faith of God, who makes the offer, to the faith of men, who re- 
ceive it, ch. iii. 2, etc. ; from the faith of the Old Testament, and 
of the Jews, to the faith of the New Testament, and of the 
Gentiles also, ch. iii. 30 ; from the faith of Paul to the faith of 
the Romans, ch. i. 12 ; from one degree of faith to still higher 
degrees, 1 John v. 13 ; from the faith of the strong to the faith 
of the weak, ch. xiv. 1, etc. ; from our faith, which is that of 
expectation, to the faith, which is to be divinely made good to 
us, by the gift of life [" The just shall live by faith"]. — xaStag, as) 
Paul has just laid down three principles : I. Righteousness is [of, 
or] from faith, ver. 17 : 11. Salvation is by righteousness, ver. 
16 : in. To the Jew and to the Greek, ver. 16. "What foUows 
confirms the whole, viz., the clause, the just by faith, slmll live, 
which is found in the prophetical record, Hab. ii. 4 ; see notes 
on Heb. x. 36, etc. It is the same Spirit, who spoke by the pro- 
phets the "Words, that were to be quoted by Paul ; and under 
whose guidance Paul made such apposite and suitable quota- 
tions, especially in this epistle.— ^^(f£5-a;,.sAaZZ live) some of the 
Latins, in former times, wrote the present ' lives' for the future 
" shall live" (vivit for vivet) ;^ an obvious mistake in one small 
letter, and not worthy of notice or refutation. Baumgarten, fol- 
lowing Whitby, refutes it, and observes, that I have omitted to 
notice it. 

18. ' AnxaXUnrai, is revealed) See verse 17, note. — yap, for) 
The particle begins the discussion ; the Statement of Subject 
[Proposition] being now concluded, ch. vi. 19 ; Matt. i. 18 ; 
Acts ii. 15 ; 1 Cor. xv. 3. The Latins generally omit it.= Thia 

1 'YiyiVfg Vulg. and Iren. But ABCAG have (tiaiT»i.—ED. 
' But the Vulg. has it " Revelatur enim."— Ed. 
VOL. III. ^ 


is Paul's first argument : All are under sin ; and that the law- 
shows ; therefore, no one is justified by the works of the law. 
The discussion of this point continues to the third chapter, 
ver. 20. From this he draws the inference, therefore [justifi- 
cation must be] by faith, ch. iii. 21, etc.— opyv 0iou, wrath of 
God) [not as Engl. Vers, "the wrath"] 'Opy^ without the 
article, in this passage [is denounced against all unrighteousness] ; 
but ii opyfi is denounced against those {the persons; not as 
opy^, against the sin], who disregard righteousness. Wrath is, 
as it were, different, when directed against the Gentiles, and 
when against the Jews. The righteousness and the wrath of 
God form, in some measure, an antithesis. The righteousness 
of the world crushes the guilty individual ; the righteousness of 
God crushes beneath it the sin, and restores the sinner. Hence 
there is fi-equent mention of wrath, especially in this epistle, ch. 
ii. 5, 8, iii. 5, iv. 15, v. 9, ix. 22, and besides, ch. xii. 19, 
xiii. 4, 5. — ut' oupavou, from heaven) This significantly implies 
the majesty of an angry God, and His all-seeing eye, and the 
wide extent of His wrath : whatever is under heaven, and yet 
not under the Gospel, is under this wrath, — Ps. xiv. 2. — l-^t 
■ragav, upon all) Paul, in vividly presenting to view the wrath 
of God, speaks in the abstract, concerning sin : in presenting to 
view salvation [ver. 16, he speaks] in the concrete, concerning 
beKevers ; he now, therefore, intimates enigmatically [by im- 
phcation], that grace has been procured for sinners. — aes^nav xai 
aSixlav, ungodliness and unrighteousness) These two points are 
discussed at the twenty-third and following verses. IPaul often 
mentions unrighteousness, ver. 29, as directly opposed to righteous- 
ness. — V. g.] — av6pu)-!rcov rZti) A periphrasis for the Gentiles. — 
rriv aXvihiav, the truth) to which belongs, whatever of really sound 
morahty the heathen writings possess. — h ddixlif, in unrighteous- 
ness) The term is taken now in a larger sense, than just before, 
where it formed an antithesis to aei^uoLv, viz., in the sense of 
ara/i/a, ch. vi. 19. — %tx.r%yomm, holding back) [holding, Engl. Vers. 
less correctly] Truth in the understanding, makes great efforts, 
and is urgent ; but man impedes its effect. 

19. TJ yvMrov) the fact that God is known : that principle, 
that God makes Himself known ; that is to say, the existence 
of an acquaintance with, or knowledge of, God [the fact of God 

ROMANS I. 20. 19 

being known ; the objective knowledge of God], not merely that 
He can be known. For, at ver. 21, he says, yvovrss, of the 
Gentiles [asserting thus, that they did know God]. — ^Plato b. 5. 
Polit. uses yviagrov in the same way ; rj /ji,h -jravTiXug h, TavriXug 
ymirSr //,fi h Sh /iridafirj, -irdvrri ayvtaerov, whatsoever indeed has 
a positive existence, is positively known : but a thing, which has 
no existence at all, is utterly unknown. — l<pa,vepojgs) Paul used 
this word with great propriety, as well as amxaXliima above.^ 

20. ' KopaTo, xaSoparai, the invisible things are seen) An in- 
comparable oxymoron ^ (a happy union of things opposite, as 
here invisible, yet seen). The invisible things of God, if ever 
at any time, would certainly have become visible at the creation; 
but even then they began to be seen, not otherwise, save by the 
iinderstanding. — airh xTlaiois, from the creation) ' Airh here de- 
notes either a -proof, as airh, in Matt. xxiv. 32, so that the 
understanding [comp. ver. 20, '■'■understood'"'] of the fathers 
[respecting God, as He, whose being and attributes are proved] 
from the creation of the world, may refute the apostasy of the 
Gentiles ; or rather, a-no denotes time, so that it corresponds to 
the Hebrew preposition D, and means, ever since the foundation 
of the world, and beyond it, reckoning backward ; and thus the 
a.'tbiog, eternal, presently after, agrees vrith it. In the former 
mode of interpretation, avh is connected with y.a,6opa,rai, are seen 
from; in the second mode, with aopa.Ta, unseen ever since. — 
Toirifiagi) [the things made], the works that have been produced 
by xrleiv, creation. There are works ; therefore there is a crea- 
tion ; therefore there is a Creator. — vooifuva) Those alone, who use 
their understanding, kw, xaSopugi, look closely into a subject. — 
xakparai, are seen) for the works [which proceed from the in- 
visible attributes of God] are discerned. The antithesis is, 
cgxorMri [ver. 21], was darkened.- — riTs — xal) These words stand 
in apposition with aSpara. — dtSiog x.r.X., eternal, etc.) The highest 
attribute of God, worthy of God — ^perfection in being and act- 
ing ; in "one word hiorrig, which signifies divinity [not " God- 
head," as Engl. Vers.], as korng, Godhead. — Suva//,ig, power) of 
all the attributes of God, this is the one, which was first revealed. 

^ Implying it is by revelation and manifestation, not by man s mere 
reasonings, the knowledge of God comes. — Ed. 
' See App. for the meaning of this figure. 

20 ROMANS I. 21, 22. 

His works, in a peculiar manner correspond to His several 
attributes [Tsa. xl. 26]— e/'s rJ) Paul not only speaks of some 
result ensuing, but directly takes away all excuse; and this 
clause, d; ro, — is equivalent to a proposition, in relation to [to be 
handled more fully in] the following verses. Construe it with 
pavcpov earn [ver. 19. The fact of their knowing God, is mani- 
fest in, or among them]. — avarnXoyfiTo^jg, without excuse). So also 
in regard to the Jews, ch. ii. 1. 

21. AioTi. This BioTi is resumed from ver. 19. They did not 
sin in ignorance, but knowingly. — Qihv iig &ihv, God as God). 
This is ij aXrikia., the truth [of God, ver. 25], the perfection of 
conformity with nature,^ where worship corresponds to the divine 
nature. Comp. in contrast with this, Gal. iv. 8 [when ye 
knew not God, ye did service unto them which] by nature are 
no Gods. — Qth, God). [They glorified Him not as the God] 
eternal, almighty, and to be continually honoured by showing 
forth His glory, and by thanksgiving. — id6^ttecx,v 5] hxapigTrjsav, 
they glorified or were thankful) We ought to render thanks for 
benefits ; and to glorify Him on account of the divine perfections 
themselves, contrary to the opinion of Hobbes. If it were pos- 
sible for a mind to exist extraneous to God, and not created by 
God, still that mind would be bound to praise God. — n), or, at 
least. — hfj^araiMrjeai) This verb and kxorMn have a reciprocal 
force, pan, fiaram, [Larama^ai are frequently applied to idols, 
and to their worship and worshippers, 2 Kings xvii. 15 ; Jer. ii. - 
5 ; for the mind is conformed [becomes and is assimilated] to its 
object [of worship], Ps. cxv. 8. maraioTYn is opposed to riji 
&ol&t,iiv; aeiviTos xapSlato rCi ivy^apidTiTv. — haXayKsiLotc, ["imagina- 
tions," Eng. vers.], thoughts) Variable, uncertain, and foolish. 

22. paMovT-Es, professing.— ifiupdv6„goiv) The Lxx., Jer. x. 14, 
etc., IfiupdvSn -jra; &v6pumg &-!fh yvuieiois—^ivhn i^wi-Euirav— /itira/a 
£<fr/v, 'ipya ifi.-Tti'Ttaiyij.ha., (every man is a fool in his knowledge.— 
Their molten images are falsehoods, they are vain and deceitftd 
works). Throughout this epistle Paul alludes to the last chapters 
of Isaiah, and to the first of Jeremiah, from which it appears, 
that this holy man of God was at that time fresh from the read- 
ing of them. 

' Convenientia»=the Stoic o^oXoy/* Cic. de fin. 3. 6. 21 Ed. 

ROMANS I. 23, 24. 21 

23."U'K>^a^av, they changed), with, the utmost folly, Ps. cvi. 20; 
Jer. ii. 11. The impiety being one and the same, and the 
punishment one and the same, have three successive stages. In 
the first, these words are the emphatic ones, viz., xapSla, in ver. 
21 ; xapdiuv, in ver. 24 ; eSo^aeav, and So^av, and dTifii,d^egSci,i rd 
gwfiara,, in ver. 21, 23, 24. In the second stage, /Jur^xXa^ai is 
emphatic, and the repetition of this verb, not, however, without 
a difference between the simple and compound forms [iixxa^av r, 
ho^av, ver. 23 ; ixiTrikXa^av r. fvgixnv xf^i'^t ver. 26, the corres- 
ponding sin and punishment], gives the meaning of like for Hke 
\talionis, their punishment being like their sin], ver. 25, 26 ; as 
-rapa changes its meaning, when repeated in the same place 
[•ffafia T. xrisavTu, ver. 25 ; ffa^d puff/v, ver. 26]. In the third, 
cix sdoxifiaeav, and adoxifiov, ver. 28, are emphatic. In the several 
cases, the word ■jrapsSuxe expresses the punishment. If a man 
worships not God as God, he is so far left to himself, that he casts 
away his manhood, and departs as far as possible from God, after 
whose image he was made. — rfiv &6^av rou atpiaprov, the glory of 
the incorruptible) The perfections of God are expressed either 
in positive or negative terms. The Hebrew language abounds 
in positive terms, and generally renders negatives by a peri- 
phrasis. — h), Hebrew 3, [So, after the verb to change with, or 
for'] the Latin pro, cum; so, b, ver. 25 [changed the truth of God 
into a lie]. — d,v6pu>irt>u — sp-iriruv, like to man — to creeping things) 
A descending climax ; corruptible is to be construed also with 
birds, etc. They often mixed together the form of man, bird, 
quadruped, and serpent. — o/j,oiuftari ilxivog, in the likeness of an 
image) Image is the concrete ; likeness the abstract, opposed to 
3og>i, the glory ; the greater the resemblance of the image to the 
creature, the more manifest is the aberration from the truth. 

24. A/0, wherefore) One punishment of sin arises from its 
physical consequences, ver. 27, note, [that recompense of their 
error, which] was meet; another, moreover, from retributive jus- 
tice, as in this passage. — h raTg imiv/iHii.ig, in the lusts) h, not J/j. 
'A/ emSuf/.lai, the lusts, were already present there. The men 
themselves were such as were the gods that they framed. — 
axa9a.pgiav, uncleanness) Impiety and impurity are frequently 
joined together, 1 Thess. iv. 5 ; as are also the knowledge of 
God and purity of mind, Matt. v. 8 ; 1 John iii. 2, etc. — 

2i ROMANS I. 25-27. 

&Ti/j,i^i(fda.,, to dishonour) Honour is its opposite, 1 Thess. iv. 4. 
Man ought not to debase himself, 1 Cor. vi. 13, etc.— Jv faurt/f,' 
among their ownselves), by fornication, effeminacy, and other 
vices. They themselves furnish the materials of their own 
punishment, and are at the cost of it. How justly ! they, who 
dishonour God, inflict punishment on their ownselves. .-Joh. 

25. T>iv akfihiav, tlie truth) which commands us to worship God 
AS God.— Iv r^ -^ibhi [into a fe— Engl, vers.] (exchanged) for a 
lie) the price paid for [mythology] idol worship ; h, the Lat. cmot. 
—Isifiadheav, they worshipped) implying internal worship. — 
iXarpiudav, they served)im^\j'm.g external worship. — 'Ttapa) in pre- 
ference to, more than, eh. xiv. 5 [r}/ji>ipa.v irap ij/i'spav]. 

26. llaSri aT!/iiag,lusts of dishonour) [vile affections — ^Engl.vers.] 
See Gerheri lib. unerkannte siinden (unknown sins), T. i., cap. 
92 ; Von der geheimen Unzucht (on secret vices). The writings 
of the heathen are full of such things. — ari/ila;, dishonour). 
Honour is its opposite, 1 Thess. iv. 4. — SfiXiiai women) In stig- 
matizing sins, we must often call a spade a spade. Those gener- 
ally demand from others a preposterous modesty [in speech], who 
are without chastity [in acts]. Paul, at the beginning of this 
epistle, thus writes more plainly to Rome, which he had not yet 
visited, than on any former occasion anywhere. The dignity 
and earnestness of the judicial style [which he employs], from 
the propriety of its language, does not offend modesty. — ^xp^ffiv, 
use) supply of themselves ; but it is eUiptical ; the reason is found, 
1 Cor. xi. 9 ; we must use, not enjoy. Herein is seen the gravity 
of style in the sacred writings. 

27. 'E^sxavSriaav, were all in a flame) [burned] with an 
abominable fire (rrvpdaii, viz., of lust.) — rsjp a,gxi/''i>(f!ivriv, that which 
is unseemly) against which the conformation of the body and its 
members reclaims. — ^v Uei) which it was meet [or properl, by a 
natural consequence. — r^s vXavm, of their error) by which they 
wandered away from God. — amXafi,j3a,vovrii), the antithetic word 
used to express the punishment of the Gentiles ; as amdtLe$i, that 
of the Jews, ii. 6. In both words, &-!r6 has the same force. 

1 So, late corrections in D ; G Orig. 1, 260, e. — Vulg. and Rec. Text. But 
ABCA and Memph. Version read ccvroii. — Ed. 

ROMANS I. 28, 29. 23 

28. "E^f/K to have) [or retain] the antithesis is -jrap'sdoi/.iv, 
[God] gave them over : 'ixn" e" imyvudu, to have [or retain] in 
knowledge, denotes more than smyivuexnv, to know) [to be acquainted 
with]. Knowledge was not altogether wanting to them ; but 
they did not so far profit in the possession of it, as to have [qr 
retain] God, ver. 32. — ad6xi/ji,ov) As ahivarog, amsrog, and such 
like, have both an active and passive signification, so also adoxi/icg. 
In this passage, there is denoted [or stigmatized], in an active 
sense, the mind, which approves of things, which ought by no 
means to be approved of ; to this state of mind they are con- 
signed, who have disapproved of, what was most worthy of ap 
probation. In this sense, the word &8o!tl//,ov is treated of at ver. 
32 ; euHudoxou6i : and the words 'iroiiiv to, [t,fi xaSrixovra, at ver. 
29—31. — TO, uri xaSrixovra), an example of the figure Meiosis [by 
which less is said, than the writer wishes to be understood]. 

29. Ui'TrXripeii/ihovg) a word of large meaning; ^sirroCs foUows 
presently after. — adixlcf, with unrighteousness) This word, the 
opposite of righteousness, is put' in the first place ; unmerciful is 
put in the last [ver. 31]. Righteousness has [as its necessary 
fruit], life ; unrighteousness, death, ver. 32. The whole enumera- 
tion shows a' wise arrangement, as follows: nine members of it 
respecting the affections ; two in reference to men's conversa- 
tion ; three respecting God, a man's own self, and his neighbour ; 
two regarding a man's management of affairs ; and six respect- 
ing relative ties. Comp. as regards the things contrary to these, 
oh. xii. 9, etc. — vopmcf) I have now, for a long time, acknow- 
ledged that this word should be retained.-^ It does not appear 
certain, that it was not read by Clemens Eomanus. — mvriplif-^ 
xaxicf)^ -ffovripia is the perverse wickedness "of a man, who dehghts in 
injuring another, without any advantage to himself: xaxla, is the 

' Although the margin of the larger edition (A. 1734), contains the 
opinion, that it should be omitted. The 2d ed. corresponds with the Gnomon 
and the German Version. — E.B. [AC, and apparently B, Memph. Version, 
omit ■?ropiiuet. But AGfg Vulg. insert it.-^ED.] 

^ vor/ipla. Th. o ■7coi.p'i%m icomvi, "one who puts others to trouble," apt- 
ness in mischief. z«x/« is the evil habit of mind ; Troi/npia, the ontcoming 
of it: 0pp. to ^^i7(rTo'fj as x.ccx6; to dyados. Kaxo'ihix, as distinct from 
these, is not, as Engl. Vers. ' malignity,' but taMng everything in the evil 
pari; Arist. Rhet. ii. 13; arising from a baseness or evil ^h; in the man 
himself.— See Trench's Gr. Test. Syn.— Er. 

24 ROMANS I, 30-32, 

vicious disposition,which. prevents a man from conferring any good 
on another. — ■^rXiovs^ia denotes avarice, properly so called, as we 
often find it in the -writings of Paul : otherwise [were -^Xeove^ia 
not taken in the sense avarice ] this sin would be blamed by him 
rather rarely. But he usually joins it with impurity ; for man 
[in his natural state] seeks his food for enjoyment, outside of 
God, in the material creature, either in the way of pleasure, or 
else avarice ; he tries to appropriate the good that belongs to an- 
other. — xaxotihiag), xaxofihia, xaxla Xixpvfifi'evri. Ammonras ex- 
plains this as " wickedly inveighing against all that belongs to 
others ; exhibiting himself troublesome to another." 

30. '^iSvpiardg, whisperers), who defame secretly. — xaraXaXouj, 
back-biters), who defame openly. — hosTuyiTg) men who show then>- 
selves to be Jiaters of God — i^pier&g) those who insolently drive 
away from themselves all that is good and salutary. — u-!rspri(f>dvoug) 
those who exalt themselves above others. On this vice, and 
others which are here noticed, see 2 Tim. iii. 2, etc. — aXa^ovag) 
I' boasters,' Engl. vers. J, assuming, in reference to things great and 
good} — 'KpixipiT&g xaxuv, inventors of evil things) of new pleasures, 
of new methods of acquiring wealth, of new modes of injuring 
others, for example in war, 2 Mace. vii. 31. Antiochus is said 
to have been vaatig xaxiag lipir^g [an inventor of every kind of 
evil] against the Hebrews. 

30. 31. Tovivsiv a'TTiiSitg, aauvsroug, aSvvSerovg, aeropyovg, afvovboug, 
anXtn/Mvag, disobedient to parents, without understanding, refrac- 
tory, [But covenanlhbreakers — Eng. vers.], without natural affec- 
tion, implacable, unmerciful) Two triplets [groups consisting of 
three each], the former referring to one's conduct to superiors, 
the latter to inferiors. 

31. 'AgmSirovg). The Lxx. translate the Hebrew words 1J3, 
to act with perfidy, h)Ks, to prevaricate, by aguvSirin.^ 

32. A/xa/w^a, \_judgment.—E,ng. ver.], the royal, divine, prin- 
ciple of justice, that God approves of virtues, hates vices, visits 
the wicked with the punishment of death, and justly and de- 
servedly so, in order that He may show that He is not unjust. 

' A^cc^aii, boastful in words; imp^/pauoi, proud in thoughts; C/ipiori( 

insolent in acts See Trench Syn Ed. ' 

2 The Vulg. translates iavvHtov; ' incompositos.'— Ed. 

ROMANS I. a2. 25 

For ft'hilst He punishes the guilty with death, He Himself is 
justified [is manifested as just]. This Royal rule is acknowledged 
even among the Gentiles. — bri) viz. iliat. — irpaggovni- irpageouei) 
[those that commit or practise.] This verb, which is repeated 
after the interposition of iroiovah [do], accurately expresses the 
wantonness of profligate men, which is altogether opposed to 
divine justice, iromniii) — they do such things, even with the affec- 
tions, and with the reason. The same distinction between these 
two verbs occurs,^ ch. ii. 3. — ^amrov, of death) Lev. xviii. 24, 
etc. ; Acts xxviii. 4. From time to time every extremely 
wicked generation of men is extirpated, and posterity is entirely 
propagated from those, whose conduct has not been so immoral. — 
aXXa xal, but also.) It is a worse thing, suvivSoTiiiv, to approve 
[of the evil] ; for he, who perpetrates what is evil, is led away 
by his own desire, not without an argument of condemnation 
against himself, or even against others, — (Comp. thou that judgest, 
ii. 1), and at the same time shows his approbation of the law. — 
Comp. with this, ch. vii. 16 ; but he who, euviudoxii', or approves, 
with the heart and with the tongue [that which is evil], has as 
the fr^it of wickedness, wickedness itself; he feeds upon it ; he 
adds to the heap of his own guilt the guilt of others, and 
inflames others to the commission of sin. He is a worse man, 
who destroys both himself and others, than he who destroys him- 
self alone. This is truly a reprobate mind. — ddoxi/iov and euvivSo- 
t.a\)6i are conjugate forms. — See ver. 28, note. The judging, in 
ch. ii. 1, is the antithesis to the approving here. The Gentiles 
not only do these things, but also approve of them. The Jew 
judges indeed, thereby expressing disapproval ; but yet he does 
them. — ToTg irpdggovgi, them that do them) themselves, and others. 
— Comp. Is. iii. 9. 

' Ttiiia to do or mahe. TCfauuo, to commit or practise. — Ed. 



1. A/J, wherefore). Paul passes from the Gentiles to the Jews, 
as the whole of the foUowing discourse clearly shows ; and yet 
he does not use the transitive, but the iUative particle, of which 
two the latter, as being the more powerful, absorbs the former. 
The Gentile does evil ; the Jew does evil. Then in the 6th and 
following verses, he comprehends both, Jews and Gentiles. — 
amm-k6ynT0i, inexcusable.) Man seeks to defend himself.— av^?£W£, 
man) In ch. i. he spoke of the Gentiles in the third person, 
but he deals with the Jew in the second person singular ; even 
as the law itself deals with the Jew, not in the second, but in 
the thitd person singular ; because it had no concern with any 
one but the Jew.— Comp. ch. iii. 19. But the apostle, who 
directs his discourse to Gentiles and Jews, addresses the Jew 
indeed in the second person singular, but calls him by the name 
[O manl common to all.— comp. ch. i. 18 ; nor does he acknow- 
ledge the Jew, as such, ver. 17, 28. The same diflPerence between 
the third and second persons occurs again, ver. 14, 17. It is a not 
dissimilar circumstance, that the Gentiles are put off [as to their 
condemnation] till the final judgment, ver. 16 ; but the Jews 
are threatened by the law with a present judgment also [besides 
the final one ver. 2.] — o %pim)i, thou that judgest) being removed 
[i.e. wherein thou art distinguished] from those that have pleasure 
in evil-doers, i. 32. Paul uses a weighty expression. The Jew 
esteems himself superior to the Greek, ver. 19, etc. Paul now 
calls that an act of judging, and by it opens up a way for him- 
self, with a view to show the judgment of God. It is mere self- 
love in a man, that, in proportion as he thinks others worse than 
himself, he thinks the better of himself, Gal. vi. 4. The figure 
paregmenon' occurs here ; for Haraxplvsis follows. — Comp. ch. xiv. 
22, 23 ; 1 Cor. iv. 3, etc., xi. 29, etc. ; James ii. 4. — enpov, another) 
who is of no concern to thee ; whose more open unrighteousness 
profits thee nothing ; a heathen. 

' A joining together of conjugate forms, or of simples and compounds, 
ex. gr. here, xpi'vei;, Kstntupiusis. — Ed. 

ROMANS 11. 2-5. 27 

2. o7da/i,sv) we know; without tliy teaching, O man, that 
judgest [we know]. — rJ xpl/ia, roD ©eoD, the judgment of God); not 
thine, thou that exceptest thyself. — xara, akrikiav) according to 
the truth of the highest hind, without distinction ; just as His 
judgment is called dixxiov, righteous, at ver. 5, 6, 11 ; not merely 
having respect to external acts, but also to internal thoughts 
ver. 16 [the secrets of men]. 

3. g\j, thou) as distinguished from the Gentile ; every one, 
even without a cause, makes his own self an exception [as 
regards condemnation] ; and flatters himself, although he knows 
not himself, on what grounds. — Jxpsufij, shalt thou escape?) 
through the loopholes, which thou seekest. Every one, that is 
arraigned, (psiyn, tries to escape [6 ipixiycav is the technical term for 
a defendant; o BkLkuv, the accuser] ; he who is acquitted, ix^iiyii, 

4. "h, or). Men easily become despisers of goodness, while 
they are not sensible of the judgment of God. The particle 
V, or, properly acts as a disjunctive between the vain thought 
[on their part] of escape, and the palpable treasuring up of wrath 
in consequence of their abuse of goodness itself. — ;^p))(!'roV;)7-os, 
avo'x/ii, fiaxpoiu/iiag, goodness, forbearance, long-suffering) since 
thou hast both sinned, and art now sinning, and wilt sin. [By 
goodness, God restrains His wrath, ver. 5 : by forbearance. He 
as it were, keeps Himself unknown, until He is revealed, ver. 5 : 
by long-suffering He delays His righteous judgment, ibid. — 
V. g.] Presently after, rb p^p^orJc, the goodness of God, implies 
all these three. Even those, who shall be condemned hereafter, 
had the power, and it was their duty, to have repented. — 
ayvoSiv, ignorant). Paul wonders at this ignorance. — aysi) leads 
pleasantly ; does not" compel by necessity. 

5. As, but) The antithesis is between the despising of the 
riches of His goodness, and the treasuring up of wrath. — gxXn- 
pornra, hardness) Its antithesis is ;^pj)irroi'. — afuravorirov xapdlav) 
The antithesis is /j^iToimav. He meant to say a//-ira,voyieiav : to 
which word, later writers show no aversion ; but Paul avoided 
an unusual term. — 6ri<fot,up!?!^vg, thou treasurest up), although thou, 
O man, thinkest, that thou art treasuring up all kinds of blessed- 
ness. O what a treasure may a man lay up, during so many 
hours of his life, on either side ! [either for heaven, or else hell], 

28 ROMANS II. 6. 

Matt, xviii, 24 ; 1 Tim. vi. 18.— <fsaurffi) for thyself, not for 
the other, whom thou judgest. — opynv — opyni, wrath — of wrath) 
The idea of Aiivorm [vehemence] of language is here conveyed 
with great force. Why is it, that many have no sense of wrath? 
[Because] The day of wrath is not yet ; but it shall be.— Ii- viJ-k^y 
When h refers to time, it denotes the present; e/'s, the fature." 
That day is present to God [therefore h jj/i£?a, present, is used]. 
But this expression may also be construed with ipynv. [Beng. 
seems to have construed h ^/ts/jctwith ^rieavpl^iig]- — amxaKv'^^scag, 
of the revelation) When God shall be revealed, the secrets of 
man shall be revealed, ver. 16. — xal tixawxpleiai). By far the 
greatest weight of testimony, and the unquestionable antithesis 
between avox^s and amxaXd-^sui, which is most worthy of the 
apostle (such as there is also between avoxr}v and Mn^iv, ch. iii. 
26 ; Ps. 1. 21), confirm the reading of the particle xal, ver. 4, 
TTJs ;^^»)(r9-oV;)ros, xal rrjs avo^/li, xal rni /iaxpo6u/i!ag- ver. 5, o^y^s 
xal airoTiaXxj-^itag, xal Sixaioxpidiag.^ ' Avo^ri and amxdXu-l^ig have 
respect to God, and are compared together, as avoxri and ivdei^ig 
are at ch. iii. 25 ; /laxpohf^ia and btxaioxpiaia refer to the sinner, 
XpriiTorrjg and opyri are put generally. Wherefore the particle 
xal should not have been admitted, as it is by some ; it is sup- 
ported also by Origen,.in his work agamst Celius, in the MS. 
at BSile, as Sam. Battier informs us in his Biblioth. Brem., Class 
vi., p. 98. Instead of A'jroxa'Ki'^eug the Alex. MS. has avraita- 
SodiDig. I formerly omitted to notice this various reading, which 
arose from its having the same letters at the beginning as the 
verb aTo&iLasi, and is quite out of place here ; nor do I use it 
now to defend that xal which follows immediately after. Eras- 
mus observes, that dixaioxpislag, was a word newly coined to 
express a thing not formerly known among [acknowledged on 
the part of] men. 

6. "Oj a.'n'oSuigii iHadrixi xark ra 'ipya durouY So the LXX. 
expressly in Prov. xxiv. 12, and Ps. Ixii. 13, tfu ambiieng xtX. 

' Wrath to be revealed in the day of wrath. — Ed. 

' e(f Tj)» iiftipau would be against the coining day. — Ed. 

' The later Syr. Version, and Origeu in three passages, also the A MS., 
read the xctl before iix.eciox.p. But ABG Vulg. Syr. Memph.^. Origen in 
three other passages, and Lucifer, agree with Rec. Text, in omitting 
xetl, — Ed. 

ROMANS II. 7, 8. 20 

This saying, and especially that below, ver. 11, is often quoted. 
— anroSwgii, will render) not only will give, but will repay. [_See 
that you make this the rule of your plans. — V. g.] — xara, accord- 
ing to) Paul describes those, who shall obtain either life or 
death, generally, and according to the condition [or else in a 
way suited to the apprehension^ of those, with whom, he is con- 
cerned in this place, cutting them off still from all special ground 
of obtaining or losing salvation. Therefore, this passage is of 
no advantage to the argument for the merit of good works. 

7, 8. TOT'S lAv — Tots is, to these on the one hand — but to them 
on the other') a more important distinction, than many now 

7. ToTg) sc. ougi ; comp. the following verse ; for xara (see 
Acts XXV. 23,) is employed here nearly in the same sense as 
If, next verse ; save that If implies a something natural to the 
sinner ; xarci, a something supervenient [not natural, but super- 
induced]. You will see the difference, if you interchange the 
particles with one another : If iiro/iov^s xrX. In this view, 
ro/s and ZflTouii stand in apposition, the conjunction being omitted 
by the figure asyndeton.^ — umfiovnv epyou, patience in work) so the 
patience of hope, 1 Thess. i. 3 ; uvof/iovri, patience, includes, in this 
passage, obedience, steadiness, and that, too, with submission. — 
'i?yo\), in work. There is great force in the singular number 
here (well-doing. — Engl. Vers. ; the good work is referred to, of 
which), Phil. i. 6 ; Kev. xxii. 12. — U^av, glory) The construc- 
tion is, ToTg dS^av xt\ ZriTovdiv (aitoiiiian) Z,ioriv, to those who seek for 
glory, etc. (he will render) life. Pure love does not exclude 
faith, hope, desire, 1 Cor. xv. 58. — ^jjtoDit;, to them that seek) 
Whereas thou, O Jew, thinkest, that thou hast no need of any 
seeking [Industry is requisite. — V. g.] 

8. ToTi de If epikiai, but unto them that are [influenced by 
contention] contentious. Paul shrunk from saying directly : 
God will render to them, that are contentious, death or everlasting 
destruction. He therefore leaves that matter to be supplied, by 
the conscience of the sinner, from the preceding antithesis ; He 
will render, not certainly eternal life ; and he turns the discourse 
to those things, which follow. To/~s here, has therefore the force 

' Beng. construes it " to them who are animated by (xecroi) patient con- 
tinuance in well-doing, even those who seek glory, etc. — Ed.] 

so ROMANS 11. 9, 10. 

of b prefixed, and signifies as concerns, Comp. ch. iv. 12, notes. 
Accordingly there follows, with great propriety, I*/ -jr&eav ; for 
we have also, Ex. xx. 5, it! rixm, ivl rplrnv xccl TSTappv yeve&v, 
roTg /j,i(fovsl fii, upon the children, upon the third and fourth genera- 
tion, as concerns them that hate me. Furthermore, s^,from or of, 
as in ver. 27, and often elsewhere, denotes a party or sect; in 
reference to those, who are of a contentious party or nation, like 
thee, O Jew, setting themselves in resistance to God. The 
character of false Judaism is disobedience, contumacy, impatience. 
— rfi aXjih/cf, rri adijcicf, truth, unrighteousness) These two are 
often opposed to each other, 1 Cor. xiii. 6 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10, 12 ; 
truth includes righteousness, and unrighteousness implies at the 
same time falsehood. — Su/ihg xal opyii) LXX., Ps. Ixxviii. (Ixxvii.) 
49, 6u/ji,hv xal hpy^v xal ^Xi-^iv ; 6vfihg inflicts punishment; 6py^ 
follows up an offence. The propriety respectively of these words 
is seen in Eph. iv. 31, 32, where rh x^^pl^igSai is opposed to rfj 
opyfi, and i\)<!ii\ay)(y(fi to ^u/iis. ^u/iJs is defined by the Stoics to 
be hpyr\ apypfLhii, the beginning of anger. Nor should we despise 
the explanation of Ammonius, iufihg /ih Ian -rpSexaipo;, opyri ds 
'xoXu^pSv/o; iM)ir)Sixa%ia ; iu/jjhi is only temporary ; hpyri is the last- 
ing remembrance of injuries.^ 

9. 0XAJ//S xai 6TiW)(o>pia, affliction and anxiety [tribulation and 
anguish']. 6Xi-^ig, affliction ox tribulation iov ih.e present; envo- 
X'^p'i"'^ anxiety or anguish, in regard to things future ; 6Xi-yii, 
affliction, or tribulation, -pvessesdown; eTevo^upia, frets and harasses 
[oestuat et urget], Job xv. 20, etc. In these words we have 
a proof of the avenging justice of God ; for the anger of God 
has for its object, to teach the sinful creature, who is experienc- 
ing wrath and every species of adversity, to hate himself, because 
in his whole conduct, he has set himself in opposition to God ; 
and so long as the creature shrinks from this most just hatred 
of himself, he continues under punishment. — •ir&gav -^v^rjii, every 
sout) This term adds to the universal character of the discourse, 
ch. xiii. 1, — -TTpurov, first). So Ps. xciv. 10 : He that chaslheth 
the nations, shall he not correct (you among the people ?). The 
Greek is a partaker [in the judgment] along with the Jew. 
, 10. Ai5f a he xal Ti/irj, but glory and honour. Glory, originatine 

' Siftoi Th. tfi/ii, boiling indignation ; ipyii, abiding wrath, with a settled 
purpose of revenge, 'fri6vj*l* rifiupia;. — Ed, 

ROMANS II. 12. 81 

in the Divine good pleasure ; honour, originating in the reward 
bestowed by God ; and peace, for the present and for ever. For 
the 8s, but, expresses the opposition between wrath, and glory ; 
indignation, and honour; affliction and anxiety [tribulation and 
anguisK\, and peace. Comp. ch. iii. 17, 16, of which catalogue 
the joys are viewed, as they proceed from God ; the sorrows as 
they are felt by man ; for the latter are put absolutely in the 
nominative, while the former, on the contrary, are put in the 
accusative in ver. 7, as being such things, as God bestows. But 
why are honour and sorrow set in opposition to each other, since 
disgrace is the converse of honour, sorrow of pleasure ? Ans. : 
In this passage, we must carefully attend to the word l;/>!j>)j, 
peace, which is here opposed to sorrow, that is to say, to tribula- 
tion and anguish. But at Isaiah Ixv. 13, joy (and honour) is 
opposed to shame (and grief), each of the two parts of the sen- 
tence being expressed in abbreviated form, and requiring to be 
suppKed from its own opposite. Besides, in the classification of 
goods, honour is the highest good, and, in the classification of 
punishments, sorrow is the greatest punishment ; and the highest 
degree on the one side, including all below it, is opposed to 
the highest degree on the other ; so we have glorying and woe, 
1 Cor. ix. 16. 

9, 10. Kars^ya^o/iEKou" spya^o/jdivui). The distinction between 
these words is more easily felt, than explained, more easily ridi- 
culed, than refuted. There is another distinction: s-!rt -^ux^vis 
said of the punishment ; for punishment /aZZs upon it, and the 
soul wiU bear it unwillingly ; rravr! roj if/a^ojihu, the dative of 
advantage, is said of the reward. 

12. " Offo; yap, for as many) the Gentiles : and as many, the Jews. 
— avo^ws) This word occurs twice by antanaclasis,^ in the sense, 
not in the law, not iy the law, (oux b v6fi(jj, ou Si& vS/aov) as is evident 
from the antithesis. — i]/iapTov) sinned : the past tense, [past] in 
reference to the time of judgment [shall then be found to have 
sinned]. — xal avoXouvrai, they shall also perish) the word, also, 
denotes the correspondence between the mode of sinning, and the 
mode of perishing ; he says, they shall also perish ; for it was not 
convenient to say, in this instance, av6//,us, they shall be judged 

' See Appendix. 

82 ROMANS 11. 13, 14. 

without law, as he presently after says aptly, they shall be judged 
hy law.—h voiLu,) [in, or] with the law, not, [as the heathen], avo>ws, 
without law, i.e. shice they had the law. — Sia. vo/iou, by the law) 
ch. iii. 20. 

13. Oi/ yap, for noO A Proposition [Statementof Subject] clearly 
standing forth, the words of which have respect also to the 
Gentiles, but are particularly adapted to the Jews ; concerning 
the former, ver, 14, etc. treats ; concerning the latter, ver, 17, 
etc. ; wherefore, also, ver. 16 depends on ver. 15, not on ver. 
12. They have caused much confusion, who enclosed within a 
parenthesis the passage beginning at the 14th, nay, rather at the 
13th verse, and ending with the 15. — o/ axpoaral, hearers), in- 
active, however sedulous [in hearing] they may be. — •Trapu rs> 0£ffl, 
before [with] Go^ ver. 2. — voiriral, doers) namely, if men have 
shown themselves to be doers, ch. x. 5. They may do things 
pertaining to the law, but they cannot prove [warrant] themselves 
to be the doers of the whole law. — dixai'/)S^(SovTai, shall be justified) 
This verb, in contradistinction to the noun dlxawi, which denotes 
men actually righteous, involves a condition, which is to be per- 
formed, and then [the condition being fulfilled] the declaration 
of their being righteous, as about to foUow [as the consequence] 
in the day of the divine judgment. 

14. "Orav, when) After Paul has finished the refutation of the 
perverse judgment of the Jews against the Gentiles, he next 
proceeds to show the true judgment of God against the latter. 
He treats here of the Gentiles more directly, for the purpose of 
convicting them ; and yet, what is granted to them in passing, is 
granted with this end in view, that the Jew may be dealt with 
the more heavily; but ver. 26 treats of the GentUes quite in- 
cidentally, in order to convict the Jew. Wherefore, otuv, when, 
is used here [ver. 14] ; lAv, if, there [ver. 26]. — ydp for) He 
gives the reason, why the Gentiles should also be required to be 
the doers of the law ; for when they do ever so little of it, they 
recognise thek obligations to obey it. And yet he shows, that 
they cannot be justified by the law of nature, or by their own- 
selves. There are four sentences beginning with the words: 
when — these-r—who — the conscience bearing witness along witlu 

The second is explained by the third, the first by the fourth. 

Uvr!) Not, TO. Uvn ; some individuals of the Gentiles ; and yet there 

ROMANS 11. 15. 33 

is no man, who does not fulfil some of the requirements of the 
law (Ix rSi\i roD v6/j,ov). He did not chocjse to say ihixol, which is 
usually taken rather in a bad sense. — /i^ i/6//.or v6//,ov /ifi, — not the 
law : the law not) Not even here is the change in the arrange- 
ment of the words without a reason ; in the former place, the 
not is the emphatic word, so that greater force may be given to 
the, have not; in the latter place, the word v6f/jov, the law, contains 
the emphasis, thus forming an antithesis to the eavToig, unto them- 
selves. So also, vo/iog, law, has sometimes the article, and some- 
times not, and not without a good reason in each in^ance, ver. 
13, 23, 27, iii. 19-21, vii. 1., etc. — p-oaei, by nature) The construc- 
tion is, [i,Ti vo/jLov ixoira (pxisu, not having the law by nature^ pBut 
Engl. vers, joins nature with do, not with having] precisely as in 
ver. 27, ^ Jx pijaius axpo/Suor/a, the uncircumcision by nature, con- 
trary to the Syriac version of ver. 27, which connects the word 
nature with doing, " doing by nature the law." The Gentiles are 
by nature (that is, when left to themselves, as they are born, not 
as individuals, but as nations), destitute of the (written) law ; the 
Jews are by nature Sews, Gal. ii. 15, and therefore have by nature 
the (written) law, ch. xi. 24, the end of the ■i'erse. Nor yet, 
however, is there any danger, that the force of the construction, 
which most follow, do by nature those tMngs,. which are of [con- 
tained in] the law, should be lost ; for what the' Gentiles, who 
have not the law, do, they in reality do by nature. The term 
law, in the writings of tlie apostle, does not occur in the philo- 
sophical, but in the Hebrew use ; therefore, the phrase, natural 
law, is not found in sacred Scripture; ver. 12 shows, that the 'thing 
itself is true. — Twjj do), not only in actual performancej but also 
in their inmost thoughts, ver. 15, at the end, — ovroi, these) This 
little word turns the collective noun 'iStiri, Gentiles, to a distribu- 
tive sense [so far to wit as they really do it. — Y. g.J — v6/iog, a law) 
"What the law is to the Jews, that the Gentiles are to their own- 

15. ' Evdetx.vuvTot.1, they show) [demonstrate] to themselves, to 
others, and, in some respects, to God Himself. — rt 'ipyov roZ v6/jlou, 

1 It may be thought by this interpretation, that the clause which precedes 
the words, von Natur, in the German version should be omitted to avoid the 
ambiguity, although, perhaps, the Author knowinffly and willingly made use 
of the ambiguous [equivocal] punctuation. — E. B. 


84 ROMANS 11. 16. 

the work of the law), the law itself, with its practical [active] 
opeij-ation. It is opposed to the letter, which is but an accident 
[not its essence]. — ypairriv, written), a noun, not a participle, 
much less an infinitive [to be written]. Paul, by way of con- 
trast, alludes to the tables of Moses. This writing is antecedent 
to the doing of those things, which are contained in the law ; but 
afterwards, when any one has done, or (has not done) the things 
commanded, [the demonstration, or] the allowing [of the work of 
the law] follows, and that permanent writing [viz., that on the 
heart] becomes more clearly apparent. — gufifn.aprvpoisr};, simul- 
taneously bearing witness) An allegory; the prosecution, the 
criminal, the witnesses are in court ; conscience is a witness ; the 
thoughts accuse, or also defend. Nature, and sin itself, bear 
witness : conscience bears witness along with them, — auruv) of 
themselves, or their own. — rtlg euwdrjffsug, the conscience) The 
soul has none of its faculties less under its own control, than con- 
science. So evveldiiiig and Xoyig/j,6g are joined, Wisd. xvii. 11, 
12. — /uracil aXkriXav, between one another) as prosecutor and 
criminal. This expression is put at the beginning of the clause 
for the sake of emphasis, inasmuch as ihoiights implicated in the 
trial with thoughts, are opposed to conscience referred to the law. 
— Tuv XoyidiMon xaTrjyofouvrojv, their thoughts accusing) Some ex- 
plain [analyse] the words thus : the thoughts, which accuse, testify- 
ing simultaneously [taken from eu/ifj.aprvpoueijg] ; but thoughts ac- 
cusing [tZv Xoyie//,uv xaTriyopoLvrm] is an expression, which, stands 
by itself. — rj xal, or even) The concessive particle, even, shows 
that the thoughts have far more to accuse, than defend, and the 
defence itself (comp. 2 Cor. vii. 11, defending or clearing of 
yourselves) does not extend to the whole, but only to a part of 
the conduct, and this very part in turn proves us to be debtors 
as to the whole, i. 20. — aTo\oyov//,£viijv, [excusing] defending). 
We have an example at Gen. xx. 4. 

16. 'Ev fif/^epcf, in the day) It is construed with show, for the 
present tense is no objection ; verl 5 employs the present in the 
same general way. And Paul often says, in the day of the Lord, 
which implies more than against [or unto the day] 1 Cor. v. 5 — 
comp. before, or in the presence of 1 Tim. v. 21, note. Such 
as each thing was, such it shall then be seen, be determined, and 
remain. In that day, that writing of the law on the hearts of 

ROMANS n. 17. 35 

men will be manifest, having also joined with it some defence 
of upright acts, although the man be condemned [fall] in the 
judgment, himself being his own accuser, on account of other 
offences. And that circumstance implies, as a consequence, 
[infers] (reasoning, from the greater to the less, i.e., from the final 
judgment, to the judgments of conscience in the present life), 
accusation, or even defence, exercised in this life also, as often as 
either the future judgment itself is vividly presented before a 
man, or its anticipations, without the man's own privity (con- 
sciousness), are at work in the conscience. — Comp. 1 John iv. 17. 
And Scripture often speaks so of the fiiture, especially of the 
last things, as that it presupposes those which precede them. 
The Jews at ver. 5, as the Gentiles in this passage, are threat- 
ened with the fiiture judgment. — ra -/.pvirrSt, the secrets) the con- 
science, and the thoughts. — Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 5. This confirms 
the' connection of this verse with the preceding. The true qua- 
lity of actions, generally unknown even to the agents themselves, 
depends on the secrets. — See ver. 29. Men judge by outward 
manifestations, even concerning themselves. Outward manifes- 
tations of good or evil will also be jtidged, but not then for the 
first time ; for they are judged, even from the time in which 
they are wrought ; deeds, that are secret, are then at length 
brought to judgment. — ruv AvS/xivav, of men) even of the Gen- 
tUes. — xard, according to) i.e. as my Gospel teaches. Paul adds 
this short clause, because he is here dealing with a man, who 
does not yet know Jesus Christ. The Gospel is the whole 
preaching as to Christ ; and Christ will be the Judge ; and the 
judgment ia regard to the Gentiles, is not so expressly, declared 
in the Old, as in the New Testament. And it is called the 
Gospel of Paul, as it was preached by Paul, even to the Gen- 
tiles. — Acts xvii. 31. All the articles of evangeUcal doctrine, 
and the article concerning the filial judgment, greatly illustrate 
one another ; and moreover, this very article, even in respect of 
behevers, is altogether evangeHcal. — ^Acts x. 42 ; 1 Pet. iv. 5. 

17. e; hi, hut if) If— corn^. when, ver. 14 — has some resem- 
blance to an Anaphora,^ with the exception that orav, when, 
having reference to the Gentiles, asserts more ; £/', if, used with 

1 See Appendix. 

SG ROMANS II. 18-20. 

respect to the Jews, concedes less. After if, oh, therefore [ver. 21], 
follows, like aXKoi., but, (ch. vi. 5)^ and bi, truly Acts xi. 11.^ — 
Comp. Matt. XXV. 27. Moreover, the ovv, therefore, in a subse- 
quent verse (ver. 21), brings to a conclusion the somewhat long 
protasis, which begins with tl, if. — 'lovda/bi;, a Jew) This, the 
highest point of Jewish boasting (a farther description of it being 
interposed at ver. 17-20, and its refutation being added, ver. 
21-24), is itself refuted at the 25th and following verses. More- 
over, the description of his boasting consists of twice five clauses, 
of which the first five, firom thou restest (ver. 17), to, out of the law 
(ver. 18), show what the Jew assumes to himself; the rest, as 
many in number as the former, thou art confident (ver. 19), to, in the 
law (ver. 20), show, what more the Jew, from this circumstance, 
arrogates to himself, in reference to others. On both sides [in 
both series], the first clause of one corresponds to the first of the 
other, the second to the second, and so on in succession ; and as 
the fifth clause in the former series, instructed, ver. 18, so the 
fifth in the latter, having, ver. 20 [the form of knowledge] de- 
notes a cause : because thou art instructed, [answering to] because 
thou hast. — lmvofi.dZri) in the middle voice : thoU callest thyself 
by this name, and delightest to be so called. — i-rava-ffauri) thou 
restest in that, which threatens to put thee in a strait; thou hast 
in the law a schoolmaster, instead of a father [as you fancy the 
law to be]. — TS vo/iw, in the law) Paul purposely [knowingly] 
makes fi:equentuse of this name. — h QiSj, in God), as though He 
were One, who is peculiarly thy God. 

18. To ri>.niia) the will, that is, whatever has been' ratified by 
the law; so, the will, absolutely. Matt, xviii. 14 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 12. 
But this will is nothing else, than the will of God; but a strong 
feeling of piety [ihx&^ua,, pious caution] prevented Paul from 
adding, of God.r—Soxi/ia.liig) provest, approvest. 

19. 'Ev gxonj, in the darkness of congenital ignorance [igno- 
rance, accompanying the heathen from birth]. 

20. Mp^um) The word is taken here in a good sense in 
reference to the Jew, who is boasting : the form, or correct'out- 

' ABCA read d>.xi. there. Offf Vulg. read ^^«, simul 
2 EG« Ree. Text. Theb. Vers, read li, who truly was I, etc. ABC<i 
Vulg. omit Si.— Ed. 

ROMANS II. 21-26. S7 

line. — rjjj -ymgiwi xal rjjs akr\kiai, of knowledge and of the truth) 
a Hendiadys ; the truth in this passage expresses accuracy in esta- 
blished doctrine, in our days called orthodoxy. 

21. Oi Sidciexeis, dost thou not teach) a Metonymy for the con- 
sequent (that is, substituting the antecedent for the consequent), 
he, who doth not practise, doth not teach his own self. — xripvegm, 
preaching) loudly, clearly. 

21, 22. K'ks'urrii;, fioi^sutig, hpoauXsTg, dost thou commit theft, 
adultery, sacrilege f) Thou sinnest most heinously against thy 
neighbour, against thyself, and against God. Paul had shown 
to the Gentiles, that their sins were first against God, secondly 
against themselves, and thirdly against others ; he now inverts 
the order ; for sins against God are very openly practised among 
the Gentiles ; not so, in the case of the Jew. — o jSdi'kuffeofiivoi, 
thou that ahhorresi) even in speaking.— ra i'licoKa, idols) Thv- 
Jews, from the Babylonish captivity even to the present day, 
abhor idolatry, to which they had been formerly addicted : never- 
theless they even put Christ to death, and [still] oppose tl 
Gospel and the glory of God. — iipoguXiTg, dost thou commit sacrtr- 
lege f) bepause thou dost not ^ive God the glory, which pecu- 
liarly belongs to God. 

24. Th yap 'lm(i,a) Is. lii. 5, in the LXX., ii vfi,ag dia 'jravTog ri 
ovofiid /JI.OU pXag<pri//,sTTai h rcTg 'Ungi, through you My name is cdnti- 
nually blasphemed among the Gentiles. — Comp. Ezek. xxxvi. 20, 
etc. — ■/,a,6iig yiypavTui, as it is written) This short clause is 
fittingly placed at the end, as it refers to a thing evident of 
itself, but it is set down for the sake of the Jews, ch. iii. 19. 

25. 'ilfiXsT, profteth) He does not saj justifleth ; the profit is 
described chap. iii. and iv. Circumcision was still practised 
among the (believing) Jews. — irh, if) Paul not only speaks, 
using the ad hominem argument [argument on his adversary's own 
principles to confute him], but also speaks according to his own 
sentiments, and shows, that they are deceiving themselves, who 
are trusting to circumcision, though they have violated the law. — 
•xapa^arrjg, a transgressor) A word abhorred by a Jew, ver. 27. 

26. 'H axpo^vgrla, uncircumcision) that is, a person uncu-cum 
cised, for to this the ainu, his, is referred. — Xoyigi^girai) The 
future ; shall be counted, by a righteous judgment. In ver. 25, 
yeyonv, the preterite, implies, is now made. 


ROMANS II. 27-29. HI. 1- 

27. Kg;vE/~ shall judge) Those, whom thou now judgest, will 
in their turn judge thee at the day of judgment, ver. 16. Matt, 
xii. 41 ; 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3.— "XoDw, leeping (if it folfil) : a word 
of large meaning. Therefore lav, if, ver. 2Q, has a conditional 
meaning, and does not positively assert.— (tI, thee), who art its 
judge [the self-constituted judge of the uncircumcisedj.— rov) 
the article does not properly belong to ircpa^&rny, hut rhv di& i9 
used as ^ «.— S;A [%, or] toith) Thou hast the letter, but thou 
even abusest it ; there is an antithesis between by nature, and 
with the letter; then follows a Hendiadys, by the letter and circum- 
cision. Concerning the letter and spirit, see ch. vii. 6. 

28. 'O Iv), a periphrasis for the adjective. — h ffapxl, in thejlesh) 
opposed to [that] of the heart, ver. 29. 

29. Ol, whose), who seeks praise and has it, not from men, 
etc.— sVa/vos, praise) The ahusion is to the name Jeio \JudaK\, 
Tnr, they shall praise thee, Gen. xlix. 8. He therefore adds, 
ol, not h [-ffipiTOfirig]. This is the solution : The Jew who is one 
inwardly, he is the Jew, who has praise ; as much as to say, this 
is true Judaism. It is opposed to the judging [ver. 3]. — o!tx 1^ 
Mpti-jnav, not of men), who, when they praise themselves, boast, 
ver. 17. — 010V, of God), who sees the heart. 


1. T/, what). Paul's usual form of bringing In an objection. 
— ouv) then. Since circumcision is unprofitable without observing 
the law, and since being a Jew outwardly is of no avail, what 
advantage does the latter possess, and of what profit is the 
former ? It therefore must follow, that the Jews have no pecu- 
liar privileges whatever. Paul denies this conclusion. There 
are innumerable exceptions taken against the doctrine set forth 
in this epistle, by the perverseness of the Jews, and of mankind at 
large ; but Paul sweeps them all away. — 'T-J •rip/geh\i, peculiar 
advantage), iri\ over [as compared with] the Gentiles. This 


point is, taken up at ver. 2. — a^'sXeia rng •rep/ro,tt^s, the ■profit of 
circumcision) See on this subject ch. ii. 25. 

2. IIoXu, mucli) In the neuter gender; supply 'npieaov. It 
rather refers to the concrete, concerning the Jew, than to the 
abstract, concerning circumcision, ver. 1 ; this -will be treated of 
at ch. iv. 1, 9, etc. So, ch. ii. 29, o5, viz. 'louSa/ou, the Jew 
[instead of ^;, though -xifiToihii had preceded]. — irpSirov) i.e. first, 
and therefore chiefly ; the word signifying in the next place, does 
not always follow [after vpurov]. One privilege of the Jews, 
admirably adapted to Paul's object, is set forth in this passage 
(the others will follow, ch. ix. 4, 5) ; and by this very one, he 
is about, by and by, after he has ended this prefatory address of 
conciliation, so much the more to convict them.-* — ImeTi^Srieav, 
they were intrusted with) He, to whom a treasure is intrusted, 
may manage it either faithfully and skilfully, or otherTOse ; and 
the Jews treated the Old Testament Scriptures in very different 
ways. But Paid says, that the oracles of God were intrusted to 
the Jews in such a manner [under this condition], that the good 
about to come, ver. 8, which they [the oracles] described, would 
belong to the Jews, if they would receive it by faith ; — ^ideas 
extremely suggestive : God is true, faithful, intrusting His 
revelation to men, righteous ; man is mendacious, perfidious, 
distrustful, unrighteous. — Xoyia), a diminutive. The Divine 
answers were often brief, a,s in the Urim and Thummim : Xoym 
is also [God's] saying [ver. 4], concernitag circumcision, and the 
other privileges of the Israehtes. 

3. T/ yAp, for what ?), viz. shall we say, ver. 5, where Ukewise 
u,n, interrogative, follows ; so, r/ ydp, Lxx., Job xxi: 4. — I/, if) 
Thus might the Gentile rival easily object. — n-Ttigrnaav) The 
words derived from a common root are, i'irig'revSrjea.v, ^'Trlgrrjiav, 
aTieria, irtSTDi, — r/i/Ej, some) [for many, most of the Jews], a form 
of expression to avoid what is di'sagreeable [euphemy]. Moreover, 
unbelievers, though numerous, are considered as some indefinitely, 
because they do not very much come under enumeration, ch. xi. 
17 ; 1 Cor. x. 7 ; 1 Tim. iv. 1.— r/o-r/v), the faithfulness, by 
which promises will be performed, and good will come [ver. 8]. 
Tias faithfulness remains, though all men should be unfaithful 

' On the wpohpaTiicf, i.e., precautionary address to disarm prejudices, 
when about to speak unwelcome truths. See Appendix. — ^Ed. 

*0 ROMANS III. 4. 

[unbelieving] ; it remains, chiefly in respect of believers. They 
who deny universal grace, have but little \_perception or] know- 
ledge of the faithfulness of God in respect to unbelievers. With 
respect even to the reprobate, the antecedent will of God ought, 
indeed, to be held as of great account ; for what they have not, 
they, nevertheless, might have had ; and this very circumstance 
confers upon them an altogether great privilege ; and even 
though they do not perceive it to be so [or uphold it], still this 
peculiar advantage [ver. 1, rh ■jripigfov] remains, that the glory of 
God, and the glory of the faithfulness of God, are illustrated in 
them. Comp. the expression, hath abounded, ver. 7. This, the 
peculiar advantage, is not to be held as of no account. The 
apostle, when he would vindicate our faith, with great propriety 
praises the faithfulness of God. Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 13. — jtarap- 
y^dii ; shall it make of no effect ?) The future, employed with 
great force in a negative address. The faithfulness of God is 

4. M)i yivoiTo) Paul alone uses this form of expression, and 
only in his epistles to the Romans and the Galatians. — ymsSu, 
let him be made) in judgment. — 6 edg dXriS^g, God true) See 
Ps. cxvi. 12, where God's most faithful retribution is set in 
opposition to man's perfidy. This fact, and the term lying, are 
referred to again, in verse 7. — vag avSpoim;, every man), not even 
excepting David. Ps. cxvi. 11, the Lxx. have -rSs avipums 
■^iudrrig, every man a liar. Hence David, 1 Sam. xxiv. 9, speaks 
of man's words, that is, falsehood. — ovug — xpmsSai ei) So the 
LXX., Ps. li. 6 [4]. Those things are also [besides their appH- 
cation at David's time] prophetical, which David prayed in tho 
agony [conflict] of his repentance.— cJv), t/only it [God's faith- 
fulness] were to be had recourse to, and if man would dare to 
put it to the test. — 6(xa/w^^s---v;z^<r>ic, thou mayest be justified — 
mayest overcome), in the name of faithfulness and truth. The 
human judge judges so, as that the offence of the guilty is the 
only consideration weighed [regarded] by hrni, nor is he other- 
wise concerned as regards [vindicating] his own righteousness; 
but God exercises judgment so, as that the unrighteousness of 
men is not more demonstrated thereby, than His own righteous- 
ness : vix^v is generally said of a victory after the hazard of war 
or of a lawsuit for money, or of a contest in the public games! 

ROMANS III. 5, 6. il 

Jn tliis passage, it is said of a judicial victory, which cannot but 
come to God [i.e. God is sure to be the victor]. — h toTs Xoyois 
eov) Hebr. 11312, in which one passage 131 occurs in Kal, 
without the participle, that is, when thou heginnest to speak, and 
judicially to answer man, who accuses thee, or to proceed against 
him. \In a general way, indeed, men acknowledge that GoD is 
just, hut when the question refers to special cases, then they are 
wont [they love] to defend their own cause, V. g.] — h rSi xphieSal es) 
Hebr. IDDt}*! God at once both Kpivii and K^lnerai. KflviTai 
[implead in judgment] has the meaning of the middle voice, such 
as verbs of contending usually have : xphovrag applies to those 
who dispute in a court of law. Lxx., Is. xliii. 26 ; Judg. iv. 5 ; 
Jer. XXV. 31. An instance in illustration is to be found in 
Micah vi. 2, etc. ; also in 1 Sam. xii. 7. It is inexpressible 
loving-kindness in God to come down [condescend to stoop] to 
man for the purpose of pleading with him. 

5. El di, but if) This new argument, urged through a Jewish 
person, is elicited from the verb thou mnyest be justified, in the 
preceding verse. — ii abiyJa, unrighteousness) of which a man is 
guilty through unbelief. — n ipou/jusn, what shall we say) Paul 
shows that this, their peculiar advantage [ver. i.], does not pre- 
vent the Jews from being under sin. — o im(pepav) the injlicter of 
wrath [taketh vengeance] upon the unbelieving Jews. The 
article has a particular force. The allusion is to Ps. vii. 11, 
&ihg xpirris dlxaiog, xa) /in (^S for bv; ; the LXX. from the simi- 
larity of letters, mistaking Godfornoi], iirdyaiv opyrj]! xa^ ixaernv 
f}/j,epa.v : God is a just judge, and (not being substituted for God) 
a God inflicting wrath. — xarSo avdpc^mv, as a man) Man, accord- 
ing to the principles of human nature, might reason thus : My 
wickedness is subservient to the Divine glory, and makes it the 
more conspicuous, as darkness doth the light ; therefore, I should 
not be punished. 

6. 'Eiril, otherwise) The consequence is drawn [bound, con- 
nected] from the less to the greater, as it ought to be in the case 
of negatives. If God were to act unrighteously, in taking ven- 
geance on the Jew who acts unrighteously, a thing too absm'd 
to be mentioned, He certainly could not judge the whole world. 
Ajgirmatively, the process of reasoning would take this form : He 
■who (justly) judges the whole world, will doubtless also judge 

42 KOMANS III. 7, 8. 

justly in this one particular case. [Vice versa] The conclusion 
is, in its turn, drawn from the greater to the less at 1 Cor. vi. 2. 
— rhv x6g/x,ov, the world) For even the unrighteousness of the 
whole world (which is put in opposition to the Jews, at ch. xi. 
12), commends the righteousness of God; and yet God pro- 
nounces, and with justice, the whole world to be unrighteous, 
Gen. xviii. 25. Nay, in the very judgment, the unrighteous- 
ness of man will greatly illustrate the righteousness of God. 
The Jew p,cknowledges the righteousness of the Divine judg- 
ment regarding the world; but Paul shows that there is the 
same ground for judgment regarding the unbelieving Jews. 

7. e; y&p, for if) An ^tiologia^ [a sentiment, with the 
grounds on which it rests subjoined] set forth in the form of a 
dialogue, for the purpose of strengthening the objection which 
was introduced at the beginning of ver. 5. •v}/£uir^ar/, through 
my lie) The things which God says are true, and he who does 
not believe these, makes God a liar, being in reality himself the 
liar. — Ti) that is, why do I even still excuse myself, as if I had 
some reason to fear ? Comp. ri 'in, ch. ix. 19 ; Gal. v. 11. — 
x^yij) I also, to whom the truth of God has been revealed ; not 
merely the heathen. — xpho/Lai) corresponds to xpiviaSai, ver. 4, 6, 
Ixx. ; Job xxxix. 35 (xl. 4) r/ 'in lydi xphofiai ; 

8. Ka/ /ij), and not) supply, act so, as [and why should I not 
act so, as, etc.] ; but a change of number or person is introduced, 
such as in ch. iv. 17. — xaSiii, as) Some were in the habit of 
calumniating Paul ; others were of this way of thinMng, and 
said that their opinions were approved by Paul. — ^ae! nvs?, some 
say) who make our support the pretext to cover over [justify] 
their own perverseness. This epistle was principally written for 
the purpose of Paul's confuting such as these. — jj/iSs, that we) 
who maintain the righteousness of God. — Sn) This depends 
strictly [absolutely] on Xiys,v.—m,^e!Ofx,ev, let us do) without fear. 
ra xaxA, evil) sins.— sX^j,, ri d^yaS^, good may come) The same 
phrase occurs with the Lxx. int. Jer. xvii. 6. Those calumni- 
ators mean to say this : Good is at hand, ready to come • but 
evU should prepare the way for it.—T& aya6&, good) the glory 
of God. — u,v, of whom) that is of those who do evil, or even say 

' See Appendix. 

ROMANS III. a, 10. 43 

that we ought to do evil, in order that good may come. — rJ xpl/ia) 
the judgment, which these unprincipled men endeavour to escape 
by a subterfuge, as unjust [unrighteous], will peculiarly [ia an 
especial degree] overtake them — hdmov, just) Thus Paul re- 
moves to as great a distance as possible that conclusion, and 
abruptly repels such disputers. 

9. T/ ouK ; what then ?) He resumes the question with which 
he began at ver. 1. — ■Trpotx^/j^i^oi, ;) have we any advantage as com- 
pared with the Gentiles ? — ou -jrdvru; ^) the Jew would say -TtavTug : 
buti Paul contradicts him. In the beginning of this passage, he 
speaks gently (for, in other places, where /ijjSa/iSs is used, oh iravrug 
cannot be substituted for it ; and in this passage the expression, 
hy no means [lUjjSa/iSj, had it been used], would take away the 
concession which he made to them at ver. 2) ; but he afterwards 
speaks with greater severity. — irporir/ugd/jiiSa,) we have proved, be- 
fore that I had mentioned the peculiar privilege of the Jews. 
Paul deals, in Chapters i. and ii., as a stem Administrator [Pro- 
curator] of divine justice ; but yet he was unwilling to use the 
singular number. By the plural number, he expresses the as- 
sent of his believing readers : -jravras, all the Jews [as well as] 
all the Greeks. — up a,//,aprjav) liro denotes subjection, as if under 
the tyranny of sin. 

10. KaSais, as) That all men are under sin, is very clearly 
proved from the vices which always, and everywhere, have been 
prevalent [have stalked abroad] among mankind ; just as, also, 
the internal holiness of Christ is displayed in [pourtrayed by 
means of] the innocency of His words and actions. Paul there- 
fore quotes, with propriety, David and Isaiah, although it is con- 
cerning the people of their own times that they complain, and 
that accompanied with an exception in favour of the godly [some 
of whom are always to be found], Ps. xiv. 4, etc. For that com- 
plaint describes men such as God looking down from heaven 
finds them to be, nt)t such as He makes them by His grace. 

10. "On ovx 'ieri dixaiog olSs iTg xtX.) Ps. xiv. 2, etc. The 
LXX., oux iSTi -iroiSiv yjiriSTorriTa,, obx einti ens hog. — £/' ttfr/ auviSit 7] 
ixZ,riTZv riv ©son. — hog, The general phrase is, there is none 

1 Beng. seem's to translate " not altogether ;" quite different from " in no 
wise."— Ed. 

H ROMANS III. 11-17. 

righteous ; the parts follow : the dispositions and pursuits, ver. 11, 
12 ; the conversation, ver. 13, 14 ; the actions, ver. 15, 16, 17 ; 
the general demeanour, (gestus et nutus), ver. 18. — Sixaiog, righte- 
ous) a suitahle word in a discourse on righteousness. — ov8e tig, 
not even one) who can except any one here ? ver. 23, not so 
much as one under heaven. The exception, even of one, or at 
least of a few, might procure [conciliate] favour to all ; as it is, 
^^Tath is on that account the greater. 

11. oa-x seriv 6 evviSiv, there is none that understandetli) They 
are without understanding in relation to what is good. — oi^t 'ism 
h Exi^riTuv, there is none that seeketh after) They are without the 
will to do good. To seek after, implies that God is innDD 
hidden, Is. xlv. 15. 

12. 'E^sxXimv, they have turned aside) they have gone out 
of the way. Declension supposes, that all had formerly been 
in the right path. — a/ia,, together) at the same time. — ^XP^"^^^""^'- 
They have become unprofitable) They have not the power of 
returning to do good. And on the contrary, in all these parti- 
culars they cling to what is evil, either secretly, or "even openly. 
They have become unfit for any useful purpose (a^psm). The 
conjugate word xPV'f^^'^is presently after follows. 

13. Td(pog — I'ig — avrSiv) SO the LXX., Ps. V. 10, Cxl. 4. — 

aviifiyfiivog) a sepulchre lately opened, and therefore very fetid. 

y^deuyl, their throat) Observe the course of the conversation, 
ae it flows from the heart, by the avenue of their throat, their 
tongues, and their lips — the whole is comprised in the moutli; a 
great part of sin consists in words — wh t& %£/Xjj) under their 
lips ; for on their lips is the sweetness of honey. 

14. Siv ri oTo/ia apag xal -jriKptag ys/xii) Ps. x. 7, LXX., ou apag ri 
er6//,a, auroO yi/^si xal -ffixplag xal doXou.— rh ero/jia, the mouth) In 
this and the following verse violence is described, as, in ver. 13, 
deceit.— apy, cursing) directed against God.—mxpiag, bitterness) 
against their neighbom*. 

15-18. 'O^eTg—ovx 'iymeav) Is. lix. 7, 8, LXX., oi Si rtohig 
auTuv — rax'vol h-xiai alfia — euvrpi/i/ia olx oihaai. So of the feet 
Prov. i. 16. 

16. 2iwp,ji/ia xai raXam^pla), inKn '\^, wasting fmd destruction. 

17. Oux tyvugav, they have not known) they neither know, nor 
wish to know; 

BOMANS III. 18-20. 45 

18. Oux aiiTuv) SO the LXX., Ps. xxxvi. 2, oux — auroij; — po/3ps, 
fear), not to say love, of which man in his natural state knows 
much less. Of several passages, in which human depravity is 
expressed, either in the complaint of God and of the saints, or 
else in the confessions of the penitent, Paul has written out a 
part of the words, and intimates that all the rest are to be 
sought for out of the same places. — otpSaX/iuv, their eyes) The 
seat of reverential awe is in the eyes. 

19. "Otfa) wJiatsoever. He has just now accumulated many 
testimonies from the law. — vo/iof, the law) Therefore the testi- 
mony, ver. 10, etc., brought forward from the Psalms, arraigns 
[strikes] the Jews ; nor ought they to think, that the accusations 
therein contained are against the Gentiles. Paul has brought 
no declaration of Scripture against the Gentiles, but has dealt 
with them by arguments drawn from the light of nature. — 
i/Sfjuos — v6/i(fi) An instance of As ;er>js,^ [impressive vehemence 
in words] — ha, that) He presses this home to the Jews. — 
er6//,a,) mouth, bitter, ver. 14, and yet given to boasting, ver. 27. 
The Jews are chiefly intended here, as the Gentiles by the term 
world. — yivriTai, may he made) [become*] The world is always 
guilty, but it is made guilty, when the law accuses and condemns 
it. — 'jra.g, all) not even excepting ' the Jews. TJie guilt of the 
Gentiles, as being manifest, is presupposed ; the Jews are prose- 
cuted to condemnation by arguments out of the law. These are 
guilty ; and their condemnation completes the condemnation of 
the whole world as guilty. 

20. A/on) for this reason, because) [Beng. connects this verse 
with ver. 19. But Eng. vers. ' therefore'). — vo/tou, of the law) 
indefinitely put, but' chiefly referring to the moral law, ver. xix. 
9, ch. ii. 21—26 ; which [the moral law] alone is not made void; 
ver. 31 ; for it was the works of it that Abraham was possessed 
of before he received circumcision. Paul, in affirming that we 
are not justifled by the works of the law, as opposed to faith, 
not to any particular law, means the whole law, of which the 
parts, rather than the species, were the ceremonial and the 
moral ; and of these the former, as being even then abrogated, 
was not so much taken into account ; the latter does not bind 

' See Appendix. 

46 ROMANS UI. 20. 

US [is not obligfitory] on the same principle [grounds] as it was 
[when] given by Moses. In the New Testament we have abso- 
lutely no works of the law without [independently of] grace ; 
for the law confers no strength. It is not without good reason, 
that Paul, when he mentions works, so often adds, of the law ; 
for it was on these that his opponents were relying : and were 
ignorant of those better works, which flow as results from faith 
and justification. — ol dinaiuSrigiTai, shall not be justified) on 
the signification of this word, see Luke vii. 35. In the writings 
of Paul at least, the judicial meaning is quite manifest, ver. 19, 
24, etc., ch. iv. 5, taken in connection with the context. Con- 
cerning the future tense, comp. v. 30, note. — ■?raga, gap^, all flesh) 
synonymous with the world, ver. 19, but with the accompanying 
notion imphed of the cause : the world with its righteousness is 
flesh ; therefore it is not justified [by works flowing] out of 
itself — ivuTiov auroC, in His sight) ch. iv. 2, ii. 29. — vofiov, law) 
which was given for that very purpose. — em; meig), the knowledge 
of sins does not justify by itself, but it feels and confesses the 
want of righteousness. — afiaprlag, of sin) Sin and righteousness 
are directly and commensurately opposed to each other [ade- 
quate ; so that one on its side is exactly commensurate with the 
other on its side] ; but sin implies both guilt and depravity ; 
therefore righteousness denotes the reverse of both. Righteous- 
ness is more abundant, ch. v. 15, 17. Apol. A. C. says well. 
Good works in the saints are the fruits of [appertain to] righte- 
ousness, and are pleasing on account of faith ; on this account they 
are the fulfilling of the law. Hence dixaiouv is to make a man 
righteous, or in other words, to justify ; a notion quite in accord- 
ance with the form of the verb in ow : nor is there any difficulty 
in the derivative verb, but in dlxaiog. He then, who is justified, 
is brought over [translated] from sin to righteousness, that is, 
firom guilt or criminality to a state of innocence, and from de- 
pravity and corruption to spiritual health. Nor is there a 
homonymy,^ or twpfold idea, [when by analogy things diiferent 
by nature are expressed by one word], but a signification at 
once simple, and pregnant in the terms sin and righteousness, the 
same as also everywhere prevails in the ierm aipigig, forgiveness^ 

1 See Appendix. 

ROMANS III, 21-23. 47 

[remission], and in the words, by which it is imphed, ajiaZia, 
to sanctify, avoXoim, to wash away, xa6api^u, to purify, etc., 
1 Cor. vi. 11, notes ; Ps. ciii. 3 ; Mic. vii. 18, etc. Aiad this 
pregnant [suggestive] signification itself of the verb to justify, 
implying the whole of the divine benefit, by which we are 
brought from sin to righteousness, occurs also, for example, in 
Tit. iii. 7 ; with which comp. 2 Cor. v. 21 ; Rom. viii. 4 ; with 
which comp. ch. v. 16. But elsewhere, according as the subject 
under discussion demands, it is restricted to some particular 
part, and especially to deliverance from sin, so far as guilt is 
regarded in it : and Paul always uses it so, when, according to 
his design, he is treating of God justifying the sinner by faith. 

21. Nuw) now [as it is] forms the antithesis, including the idea 
of time, ver. 26. — ^uptg ,v6/iou — Ivo roD v6/i,ou xat ruv irpopriTuv, 
without the law — by the law and the prophets) A sweet antithesis. 
The law is taken both in a limited and extended sense [JDavid, 

for instance, must he reckoned among the prophets, ch. iv. 6. — 
V. g.]. — •jficpanpciiTai, has been manifested) by the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ. — /j,cx,prvf>ouf/,siiri, being witnessed by, having the testimony of) 
according to [by] promise. 

22. As [even] hut) An explanation is here given of the righte- 
ousness of God, ver. 21. — ha, itisriag 'inBou XpiHTou, by faith of 
Jesus Christ) by faith in Jesus. — See Gal. ii. 16, notes.— ik, 
unto) To be connected with the righteousness, ver. 21. — si; 
irdvrag, unto all) the Jews, who are, as it were, a peculiar vessel. 
— Irl itatrai, upon alV) the Gentiles, who are as a soU which 
receives an exceedingly abundant rain of grace, comp. ver. 30. 
— ou yap liTi diadroX^, for there is no difference) Jews and 
Gentiles are both accused and justified in the same way. The 
same phrase occurs in ch. x. 12. 

23. "nfji^aprov, have sinned) that is, they have contracted the 
guilt of sia. Both the original act of sin ia paradise is denoted, 
and the sinful disposition, as also the acts of transgression flow- 
ing from it. The past tenses often have an inchoative meaning 
along with the idea of continued action ; such as siriariuea., r{Km-/.a, 
nyavrixa,, mrixouoa, 'igrnxa., I have believed, and still continue to be- 
lieve ; I have hoped, and still continue to hope ; I have loved, and 
still continue to love ; I have obeyed, and still continue to obey ; I 
have established myself, and still establish myself. — xa! venpwnai, 

is ROMANS III. 24. 

and come short) From the past tense, have sinned, flows this 
present, come short, and by this word the whole peculiar advan- 
tage [ver. 1] of the Jews, and all the boasting of all flesh, are 
taken away ; the former is a thing done [past], and the latter is 
a thing now estabhshed ; each of them {jifiaprov and vaTipoiJvToi'] 
denotes deficiency ; they do not attain, ch. ix. 31. — r^s So^vs roij 
0£ou, of the glory of God) The glory of the living God Himself' 
is signified, which bestows life, ch. vi. 4 ; and to this, access was 
open to man if he had not sinned ; but, as a sinner, he fell short 
of this end of his being ; nor does he now attain to it, nor is he 
able, by any means, to endure that glory which would have [but 
for sin] shone forth in him, Heb. xii. 20, etc. ; Ps. Ixviii. 2. 
Hence he has become subject to death ; for glory and immor- 
tality are synonymous terms, and so, also, are death and corrup- 
'ion ; but Paul does not more expressly mention death itself, 
until after the process of justification, and its going forth even to 
[its issue in] life, have been consummated ; he then looks at death 
as it were from behind, ch. v. 12. Therefore, the whole state of 
sin is most exquisitely pourtrayed thus, in this masterly passage : 
Tliey come short of, or are far from the glory of God; that is, 
they have missed [aberrarunt a : erred frorri] the chief end of man; 
and in this very fact is implied [included], at the same time, 
every lesser aberration. But those who are justified recover the 
hope of that glory, along with most immediately reaHzed glory- 
ing [viz., in Christ] in the meanwhile (of which \i.e. of boasting'^ 
in themselves, they had been deprived, ver. 27), and [recover] the 
kingdom in life. See, by all means, ch. v. 2, 11, 17, viii. 30, at 
the end of the verse. Wherefore, the antithetic idea to they have 
sinned, is explained at ver. 24, and the following verses ; and 
ch. iv. throughout, on justification ; the antithetic idea to they 
have come short, is set forth in ch. v., with which, comp. ch. viii. 
17, and the following verses. 

24. Aixuiovfisvoi, Those who are justified) Suddenly, a more 
pleasant scene is thus spread before us. — rri airou ^dpin) by 
His own grace, not inherent in us, but as it were inclining 
of its own accord towards us ; which is evident from the conju- 
gate verbs ^"■P'^of^"'' and yapiTm. Melancthon, instead of grace, 
often uses the expression favour ' and mercy. His own is em- 
phatic. Comp. the following verse. — arnXurpueiug) — a,i:o\\irptaai(, 

ROMANS III. 25. 49 

redemption from sin and misery. Atonement [expiation] ov pro- 
pitiation (iXas/ibg) and amXvrpcogig, redemption, are fiindaraentally 
one single benefit and no more, namely, the restoration of the 
lost sinner. This is an exceedingly commensurate and pure 
idea, and adequately corresponds to the name Jesus. Redemp- 
tion has regard to enemies (and on this point the positive theology 
of Koenig distinctly treats in the passage where he discusses 
Redemption), and reconciliation vefevs to God; and here, again, 
there is a diiFerence between the words iXaa/ihg and xaraXXayn. 
'iXagfihg, propitiation takes away the offence against God: 
■/MToXkayn may be viewed fi'om two sides ; it removes (a) Gods 
indignation against us, 2 Cor. v. 19 ; (/3) and our aHenation 
from God, 2 Cor. v. 20. — h XpierS) 'iriaov, in Christ Jesus) It 
is not without good reason that the name Christ is sometimes 
put before Jesus. According to the Old Testament [From Old 
Testament point of view], progress is made from the knowledge 
of Christ to the knowledge of Jesus ; in the experience of pre- 
sent faith [From the New Testament point of view, the progress 
is] from the knowledge of Jesus to the knowledge of Christ. 
Comp. 1 Tim. i. 15, notes. 

25. XipoiStro) hath set forth before the eyes of all. Luke ii. 31. 
The rrph in -rposkro does not carry with it the idea of time, but 
is much the same as the Jjatin proponere, to set forth. — 'iXaerripm, 
a propitiatory [Eng. vers, not so strictly, "propitiation"'^ The 
allusion is to the mercy-seat [propitiatory] of the Old Testament, 
Heb. ix. 5 ; and it is by this Greek term that the Lxx generally 
express the Hebrew msi, Ex. xxv. 17—22. Propitiation goes 
on the supposition of a previous oftence, which opposes the 
opinion of the Socinians. — iv rffi aOrou a/|aar/, in His own blood) 
This blood is truly propitiatory. Comp. Lev. xvi. 2, 13, etc. — 
E/'s fvBii^iii rjjff dixaioguvr}; aurou, to the declaration of [for the de« 
monstration of] Sis righteousness) This is repeated in the fol- 
lowing verse, as if it were after a parenthesis, for the purpose of 
continuing the train of thought ; only that instead of I/?, Latin 
in, there is used in the following verse vpog, ad, which implies a 
something more immediate,^ ch. xv. 2, Eph. iv. 12. — 'hSu^it 

' c!(, towards, with a view to; ■!rpo!,for, unth the effect of. — Ed. 

80 ROMANS III. 26. 

[demonstration], declaration) Comp. notes at ch. i. 17. — di& ry 
ita.pisn,for [Engl. Vers.] the pretermission \_passing hyj) Paul, in 
the Acts, and epistles to Ephesians, Colossians, and^ Hebrews, 
along with the other apostles, often uses atjueiv, remission : None 
but he alone, and in this single passage, uses vapsaiv, pretermis- 
sion ; and certainly not without some good reason. ^ There was 
remission even before the advent and death of Christ, ch. iv. 7, 
3 ; Matt. ix. 2, in so far as it implies the application of grace 
to individuals; but pretermission in the Old Testament had 
respect to transgressions, until {a.-ffoXbrpoieii) redemption of [or 
frorrh\ them was accomplished in the death of Christ, Heb. ix. 
15 ; which redemption, amXiiTpoien, itself is, however, sometimes 
also called a<pieii, Eph. i. 7. Jlapihai is nearly of the same im- 
port as vTipiSeiv, Acts xvii. 30. Hence, in Sir. xxiii. 3 (2) /in 
ipildiedai and fi,ii -Tcapiimi are parallel; for both imply the^wnM- 
ment of sin. Ed. Hoeschel, p. 65, 376. -napien, pretermission 
[the passing over or Jy.sins] is not an imperfect aptaig, remis- 
sion ; but the distinction is of quite a different sort ; abolition or 
entire putting away is opposed to the former (as to this abolition, 
ddsTridi;, see Heb. ix. 26), retaining to the latter, John xx. 23. 
Paul, at the same time, praises God's forbearance. The object of 
pretermission are sins ; the object of forbearance are sinners, 
against whom God did not prosecute His claim. So long as the 
one and other of these existed, the justice [righteousness] of God 
was not so apparent ; for He did not seem to be so exceedingly 
angry with sin as He really is, but appeared to leave the sinner 
to himself, &/mXi?v, to regard not. Heb. viii. 9 [rifisXtjea, " I re- 
garded them not"] ; but in the blood and atoning death ,of 
Christ, God's justice [righteousness] was exhibited, accom- 
panied with His vengeance against sin itself, that He might be 
Himself just, and at the same time accompanied with zeal for 
the deliverance of the sinner, that He might be Himself [at the 
same time also] the justifier ; and therefore very frequent men- 
tion of this vengeance and of this zeal is made by the prophets, 
and especially by Isaiah, for example, ix. 6, and Ixi. 2. And 
5/(i, on account of [not for, as Eng. vers.] that pretermission in 
the forbearance of God, it was necessary that at some time there 
ahould be made a demonstration [a showing forth, 'ivbu^iv] of His 

ROMANS III. 26, ?7. 61 

justice [righteousness]. — 'Trpoysyotiorav) of sins whicli had been 
committed, before atonement was made for them by the blood of 
Christ. Comp. again Heb. ix. 15. 

26. [ver. 25, Engl. Vers.] 'Ev, in marks the time of forbearance 
[but Engl. Vers., ihrougK\. The antithesis [to that, the time 
of forbearance] is, in the present time \}v rifi i/Dn xa/^w] where also 
the vuv, present, corresponds to the -xpo, before, in -irpoysyovoTuv — I'lg 
rh iTvai ahrh Slxaiov xai h'r/.aio\Jvra, that He might be just and the 
justifier) The justice of God not merely appeared, but really 
exercised itself in the blood-shedding of Christ. Comp. the 
notes on the preceding verse, ahrh, He Himself, in antithesis to 
the person to be justified. We have here the greatest paradox, 
which the Gospel presents ; for, in the law, God is seen as just 
and condemning ; in the Gospel, He is seen as being just 
Himself, and, at the same time, justifying the sinner. — rh Ix 
T/oTEws) him who is of faith \who believeth, Engl. Vers.] comp. 
the ix, ch. ii. 8, ,[lg Ipihlag, influenced by contention]. 

27. Tiotj, where) A particle showing the argument to be com- 
plete and unanswerable. 1 Cor. i. 20, xv. 55 ; comp. 2 Pet. 
iii. 4. — fj nab-xridii, boasting') of the Jew, over the Gentiles, 
towards God, ch. ii. 17, etc., iv. 2. He may boast, who can 
say, I am such as [all that] I ought to be, having fully attained 
to righteousness and life. The Jews sought for that ground for 
boasting in themselves. — bia, vom ns/iou) by what lawj supply 
i^ixXilg^tl sj xahyrr^eii, is boaHing excluded ; or rather, by what law 
is the thing [justification] accomplished ? A similar elHpsis is 
found at ch. iv. 16, \bi&, rouro ex 'irlgriag, therefore it is acconv- 
plished ofov by faith]. — ou^l, nay) Although a naan, according to 
the law, might have [i.e., supposing he might have] righteousness 
and a reward, yet he could riot boast before God ; comp. Luke 
xvii. 10 ; liow as it is, seeing that there is no righteousness to 
be had by the law, there remains much less room for boasting ; 
and boasting is much more excluded by the law of faith, than 
by the law of works. — vo/aou •xianag, the law of faiiH) An ap- 
propriate catachresis [change ^ in the application] of the word 
law. This [justification by faith] is also a law, inasmuch as 
being of Divine appointment, to which subjection [submission] 

' See Appendix. 

83 ROMANS in. 28. 

is due, ch. x. 3. [They have not submitted themselves to the 
righteousness of God]. 

28. Aoy,^6/ie6a yap) yaf for oui', in this sense : So far as 
regards these things ; for we wished to set it forth as fully 
proved, that it is hy faith, etc. Most copies read oh,^ but it 
seems to have been repeated from ver, 27, and ykf serves the 
purpose of the argument against boasting, which is now deduced 
from justification through faith, ver. 22.— -nr/m/, hy faith) 
Luther, allein durch den glauhen; hy faith alone, or rather only 
hy faith, as he himself explains, T. V. Jen. f. 141. Arith- 
metically expressed the demonstration stands thus : — 
The matter in dispute involves two elements. 

Faith and Works, . • 2 

Works are excluded, . . 1 

Faith alone remains, . . 1 

If one be subtracted from two, one remains [comp. ch. xi. 6]. 
So the /iom, only, is expressed at ver. 29 ; and so the LXX. 
added /to'vov, only in Deut. vi. 13, in accordance with [to com- 
plete] the Sense : with which <;omp. Matt. iv. 10. The Vulgate 
has solum, only. Job xvii. 1, etc., irkru\, hy faith alone, 
Basil., hom. 22, On Humility. In short, James, in discussing 
this very" subject, and refuting the abuse of the doctrine of 
Paul, adds i/,6\iov, only, ch. ii. 24. \And, in fact, volumes are on 
sale, abounding with testim,onies of persons who used the word 
allein, only, before the time of Luther. — ^V. g.] Justification 
takes place through faith itself, not in so far as it is faith [not 
in the fact of its being faith ; as if there were merit in itself] or 
a work of the law, but, in so far as it is faith of Christ, laying 
hold of Christ ; that is, in so far as it has in it something apart 
from the works of the Law. Gal, iii. 12. [^Take care, however, 
lest this point should he misunderstood. Faith alone justifies ; 
hut it neither is, nor does it remain alone ; it is constantly work- 
ing inwardly and outwardly. — V. g.] — avOpcimv) ^ti, any man 
whatever, Jew and Greek, with which comp. the following 
verse. So uvifuiroi, a man, 1 Cor. iv. 1. 

' BC and both Syr. Versions with EeCf Text oiJ». But kAGfg Vulg. 
and Memph. Vers, read yap. — ^Ed. 

ROMANS III. 29-31 88 

29. Na/ xal sSvuv, yea also of the Gentiles [altJiough they are 
without the law. — ^V. g.J, as nature teaches, and the Old Tes- 
tament prophecies. 

30. 'E.'irtiirip^ seeing that indeed) The inference is : if justifi- 
cation be by the law, then the Gentiles, who are without the 
law, cannot be justified ; and yet they also rejoice in God, as 
a justifier, ch. iv. 16. — i7s) iTs, i Qihg, one, namely God; the 
relative who depends on one, as its antecedent, — dixaitinsi, shall 
justify) The future, as we find it in many other passages, 
ch. i. 17, iii. 20, v. 19, 27 ; 2 Cor. iii. 8, therefore, we have 
in express terms, fiiXkovrog, that was to come, ch. v. 14 ; fiiXXei, 
will be, ch. iv. 24. Paul speaks as if he were looking forward 
out of the Old Testament [fi-om the Old Testament stand-point] 
into the New. It is to this that those expressions refer, ex. gr., 
foreseeing. Gal. iii. 8 ; the promise, ib. 14 ; the hope, ib. v. 5. 
So John is said to be about to come. Matt. xi. 14, xvii. 11 ; the 
wrath to come. Matt. iii. 7, where we have the discourse of the 
forerunner, which presupposes the threatenings.^ — Ix dia, of or 
out of [by, Engl. Vers.] — through) The Jews had been long ago 
in the faith ; the Gentiles had lately obtained faith from them. 
So through is used, ver. 22 ; Eph. ii. 8 ; of or out of [by, sx] in 
a number of passages. It is well [right] by all means to com- 
pare the same difference in the particles in ch. ii. 27 ; and dit 
ference in the thing signified [i.e., the different footing of the 
Jew and Gentile] ch. xi. 17, etc. — Si& rijg) He does not say, 
Sia rriv le'iSTiv, on account of faith, but through faith. 

31. Noitioi-, the law) This declaration is similar to the de- 
claration of our Lord, Matt. v. 17. — lgTufi,iv, we establish) while 
we defend [uphold] that which the law witnesseth to, ver. 20, 
21, and while we show, how satisfaction is truly made to the 
law through Christ. 

' So AG ; " quoniam quidem unus,"/P ^"'g- I""^"- 186, 259. But ABC 
Orig. 4,228o, read itirsp sis ; " si quidem unus," in g — Ed. 

2 i.e., the wrath to come is taken for granted from the Old Testament ; 
John's part is to warn them to flee from it. — Ed. 

54 ROMANS IV. 1, 2. 


1. T/' 'olii, what then) He proves from the example of 
Abraham ; 1, That justification is of grace [gratuitous] ; 2, That 
it has been provided for the Gentiles also, ver. 9. — rh irarspa 
ii/Lav, our father) [This, viz., his being our father, constitutes] 
the foundation of the consequence derived from Abraham to 
us. — ivpnKhai, hath found) It is apphed to something new 
Heb. ix. 12 [Engl. Vers., having obtained ; but Eupa.uswic, having 
found] ; and Paul intimates, that the way of faith is older than 
Abraham ; and that Abraham, in whom the separation from 
the Gentiles by circumcision took place, was the first from 
whom, if from any one, an example seemed capable of being 
adduced in favour of works ; and yet he, at the same time 
shows, that this very example [instance] is much more decisive 
in favour of faith ; and so he finally confirms by examples, Vfhat 
he had already established by arguments. — xara gdpxa, accord- 
ing [as pertaining, Engl. Vers.] to the flesh. Abraham is no- 
where called our father according to the flesh. Therefore, it [the 
clause, according to the JlesK] is not construed with father ; for 
the expression according to the flesh, is added in mentioning the 
fathers, only when the apostle is speaking of Christ, oh. ix. 5 ; 
and Abraham by and by, at ver. 11, is sho^-n to be the father 
of believers, even of those of whom he is not the father according 
to the flesh. The construction then is, hath found according to 
[as pertaining to] the flesh. In the question itself, Paul inserts 
something which has the effect of an answer, in order that he 
may not leave even the smallest countenance for [or, a moment 
of time to] the maintaining of Jewish righteousness, and for 
their boasting before God. 

2. e;, if) A particle implying reluctant concession [for ar- 
gument's sake]. — yap, for) [The yap expresses] the cause after 
the proposition, and the reason why, in ver. 1, he added the limi- 
tation, hath found as pertaining to ilieflesh.^ — '!rpog)'to, or before. 

' E| ipyap, from works) Abraham was before the law, hence Paul in- 
troduces no mention 'of the law, ver. 1-12. — V. g. 

ROMANS IV. 3-5. fi5 

He was not justified by works before God, and therefore, he has no 
ground of boasting before God ; but both Qiold good of him] ac- 
cording to the flesh. 

3. Tap, for) This word is to be referred to but not. — ij jeapij, 
the Scripture) The word Scripture is elegantly used. Moses 
does not speak in this passage, comp. ch. x. 5. — I^Vrsiurs hi 
'APpa&/jj, x.r.X.), Gren. xv. 6, Ixx., xal e-rleTiueev "A^pafi, x.r.'K. be- 
lieved in the promise of a numerous seed, and especially of the 
seed Christ, the seed of the woman, in whom aU the promises 
are yea and amen, and on whQse account a numerous seed had 
been desired. — kXoyMij) Xoyi2,ie^a,i, to number, to estimate, to 
consider, to reckon, signifies here the act of a gracious wiU. It 
is repeated in this passage with great effect : iXoyle^r}, the passive, 
as "KoyiX^irai, Ter. 4, 5, is reckoned. Heb. ; He reckoned it to him, 
namely, the fact [of his believing] or his faith ; for this is to be 
supplied irom the verb immediately preceding, believed. — lig) 
So ch. ii. 26 [counted /o?-] ; Acts xix. 27, notes. 

4. As) but [now]. Paul takes what is contrary [the case of him 
that worketK] out of.the way, so as to enable him, in the foUow- 
kig verse, to draw his conclusion regarding the man who does 
not trust to works, and to evince that Abraham was not such a 
one as he describes, by the words him that worketh. — Ipytc^o/ieviji, 
to him that worketh) if there were, indeed, any such [which there 
is not]. We must take both- expressions, him'that worketh and 
him that worketh not, in a reduplicative sense: to work, and 
wages, are conjugates in the Heb. pya- [The man that worketh, 
in this passage, applies to him who, by his works, performs (makes 
good) all that the law requires. — V. g.]. — /J>i<t6hi, reward), the an- 
tithesis to faith. — ospilXri/ia, a debt,hj virtue of a contract between 
the parties. Merit in its strictest sense so called, and debt, are 

5. Ton adi^n, the ungodly) This points out the excellence of 
faith, which hath established it so as that the ungodly are justi- 
fied, ch. V. 6. Compare and consider the end of ver. 17 of this 
chapter. Translate rhv agi^n, him who is ungodly. Justification 
belongs to individuals. This word is a most conclusive proof 
that Paul is speaking, even most especially, of the moral law, by 
the works of which no one can be justified. — xarA rnv -xpahen Ttjs 


very ancient translator^ of the Scriptures into Latin has this 
clause; following him, Hilarius, the deacon; then the scholiast 
on Jerome, etc. Beza acknowledges that it is exceedingly suit- 
able; for there is a manifest antithesis between, 7iot according to 
grace, but according to debt [ver. 4J etc., according to the purpose 
of the grace of God. The Greek transcribers might easily jump 
from xaric to xa^a^Ef [omitting xaT& r. crp6kgiv, etc.] During 
the time that intervened between the pubhcation of the Appara- 
tus and the Gnomon, I have advanced on without inconsistency 
to the embracing of this clause, to which Beza is not opposed. 
Baumgarten has put in his negative. I have stated my reasons : 
he has given his ; let those judge who are able. Paul sets in 
opposition to each other, works and vpohsiv, the purpose ; and at 
the very time too, when he is speaking definitely of certain 
believers, the subjects of that purpose, as in this passage, of 

6. Ka/, even) after the law was given by Moses. — Aau/S, David) 
David is very appositely introduced after Abraham, because both, 
being among the progenitors of the Messiah, received and pro- 
pagated the promise. No direct promise regai-ding the Messiah 
was given to Moses, because the latter (Christ) is placed in op- 
position to the former, and was not descended from the stem of 
Moses. — "kiyu rhv /j,a,xapiefi,hi) he [describes'] declares the blessedness 
of the man, ^axapl^a, I pronounce him blessed. The words are to 
be thus construed : Xsyii, declares without any reference to works ; 
that is, David, in recounting the ground of bestowing salvation 
on man, makes no mention at all of works. The argument de- 
rived from the silence of Scripture is often quite conclusive. 
But David, it may be said, immediately adds, and in his spirit 
there is no guile, which is all the same as an allegation of works. 
Ans. It is not all the same. This addition has no part in the 
definition of the subject, but forms a part of the predicate, 
although not even then would the merit of works be established ; 
for the thief who confesses his crime, and does not guileftilly 
deny it, does not merit pardon for his offence by that confession 
of his. But this is the meaning : blessed is the man to whom the 

' Some old copies of the Vulg. have the words. But the Cod. Amiafinus, 
iho oldest MS. of the Vulg., omit them. — Ed. 

KOMANS IV. 7-13. 67 

Lord hath not imputed sin : blessed is he, and i?i his spint there 
is no guile ; that is, he is sure of his condition, of the forgive- 
ness of his sins ; he may have good confidence ; his spirit, his 
heart does not deceive him, so as to hepome, as it were, a ncp 
n''Dn> a deceitful bow, Ps. Ixxviii. 57. The act of Phinehas was 
also imputed to him for righteousness, Ps. cvi. 31 ; not, indeed, 
in viewing it as a work : but it was, as it were, unmixed [mera] 
faith. He seemed neither to see nor hear anything else, by 
reason of his unmixed zeal, that he might maintain the honour 
of his God. 

7. 'A(pi6rii}av xtX) So the Lxx., Ps. xxxii. 1. The synony- 
mous words are, a<pieva.i, eirrAukv-irriiv, ou XoyiZtdiai, that sin com- 
mitted may be accounted as not committed. 

8. ''fl, to whom) Greater force is given to the sense, by the 
transition from the plural iiA the preceding, to the singular in 
this verse ; as also the more express mention of the man and of 
the Lord lends additional force. 

9. 'o) Paul comprehends in this what he lately said respect- 
ing Abraham and David. — ■Tripirof/.rjv) Does it come on the cir- 
cumcision only, by itself, to the exclusion of others ? or upon the 
circumcision also ? — >.syD/j,iv, we say, ver. 3. 

10. Xlui, how) This word implies more than when. — hux h 
TipiTofiri, not in circumcision) For justification is described. 
Gen. XV. ; circumcision. Gen. xvii. 

11. ^n,u,em, a sign) Circumcision itself was a sign, a mark, 
namely, imprinted on the body, and the expression, the sign of 
circumcision, is used just as taking of rest in sleep [xoifirisis r- 
uffvou], John xi. 13; and the virtue of piety, that is, piety a 
virtue. — 'iXajSe, received) obediently. — r^s h rjj) TTjg is to be con- 
strued with ■jrldTn^s; with which compare the next verse. — S! 
dxpolSvarlai) did, with ; as in ch. ii. 27 [not as Eng. vers. " hy 
the letter, and circumcision;" but ^with,' or 'in.' Eng. vers, 
here, Eom. iv. 11, renders ii& &xpol3, though they be not circum- 
cised}. 11, 12. naripa) the construction is, that he might be 
the father of all who believe with [i.e. being in] uncircumcision — 
and the father of the circumcision. Father and seed are cor- 

12. UipiroMg, o? circumcision) The Abstract for the concrete, 

68 ROMANS IV. 13, 14. 

particle, n. 30, 10, 15, 19, 22. Generally, it impUes as to [as 
regards, in relation to] ; so rZig, 1 John v. 16 ; Luke i. 50, 55. 
LXX. 1 Chron. xiii. 1 : /isra tuv ap^ovraiv xtX. -TravH rr/i>u/j,htfi, add 
to these passages 2 Chron. xxxi. 2, 16 ; Num. xxix. A.—oix. 
^/iovov) Abraham, therefore, is not the father of circumcision to 
such as are merely of the circumcision, and do not also follow the 
faith of Abraham. — h. mpiro/j.rn, of the circumcision) ex, of, means 
something more weighty than h, in. Circumcision was at least a 
sign, uncircumcision was not even a sign.^ — dXXa xal ToTg) so in 
ver. 16. — ''xveffi, in the traces [steps']) The traces of faith are 
opposed to the traces of outward circumcision ; the path is not 
trodden by many, but there are foot-traces found in it ; it is, 
however, an open way. 

13. Ou y&p dia vo/iov 71 i'TtayyiXia, for the promise was not through 
the law) This is evident in the very terms; and the promise 
was given before the law. Through the law, that is, through the 
righteousness of the law, but Paul did not wish in his statement 
to connect righteousness and the law. — Jj rSi eitipij^an, or to his 
seed) This constitutes the foundation of the consequence de- 
rived from Abraham to all believers. — rou x6s//,ov, of the world) 
and therefore of all pe7-sons and things. Comp. 1 Cor. iii. 21. 
Jleir of the world, is the same as father of all the riations, who 
accept the blessing. The whole world was promised to Abraham 
and to his seed conjointly throughout the whole world. The 
land of Canaan fell to the lot of Abraham, and so one part was 
allotted to one, and another to another. So also corporeal 
things are a specimen of things spiritual. Christ is heu' of the 
world, and of all things, Heb. i. 2, ii. 5, x. 5 ; Eev. xi. 15 ; and 
so also are they who believe in Him according to the example 
of Abraham, Matt. v. 5, notes. 

14. e;, if) The promise and faith complete the whole : and we 
ought not to add the law, as if it were something homogeneous. 
— o; k nS^ou, those who are of the law) This phrase recurs in a 
milder sense in ver. 16. — ^xiximrai — xarrjpynTai — made void — 
and of no effect), words synonymous but not interchangeable. 
Comp. Gal. iii. 17, 15 ; the word antithetic to these is sure 
l^eSdiav], ver. 16. Faith receives [ver. 11] blessings in all their 

' Therefore U is used with we/xTo^^f, h with aKpa^varla. Ed. 

ROMANS IV. 15-] 7. 53 

fulness, it is therefore said, on the opposite side, to be made 
void, to be of no effect. — viang — e^jrayyiXla, faith — the promise) 
words coiTelative : and they are appropriately put in retrograde 
order [comp. ver. 13] in an argument like the present, wherein 
is shown the absurdity which would flow from the opposite 
theory [by the reductio, or argumentwm ad absurdum]. 

15. Nof/iog, the lavj) It occurs twice in this verse ; first, with 
the article, definitely; next, indefinitely. — opynv, wrath) not 
grace, see the next verse. Hence the law is not of promise and 
of faith. — ouS's "Trapd^agig, there is not even transgression) He 
does not say, not even sin, comp. eh. v. 13, ii. 12 ; offence, ch. v. 
20, and transgression have a more express reference to the law 
which is violated. Transgression rouses wrath. 

16. 'Ex 'Tt'iBTiug, of faitJi) So Jx, ch. iii. 30, v. 1. Supply 
heirship (the heirship is of faith) comp. ver. 14. — Ix, nv vo/iou, 
of the law) so of the circumcision, ver. 12, where the not only 
belongs to of the circumcision, but in this verse, not only refers 
to the expression, to that seed which. 

17.^ "On — Tshix.d si) so the LXX., Gen. xvii. 5. The con- 
struction, rehixd -ei, xarivavri — ©sou, is like the following, ha 
iidtJTi, apov, Matt. ix. 6. Comp, Eom. xv. 3 ; Acts i. 4. — 
xaTemvTi — &iou, before God) since those nations did not yet 
exist, before men. — o5), that is, xarhavTi ©sou, ^ e-!rt<trevsi, before 
God, in whom he believed. — Z,ooo'?roiovvrog, quickening) Heb. xi. 19, 
notes. The dead are not dead to God, and things which be 
not, are to God. — xaXowrog, calling) The seed of Abraham did 
not yet exist, nevertheless God said. So shall thy seed be. 
The multiplication of the seed presupposes the previous exist- 
ence of the seed. For example, the centurion says to his servant, 
who was living and moving in the natural course of the world. 
Do this ; but God says to the light, whilst it is not in existence, 
just as if it were. Come forth, yevov, come into existence. 
Thrak of that often recurring and wonderful 'Ti'', Gen. i., it ex- 
presses the transition from non-existence to existence, which is 
produced by God calling, Ezek. xxxvi. 29. 

» v»T^p ■ni.nm iifiZii, father of us all). Hence it is, Jthat although 
Christ is said to be the Son of David, yet believers are not called the sons 

60 ROMANS IV. 18-23. 

18-21. "O;, who) Paul shows, that the faith, to which justi- 
fication is ascribed, is no frail thing, but an extraordinary 

18. Jlap' iXvlSa i-!r skiribi iirierivcfiv, past [against] hope 
believed in hope) We lay hold of one and the same object both 
by faith and 6y hope ; bi/ faith, as a thing, which is truthfully 
enunciated [proclaimed] ; by hope, as an object of joy, which 
for certain both can and will be realized. He believed in the 
hope of the promise, past [beyond, ' prseter'] the hope of reason, 
[which reason would have suggested]. -jrapdi, and kvl, past 
[against] and in, the particles opposed to each other, produce a 
striking oxymoron.^ — o'lirug, so) as the stars. Gen. xv. 5. LXX. 
also, o'-jTug.- — COM. Comp. Gal. iii. 8, notes. 

19. M)) aehviigac., being not weak) Reason [had he hearkened 
to it] might have afforded causes of weakness. — sauroij — ^appag, 
his own — of Sarah's) The old age of both the husband and 
wife, and the previous barrenness of the latter, increase the 
difficulty, and prove the birth of Isaac to have been miraculous. 
The course of the history shows, that Sarah gave birth to Isaac 
only [not save, ' nonnisi'] in conjunction with Abraham. The 
renewed vigour of his body remained even in his marriage with 
Keturah. — IxaTovrairris m\j, when he was about a hundred years 
old) After Shem, we read of no one begetting children, who 
was a hundred years of age. Gen. xi. 

20. E/f, at) The promise was the foundation of his confi- 
dence. — ou diexpiSrj, did not [stagger or] doubt) It is clear, what 
doubt is, from its opposite was strong. We should observe, that - 
it is the reverse of doubting.— goC;, giving) These things, 
giving glory to God, and being fully persuaded, are veiy closely 
connected.— Sogav) the glory of truth (its opposite is stigmatized 
in 1 John v. 10, in the case of him, who does not believe) and 
of power. 

22. dih, therefore) namely, because he gave glory to GoD. 



23. A(' auTh, for his sake) who was dead long before. 

en, that. 

A/' ii/,for us) who ought to be stirred up by the example oi 
Abraham. — ^V. g. 

' See Appendix. 

ROMANS IV. 24. V. 1. 61 

24. 'Eyilpcx.yra, Him, who raised up) Comp. v. 17, quickening 
the dead. The faith of Abraham was directed to that, which 
was about to be, and which could come to pass, ours to that 
which has actually taken place ; the faith of both, is directed to 
the Quickener [Him, who makes alive]. 

XlapMSn, was delivered) so the LXX. Is. liii. 12, xal &ia. 
ras avo/ilag auruv iraptdoiri, and for their iniquities He was delivered 
up. God is not said to have inflicted death upon Christ ; 
although He inflicted on Him [put Him to] griefs ; but [God is 
said] to have delivered up Christ, or else Christ is said to have died, 
ch. viii. 34. I do not deny the fact itself, see Zech. xiii. 7 ; but the 
phrases are moulded in such a way that theyrather express that the 
passion was enjoined upon Christ by the Father, as also that the 
death was obediently endured by Christ to the utmost [' exantlata;' 
the cup of suffering to death drained to the dregs]. — Suaium, justi- 
fication) a verbal noun, differing from Sixaioevvri, righteousness. 
Faith flows from the resurrection of Christ, and so also does 
justification. Col. ii. 12 ; 1 Pet. i. 21. The ground on which 
our belief in God rests, is, that He has raised Jesus Christ irom 
the dead. Yet this ground of beHef does not impair the truth, 
that the obedience of Jesus Christ, and His own blood, is the 
spurce of our justification. See ch. iii. 25, v. 19. 


1. AixaiuShris ouv Ix mareu;, therefore being justified hy faith) 
This clause is a recapitulation of the preceding reasonings ; comp. 
justification, ch. iv. 25. — I'lprjvnv, peace) we are no longer enemies, 
ver. 10, nor do we fear wrath, ver. 9, we have peace and we glory, 
which is the principal topic of Chapters, v. vi. vii. viii. [Hence 
Paul so often puts peace by the side of grace. — ^V. g.] — -^^ph, to) 
towards, in relation to; God embraces us in the arms of peace. — 
roD) Paul gives the full title, our Lord Jesus Christ, especially at 
the beoinninior or end of anv discussion, ver. 11, 21, vi. 11, 23, 

as ROMANS V. 2-4. 

which last verse, however [vi. 23] is more closely connected with 
those that go before, than with those that follow,^ at the begin- 
ning of which, the word brethren is placed [ch. vii. 1]. 

2. npoeayuyn^, access) Eph. ii. 18, iii. 12.—l<ixr^afi,iv, we have 
had) the preterite antithetic to the present, we have, ver. 1. 
Justification is access unto grace; peace is the state of permanent 
remaining in grace, which removes the enmity. So, accordingly, 
Paul in his salutations usually joins thfim together, grace to you 
and peace; comp. Num. vi.i25, 26. It comprehends both the 
past and present; and, presently after, speaking of hope, the 
future; wherefore construe the words in this connection, we 
have peace and we [rejoice] glory. — In j), in which) Grace 
always remains grace; it never becomes deht. — Iffr^xa/tsv, we 
have stood) we have obtained a standing-place. — -/.avyui^iia, 
[rejoice] we glory) in a manner new and true ; comp. ch. iii. 27. 
— sv kX-jTiSi Ttje So^V'S "u ®iou, in [over, concerning, 'super'] hope 
of the glory of God) comp. ch. iii. 23, viii. 30; Jude, ver. 24. 
Christ in us, the hope of glory. Col. i. 27 ; John xvii. 22. There- 
fore, glory is not glorying itself, but is its surest object, as regards 
the ftiture. 

3. KauxdM'^Dc} we [rejoice] glory) Construe with ver. 11, 
see notes there. — h raTg 6}.!-^i(Siv, in tribulations) Tribulations 
during the whole of this Ufe seem to deliver us up to death, 
[ver. 12], not to glory, and yet not only are they not unfavourable 
to hope, but even afford it assistance. — ictto/aouji/ xaripyd^era,/, 
worketh patience [patient perseverance]) namely in the case of 
believers ; for in the case of unbelievers the result is rather 
impatience and apostacy. Patience is not learned without 
adversity ; it [patience] is the characteristic of a mind not only 
ready [prompt in resolution], but also of one courageous [hardy] 
in endurance. 

4. 'H di hm/j,ovfi doxi/i^v) Again, conversely, rh doxl/j^iov r^s 
mariciig, bmiMvrjv. [The trying of your faith, or experience, worketh 
patience] James i. 3, It will be difficidt to find an instance of 
any one having used hoxifin before Paul : ioxi/Ln is the quality of 
that man, who is doxi/iog. — [ — who has been proved through various 

casualties and trying circumstances of peril. — ^V. g.] Soxi/itI 

iXiri&a, experience, hope) Heb. vi. 9, 10, 11 ; where ver. 10 
illustrates Soxi/j^fi, experience : ver. 9, 11, illustrate hope. Comp. 


Eev. iii. 10. — iXmSa, hope) to which our attention is directed 
at the end of ver. 2. The discourse returns in a circle [revert- 
ing to hope, from which he started in ver. 2] ; and it is to this 
whole [i.e., from rejoice, in ver. 2, to maketh not ashamed, ver. 
5] that the Aetiology^ [reason assigned by the"] because, at 
ver. 5, refers. 

5. OO xaraig^vvii, does not make ashamed) We have here 
an instance of the figure Tavihueig, [by which less is said than 
the writer vrishes to be understood] ; that is, hope affords us 
grounds for the highest glorying, and vdll not prove fallacious ;' 
hope will be a reality. — iJr;, because) The [believer's] present 
state is described, ver. 5-8. From this, hope as to the future is 
inferred, ver. 9—11. — n aya.'sn) [not our love to God, but] the 
love [of God] iii 71/jMg, toward us ; [as proved by] ver. 8 ; from 
which we derive our hope ; for it [God's love] is an eternal love 
— Ixxi^urai, is shed abroad) most abundantly ; whence we have 
this very feeling aiceridig [Sense, perception of His love] — h raTg 
xapdiafg, in our hearts) not into our hearts. This form of ex- 
pression indicates, that the Holy Spirit Himself is in the heart 
of the believer — 8ia, through [byj) We have the reason assigned 
for the whole of our present condition, in which the Holy Spirit 
is the earnest of the ftiture. [The Holy Spirit is here mentioned 
for the first time in this discussion. When a man is really 
brought to this point, he at length perceives distinctly (in a marked 
manner) the operation of the Holy Spirit. — V. g.] — doHvrog) 
given, through faith. Acts xv. 8 ; Gal. iii. 2, 14. 

6. "Er/, as yet) This is to be construed with ovtqiv, when we 
were. — y&p, for) The marvellous love of God is set forth. — 
dshvaiv, powerless [without strength]) ' A.e6'i\iiia is that [want of 
strength] powerlessness which characterises a mind when made 
ashamed (comp. the beginning of ver. 5) which [powerlessness] 
is opposed to glorying [ver. 2, 3] (comp. notes on 2 Cor xi. 
30) ; we have the antithetic word at ver. 11, [we glory (joy) in 
God] where this paragraph also, which begins with the words, 
being without strength, returns in a circle to the point, from which 
it started. There was powerlessness, and that a deadly power- 
lessness (comp. 1 Cor. XV. 43), on the part of — 

1 .Qdo a r»TionfIiT 

C4 ROMANS T. 7. 

The ungodly,') ,, -^ jy i. ( Good men. 

^ ■'' r the opposite or whom, re- i „, . , 
Sinners, > ^- -t . { The righteous. 

Enemies, ) r Ji (.The reconciled. 

See on the powerlessness and on the strength of glorying \i.e., the 
powerlessness of the ungodly, and the strength of glorying of the 
righteous] Ps. Ixviii. 2, and the following verses ; [Ixxi. 16, civ. 
35] Is. xxxiii. 24, eh. xlv. 24 ; 1 Cor. i. 31 ; Heb. ii. 15. Add 
the verbal parallelism, 2 Cor. xi. 2\.'—-xara, xaip'ov a.m6avi, in due 
time died) nnjja, xara zaiphv, Is. Ix. 22. When our powerlessness 
had reached its highest point, then Christ died, at the time which 
God' had previously determined, and in such a manner, that 
He died neither too soon nor too late (comp. the expression in 
the time that now is [at this time'] ch. vii. 26), and was not held 
too long [longer than was needful] under the power of death. 
Paul fixes the limits [of the due time'] and he cannot speak in 
this passage of the death of Cbrist, without, at the same time, 
thinking of the counsel of God, and of the resurrection of 
Christ, ver. 10, ch. iv. 25, viii. 34. The question, why Christ 
did not come sooner, is not an idle question ; see Heb. ix. 26 ; 
Gal. iv. 4 ; Eph. i. 10 ; Mark i. 15, xii. 6, just as also the 
question, why the law was not given sooner, is no idle question, 
ver. 14. 

7. Aixaiov. rou ayaSou) Masculines ; with which comp. ver. 6, 
8, as Th. Gataker rightly shows. Book 2, Misc. c. 9, but in 
such a way, that he thinks them to be merely synonymous. 
When there is any doubt respecting the pecuHar force of an ex- 
pression, and a difference between words, it will be of much 
advantage if you either suppose something in the mean'while, or 
transpose the words. Accordingly, by transposing the words 
in this passage, we shall read : /to'^'S yap vtrip dyadou ng amSotr- 
utra.1, iirep ykp Bixalou ra.-xf'- rig xal toX/jl^ amSavliv, for scarcely 
for a good man will one die, for peradventure for a righteous man, 
some one would even dare to die) suppose, to wit, also, that 
ayaSou is put without the article. You vnR immediately per- 
ceive the disadvantage to the sense, with which this change would 
be attended, and it will appear evident, that there is both 
some difference between Bixam and aya6ov, and a great one 
between dlxccwv and rhv ayaShv, wheresoever that difference in 
the consecirtive words may be found hereafter. In fact the 

KOMANS V. 7. 66 

ai'ticle so placed, makes a climax. Every good man is right- 
eous; but every righteous man is not good. Gregory Thau- 
maturgus; -Tripl rroXKou xai TOT iravrog. Chrysostom; //^ixpii raura TO litibiv, those things of little importance, and that which is 
of no importance whatever. The Hebrews call a man pHS, who 
performs his lawful duties ; T'DH, who performs acts of kindness. 
The Greeks call the former bUaiog ; the latter, oirios ; comp. plX 
and nuj?) Zeph. ii. 3, but in this passage we have not ialou, but 
rou dyaSou. Wherefore the distinction between the Hebrew 
words does not determine the point. But this much is certain, 
that just as Sawg, so also ayaShg expresses more than dixaios. 
(See Matt. v. 45, and lest they should be thought there also to 
be merely synonymous, try that same transposition, and it will 
be seen, that to make mention of the genial sun in connection 
with the just, and the useful rain in connection with the good, is 
not so suitable [as the converse order of the original], likewise 
Luke xxiii. 50.) And so Paul, in this passage, judges rhv 
ayaShv, the good man to be more worthy, that one should die for 
him, than Sixamv, a righteous man. 'AeijBui [ver. 6] and o ayaSig, 
the ungodly and the good man, also Slxaiog and d/iafn-aXol [ver. 8], 
a righteous man and sinners, are respectively opposed to each 
other. What, then, is the result ? dlxaiog, indefinitely, implies 
a harmless [guiltless] man ; i ayoiShg, one perfect in all that piety 
[duty towards God and man] demands, excellent, bounteous, 
princely, blessed, for example, the father of his country.— i«p 
'yap) here yap has a disjunctive force, of which we have many 
examples.— ra;i^a, rig, xal, r6X/ji,f, peradventure, one, even, dares) 
These several words amplify that which is stated in ver. 8 ; ra^" 
(instead of rayj^fo) diminishes the force of the affirmation ; rh, 
one, is evidently put indefinitely ; nor is it regarded [nor does it 
enter into the consideration], whether the person, who may die 
for a just or for the good man, is in a state of wrath or of grace ; 
y.a/, even, concessive, shows, why it is not said simply, dies, as if 
it were a daily occurrence ; but that the writer should rather 
say, dares to die, inasmuch as it is something great and unusual. 
roX/iS, dares, as though it were .an auxiliary verb, corresponds to 
the fiiture, will one die ; dares [endures to], ventures.— d'roda)'?/!', 
to die) Dost thou wish to have the steadiest friends? be a good 

VOL. III. ^ 

66 KOMANS V. 8-11. 

8. 2uwVr»](f/) commends ; a most elegant expression. Persons 
are nsually [commended] recommended to us/ who were pre- 
viously unknown to us or were aliens [strangers]. Comp. He 
descended into tl\e midst [He stooped do^^-n to interpose between 
us and Himself^ (if^iekivie) Heb. vi. 17.— 5s, hut) This com- 
parison presupposes that God's love toward Christ, is as great 
as God's love toward Himself. Therefore the Son is equal to 
God.—a/j,apru\uv, sinners) We were not only not good, but not 
even righteous. 

9. AixaiaSivTig, Being justified) The antithesis to sinners, ver. 
8. — vuv, now) The remembrance of Jesus Christ's death was at 
that time fresh among behevers. — a-?rb r^g opyng, from wrath) 
which otherwise does not cease : wrath abides upon those who 
do not attain to grace. 

10. e;, [since] if) Often el, if, especially in this and the 
eighth chapter of this epistle, does not so much denote the con- 
dition as strengthen the conclusion. 

11. Kauj/w^E^a, weglory (Joy)) The whole discourse from ver. 
3 to 11 is comprehended in one construction, thus : oh /j,6m &e, 
aXka, xa! zai;;^w/iE^a h T&ig iXi'^im (e'lhorig ver. 3 — h rrt ^wJj aurou 
— ver. 10) ou ijjOVOV hi, aXka. xal xav^d/LeSa h rj5 Qeui x.t.X. So the 
edition of Colinaeus, Barb. 4, cod. MS. in colleg. prsedicatorum 
apud Basileam, Bodl. 5. Cov. 2. L. Pet. 1. Steph. la. Aeth. Arab. 
Vulg. make the words oh fiomv di, aXXA xot.1 xotfU^ufieSot, be repeated 
after a long intervening parenthesis [by epanalepsis,^ Not. crit.], 
and the sense, suspended by it, be most elegantly and most 
sweetly completed, according to the following arrangement of 
the apostle, although it was only lately that we discovered it, 
We have peace, and we glory not only in the hope of the glory of 
God; but, even in the midst of tribulations, we glory, I say, in 
God Himself, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have 
NOW [opp. to Hope above] received the atonement [reconciliation']. 
Most of the more recent copies have made it Kavx<i/^evoi, as if the 
construction were, being reconciled, we shall be saved and glorying; 
according to the reading, which is more generally received.^ — li 
Tif> 0£t», in God) not before God, ch. iv. 2. — rriv xaraX\ot,y^v) the 

' See Appendix. 

' BOA, the weightiest auHiorities, read xauxiifieuoi. Gfg Vulg. read 
vecixiifiiv, gloriamur. Others, x,»v)(,u^tSiii.—%D. 

ROMANS V. 12. 67 

reconciliation. Glorying as to love, which means something more 
[than merely reconciliation'] follows upon the reconciliation and 
deliverance from wrath.-"^ 

12. Aioi Touro, wherefore) This has regard to the whole of the 
preceding discussion, from which the apostle draws these con- 
clusions concerning sin and righteousness, herein making not so 
much a digression as a regression. In imitation of Paul's method, 
we must treat, in the first place, of actual sin, according to the 
first and following chapters, and then go back to the source in 
which sin originated. Paul does not speak altogether expressly 
of that which theologians call original sin ; but, in truth the sin 
of Adam is sufficient to demonstrate man's guilt ; the very many, 
and most mournful fruits resulting from it, are sufficient for the 
demonstration of man's habitual corruption. And man, in con- 
sequence of justification, at length looks back upon, and appre- 
hends the doctrine concerning the origin of evil, and the other 
things connected with it. This second part, however, is in 
special connection with the first part of this chapter ; comp. the 
■much more, which reigns [ver. 17] on both sides [i.e. grace reign- 
ing and triumphing abundantly over both original sin and habir- 
tual corruption] ; ver. 9, etc., 15, etc., for the very glorying of 
believers is exhibited ; comp. ver. 11 \we glory, or Engl. vers, we 
joy] with ver. 21. The equality, too, of Jews and Gentiles, and 
consequently of all men, is herein included. — ueitip, as) The 
Protasis, which the words and so continue ; for it is not so also 
that follows [which would follow, if the apodosis began here]. 
The apodosis, from a change in the train of thoughts and words, 
is concealed in what follows. — Mpdimv, man) Why is nothing 
said of the woman ? Ans. 1. Adam had received the command- 
ment. 2. He was not only the Head of his race, but also of 
Eve. 3. If Adam had not listened to the voice of his wife, not 
more than one would have sinned. Moreover, why is nothing 
said of Satan, who is the primary cause of sin ? Ans. 1. Satan 
is opposed to God ; Adam to Christ ; moreover, here the economy 
of grace is described as it belongs to Christ, rather than as it be- 
longs to God : therefore, God is once mentioned, ver. 15 ; Satan 

' The atonement, Engl. Vers. But r^u implies "the reconciliation," 
already spoken of ver. 10, reconciled. — Er. 

68 EOMANS V. 13. 

is never mentioned. 2. What has Satan to do with the grace of 
Christ l—i, &wr!a-6 6&va.T,i, sin— death) These are two distinct 
evUs, which Paul discusses successively at very great letigth.— 
e/s rhv x6s/Lov) into this world, which denotes the human race— 
sleriXk, entered) hegan to exist in the world ; for it had not pre- 
viously existed outside of the world.— ;£«/' S'a, and by) Therefore, 
death could not have entered before sin.— xa/ oS™?) and so, 
namely, by one man.— s/'s) unto [or upon"} all, ■whoQ.j.—dmXhv, 
passed) when sin once entered, which had not been in the world 
from the beginning.— Ip' w) 'Ep' w with the verb fi/j,apTov has the 
same signification, as Si& with the genitive, rrjs a/Mapria;. The 
meaning is, tJirough the fact that, or in other words, inasmuch as 
all have sinned, comp. the i<p' ^, 2 Cor. v. 4, and presently 
after, the other J^/, occurring in ver. 14. — Tavri;) all without 
exception. The question is not about the particular sin of indi- 
viduals ; but in the sin of Adam all have sinned, as all died in 
the death of Christ for their salvation, 2 Cor. v. 15. The Targum 
on Ruth, ch. iv., at the end : bjl On account of the counsel, which 
the serpent gave to Eve, all the inhabitants of the earth became sub- 
ject to death, sniD U^nnx, Targum on Eccl. ch. vii., at the end, 
J7ie serpent and Eve made the day of death rush suddenly upon 
man and upon all the inhabitants of the earth. Sin precedes 
death ; but the universality of death becomes known earlier than 
the universality of sin. This plan of arrangement is adopted 
with respect to the four clauses in this verse. 

13. "A-xpi, until) Sin was in the world, not only after the law 
was given by Moses, but also during the whole period before 
the law from Adam down to Moses, during which latter period 
sinners sinned without the law, ch. ii. 12, for the condition of all 
before Moses, and of the Gentiles subsequently [after Moses' 
time], was equal ; but this sin was not, properly speaking, the 
cause of death : because there is no imputation of sin without 
the law, and consequently there is no death ; comp. ver. 20. The 
sin committed by Adam, entailing evil on all, is called the sin 
(fi afiaprici) twice in the preceding verse ; now, in this verse, sin 
in general is called afiapria without the article. — oux iXXoylirai, 
is not imputed) The apostle is not speaking here of men's negli- 
gence, which disregards sin in the absence of a law, but of the 
Divine judgment, because sin is not usually taken into any 

ROMANS V. 14. eg 

account, not even into the Divine account, in the absence of the 
law. — Comp. iXXoyii, impute, or put it to my account, Philem. v. 
18, note. Sin therefore does not denote notorious crimes, such 
as those, for which the inhabitants of Sodom were punished 
before the time of Moses, but the common evil. Chrysostom on 
this passage shows exceedingly well, what Paul intended to prove 
by this argument, on oux avrfi ^ u/iapTia Trjg roD vo/iou vapa^deitag, 
dXX.' hiivri ri rris rou ASSi^j, irapoucorig, avrn ?v ^ Tavra Xv/iam/i'iiiti, xal 
rig fj roirou a'7r6Sii^J5 ; rj xal irph roD vo/iov -Travrag dirohfigxeiv, " that 
it was not the very [actual] sin of transgressing the law, but 
that of the disobedience of Adam — this was the sin that brought 
universal destruction, and what is the proof of this ? The fact 
that all died before the giving of the law." 

14. 'E^aalXsvei, reigned) Chrysostom says, -rus s^asiXiueev ; 
h T!fi liiJ,(>iiA)fj.ari rijs>t,^a,(!i<ai 'ASd//,. " How did it reign? in the 
likeness of Adam's transgression." He therefore construed in 
the likeness with reigned ; and no doubt [deatK] reigned, J say, 
may be supplied [before the words in the likeness of Adards 
transgression^ ; comp. vi. 5. A reign is ascribed to death, as 
well as power, Heb. ii. 14. Scarcely indeed has any sovereign 
so many subjects, as are the many even kings whom death has 
taken away. It is an immense kingdom. This is no Hebraism ; 
sin rules ; righteousness rules. — a^J — f'^XP') fi'om — until) The 
dispensation respecting the whole human race is threefold. 
1. Before the law. 2. Under the law. 3. Under grace. Men 
severally experience the power of that dispensation, chap. vii. — 
xa/, even) The particle indicates a species of persons subject to 
death, whom death might have seemed likely to spare in prefer- 
ence to all others ; and so therefore it establishes the universa- 
lity of death. \Not only against ihQse, he says, who committed 
many sins after the age of Moses, which were to be reckoned to 
them according to the law, hut even against those, long before, who 
did not commit such sins — V. g.J. — sm', over) This is a para- 
dox ; death reigned over those who had not sinned. Paul shows an 
inclination to use such paradoxes in speaking of this mystery, 
comp. V. 19 ; 2 Cor. v. 21 ; Eom. iv. 5. — rods m ccfijapTrieavras, 
those who had not sinned) All indeed from Adam to Moses have 
committed sins, although some were virtuous, others profligate ; 
but because they sinned without law, without which sin is not 

70 ROMANS V. 14. 

reckoned, they are spoken of as those, who had not sinned : but 
Adam is spoken of as the one who sinned, ver. 16. Observe, if 
these seven precepts of Noah, were what they are said to be, 
Paul would have described those who had not sinned, from Adam 
to Noah, not to Moses. — o/to;w/ian, in the likeness) As Adam, 
when he transgressed the law, died, in like manner also they died, 
■who did not transgress, or rather, who did not sin ; for Paul varies 
the words in speaking of Adam, and of all others. This is the 
conclusion ; That men died before the law, is a thing which 
befell them on account of the similitude of Adam's transgression ; 
that is, Because the ground on which they stood, and on which 
Adam stood, [their footing and that of Adam] was one and the 
same : — they died on account of another gmlt, not on account 
of that, which they themselves had contracted, namely, the 
guUt which had been contracted by Adam. In fact, the death 
of many is ascribed directly to the faU of the one, ver. 15. Thus 
it is not denied, that death is the wages of any sin whatever ; 
but it is proved, that the primary cause of death was the first 
sin. It is this fact, which has brought us to destruction, just as 
the robber, who has plundered his victim, after having murdered 
him, is punished for the murder, and yet he did not commit the 
robbery with impunity, since the punishment of the robbery 
merged in the punishment of the murder ; but, as compared with 
the greater punishment of murder, it was scarcely taken into 
account. — 'aSA^, of Adam) In this one verse we have the name 
of the individual 'ASa/i, in all the others, the appellative noun, 
man. But, while the name of Adam is consigned to oblivion, 
the name of Jesus Christ is distinctly preached [proclaimed] 
ver. 15, 17. — o's Iffn ruTos roO ijiXkovTog) og for 6, which thing, agrees 
in gender with rums : that which was to come, rh /liXXov, is in the 
neuter gender [But Eng. vers., " of Him, that was to come."] 
HenCe what is said respecting the fiiture, ver. 17, 19. T his 
paragraph from ver. 12 by implication contains the whole com- 
parison of the first and second Adam, so far as they correspond 
to each other ; for what follows refers to the diflferences between 
them, and the apodosis should be inferred from the protasis in 
this manner at ver. 12 : [As by one man sin entered — and death, 
etc.], so in hke manner by one man righteousness entered into the 
world and by righteousness life ; and so Hfe passed upon all men, 

ROMANS V. 15. 71 

because all are justified. And at ver. 14, All shall reign in life, 
after the similitude of Christ, who has rendered aU obedience ; 
although those who thus reign have not by themselves fiilfilled 
all righteousness [answering to the words " even over theni,"etc., 
and ' nevertheless' in ver. 14.] Again Chiysostom says, •rS? 
ruffof ; frjUiv. Sri Sieisif Ijie/vos ro/j l§ aurotj, xalro/yi firi <payo\ieiv o.'kI 
rou ^liXou, ysyoKSn airio; Savdrou to\j di& rjji/ ^pZgiv iigay^SivTo;. curs; 
xal Xfierhg roTg £§ aurou, xairoiys o\i hi^aiO'ffpajrjSaai, yiyeve •Trpo^ivog 
Sixaioevvrjg, j)i/ Si& rou droivpoij iradiv 7\iMi lyafUa.rv SiSt, rouro ava xal 
A&ru roD bJs iyirai, xai auvi^Zg touto iig /jt,i<fov f'spst. " How is he 
a type or figure 1 because just as that man [Adam] has become 
the source of death, which was brought in by the eating of the 
forbidden finiit, to those descended firom him, although they had 
not eaten of the fruit of that tree, so also Christ has become the 
provider of righteousness to those belonging to Him, although 
they have not performed what is righteous ; aiid this righteous- 
ness He has fi?eely bestowed upon us all by the cross ; therefore 
One thing, and perpetually brings it into view." We may 
farther add; as the sm of Adam, independently of the sins, 
which we afterwards committed, brotight death upon us, so the 
righteousness of Christ, independently of good works, which are 
afterwards performed by us, procures for us life ; nevertheless, 
as every sin receives its appropriate punishment, so every good 
action receives a suitable reward. 

15. 'axx' olix, but not) Adam and Christ, according to con- 
trary aspects [regarded from contrary points of view], agree in 
the positive [absolutely], differ in the com'parative [in the 
degree]. Paul first intimates their agreement, ver. 12-14, ex- 
pressing the protasis, whilst leaving the apodosis, meanwhile, to 
be understood. Then next, he much more directly and ex- 
pressly describes the difference : moreover, the offence and the gift 
differ; 1. In extent, ver. 15 ; 2. That self-same man firom whom 
sin was derived, and this self-same Person, fi"om whom the gift 
was derived, differ in power, ver. 16 ; and these two members are 
connected by anaphora [i.e., repeating /at the beginning, the 
same words] not as, [at the beginning of both] ver. 15 and 16, 
and the aetiology in ver. 17 [cause assigned; on aetiology, and 
anaphora, see Appendix] comprehends both. Finally, when 

7a KOMANS V. 15. 

he has previously stated this difference, in the way of -rpohpa- 
Tii'cx, [see Appendix ; Anticipatory, precaution against misunder- 
standing], he iutroduces and follows up by protasis and apodosis 
the comparison itself, viewed in the relation of effect, ver. 18, 
and in the relation of cause, ver. 19. — ri irapavrdfia — rh x«'P">/^<^, 
the offence — the gift) The antitheses in this passage are to be 
observed with the utmost care, from which the proper significa- 
tion of the words of the apostle is best gathered. Presently 
after, in this verse, and then in ver. 17, the gift is expressed by 
synonymous terms. — o'l mXXol, the many) this includes in its 
signification all, for the article has a meaning relative to all, 
ver. 12, comp. 1 Cor. x. 17. — ^ %af'Sj grace) Grace and the 
gift differ, ver. 17 ; Eph. iii. 7. Grace is opposed to the offence; 
the gift is opposed to the words, they are dead, and it is the gift 
of life. The Papists hold that as grace, which is a gift, and 
what follows grace, as they define it, they do not consider as a 
gift, but as merit. But all is without money or price of ours 
[the whole, from first to last, is of grace, not of debt or merit of 
ours]. — £11 %a^;T-/ XpigTou, in the grace of Christ) see Matt. iii. 17 ; 
Luke ii. 14, 40, 52 ; John i. 14, 16, 17 ; Gal. i, 6 ; Eph. i. 5, 
6, 7. The grace of God is the grace of Christ, conferred by the 
Father upon Christ, that it may flow from Him to us. — Ttj tou) 
Articles most forcible. Col. i. 19 : rjj especially, is very pro- 
vidently [to guard against mistake] added ; for if it were want- 
ing, any one, in my opinion, might suppose that the wttrds of 
one, depended on the word gift, rather than on grace. As it is, 
[the Tjj being used] it is evident that the grace of God, and the 
grace of Jesus Christ, are the things predicated ; comp. similarly, 
viii. 35, 39, concerning love [the attribution of it, both to God 
and to Christ, as here], — bhs av6p(Mou, of one man) Paul (more 
than the other apostles, who had seen Him before His passion) 
gladly and purposely calls Jesus man, in this His work, as man 
for man, 1 Cor. xv. 21 ; 1 Tim. ii. 5. Can the human nature 
of Christ be excluded from the office of Mediator? When 
Paul in this verse calls Christ man, he does not give that appel- 
lation to Adam ; and ver. 19, where he gives it to Adam, he 
does not bestow it upon Christ (comp. Heb. xii. 18, note). 
The reason is, doubtless, this, both Adam and Christ do not 
sustain our manhood at the same time ; and either Adam ren- 

ROMANS V. 16, 17. 73 

dered himself unworthy of the name of man ; or the name of 
man is scarcely sufficiently worthy of Christ. Moreover, Christ 
is generally denominated from His human natm-e, when the 
question is ahout bringing men to God, Heb. ii. 6, etc. : from 
His Divine nature, when the subject under discussion is the 
coming 0^ the Saviour to us, and the protection which He 
affords us, against our enemies, Tit. ii. 13. No mention is here 
made of the Mother of Grod ; and if her conception was neces- 
sarily immaculate, she must have had no father, but only-a 
mother, like Him, to whom she gave birth. [Cohel. or Eccles. 
vii. 29.] 

16. KaJ, and) The meaning is to this effect : and not, as hy 
one that sinned (is the judgment) (so by one, the author of 
righteousness is) the gift [Engl. Yers. is different] ; that is to 
say ; And [moreover] the proportion [the ratio] on both sides, 
is not the same. — Kpina, the judgment) namely, is. — e^ hh;, from 
one) namely, offence, [Engl. Vers, differs] ; for the antithesis, 
of many offences, follows. The one offence was of the one 
man ; the many offences are of many men.^ 

17. ToD hli — ha roD hhi, of the one man, hy the one) A very sig- 
nificant repetition ; lest the sins committed by individuals should 
seem rather [than the offence of the one man] to have produced 
death. — l^aslXiugi, reigned) The word in the preterite tense looks 
back from the economy of grace to the economy of sin ; as 
presently after the expression shall reign, in the future, looks 
forward from the economy of sin, to the economy of grace and 
eternal life ; so ver. 19. — rrjv ■xipKieiiav) liXiomZii]/, and "jripieiiiuiiii 
differ, as much in the positive, and more in the comparative, 

' / frankly confess, that I do not clearly understand how this plural 
proves, that Paul is not treating here of original sin, as if it ever exists 
without the accompaniment of other sins, which is the assumption of some 
one of the more recent commentators. Doubtless the Apostle distinctly shows, 
that the gift in Christ is the cure both for original sin, and for the actual 
oflFences of individuals besides. There are, certainly, many actual sins, 
which are not to he considered as the necessary consequence of the first sin 
("otherwise all the morality of our actions would now cease); but there is no 
sin, whether it be called original or actual, the pardon and removal of which, 
ought not to he considered as the mere effect of the gift, ;sa^(V^«rof. There- 
fhre the power of the gift, toS xo^fiafietros, is greater than that of the judg- 
ment, ToD xpifiazos — E. B. 

74 ROMANS V. 18. 

ver. 20. Abundance of grace, is put in opposition to the one 
offence. — Xa/i^dvovng, receiving) Aa/i^dvuv may be rendered 
either as a neuter-passive verb, empfangen, erlangen, kriegen 
to receive, to acquire, to get; or actively, annehmen, to take. 
The former is the better sense ; still the relation to Sw/iEiii/ a gift, 
is more suitable to the act of taking. In justification, man does 
something ; but the act of taking, so far as it is an act, does 
not justify, but that which is taken or laid hold of. The gift 
and taking, are correlatives. iFurthermore, this verb is not 
used, vs^hen we are speaking of sin; and it is for the same 
reason, owing to which it happens that we are not said to reign 
in death, but death reigned ; but hfe reigns in us, 2 Cor. iv. 12, 
and we in life. Christ, in this passage, is King of them that 
reign. Life and reigning are mentioned in connection also, in 
Rev. XX. 4. The term life is repeated from ch. i. 17, and often 
recurs, presently after, in ver. 18, 21, and in the following 

18. "Afa oZv) Ufa draws the inference, syllogistically : oh con- 
cludes, almost rhetorically : for this subject is not farther dis- 
cussed than in this and the following verse. — hhg — hhg, of one 
— of one) In the mascuhne ; as is manifest from the antithesis, 
all. The word one, generally put without the addition, man, 
designates with the greatest force, one, either of the two. — 
dixaiu/j^KTog — dixaiusiv) Aixaiufia is, SO to speak, the material 
substratum, the foundation for hxaiiisii, justification ; obedience, 
righteousness fulfilled. It may be caRed justificament {justifica- 
mentum) The ground and material of justification, as Idpaito/j-a 
denotes a firmament [or means of making firm] ; hdv/ia, vest- 
ment ; I'iri^Xrjfia, additament [or the thing wherewith addition 
is made] ; iiiagij,a, defilement ; hylemfia, muniment ; icifnd6a.fii.a., 
the means of purgation ; iti^'i-i^r^iia, the thing scraped of; exiiraeiia, 
a tegument or the thing wherewith a covering is made ; erepsapa, 
'firmament; \iir6bnfj,a, a thing wherewith the foot is covered, a 
shoe ; (ppovni^a,, sentiment [the material of cppovneig] French senti- 
ment. Aristot. Eth. Book v. c. 10, has put Adixn/jia and dixaiu/Lo. 
in opposition to each other, and defines the latter to be 
the correction of injustice [rh s-jravopSafio, roD d3;x^/*aros] the 
putting right what is wrong ; which is tantamount to satisfac- 
tion [or atonement'], a term undeservedly hatefnl to the Socinians. 

ROMANS V. 19. 75 

The following sclieme exhibits the exquisite propriety of the 
terms : — 

A. B. C. D. 

Ver. 16. xpl/jt,a, xardxpifia; ;)^af>«!'/ta, Stxaia/ioi,, 

judgment, condemnation, free gift, righteousness. 
A. B. C. 

V er. 18. -rapdvru/JM, xardxfi/Aoi', Sixa,!iii/j,a,, 

offence. condemnation, righteousness. 


Sixaliiigi; ^carig, 
justification of life. 

In both verses A and B are of the same class, eueroixi'', [are 
co-ordinate] and likewise C and T> ; but A and C correspond in 
' the opposite classes, avrtvToixe'", so also B and D. In ver. 16 
the transaction on the part of God is described ; in ver. 18 on 
the part of Adam and of Christ ; and that, with less variety of 
words in the case of the economy of sin, than in the case of the 
economy of grace. Aixdieugig ^w^f, justification of life, is that 
Divine declaration, by which the sinner, subject to death, has 
life awarded to him, and that too, with justice on his side. 

19. Hapaxotig) ■TrapSi in -jrapaxon very appositely points out the 
principle of the initial step, which ended in Adam's fall. The 
question is asked, how could the tmderstanding or the will of an 
upright man have been capable of receiving injury, or of com- 
mitting an offence? Ans. The understanding and the will 
simultaneously gave way [tottered] through carelessness, aiiAXna, 
nor can we conceive of any thing else previous to carelessness, 
a^sXiia, in this case, as the initial step towards a city being 
taken is remissness on the part of the guards on watch. Adam 
was sedaced through carelessness and indolence of mind, ha. 
fo^^Mlhiav \ as Chrysostom says, Homil. xxvii. on Gen., and at 
fiill length in Homil. Ix. on Matt., " whence did man wish to dis- 
obey God? from weakness and indolence of mind" Tohv jj^sXsjffsn 
avdptavog irafaxoZdai ©sou ; a-Tth pcj,6u/ji,la,s, x.r.'k. — vapaxorj, disobe- 
dience, implies this carelessness or weakness. The opposite in 
this passage is i/Taxori, obedience, from which is derived an excel- 
lent argument regarding active obedience, without which the 

76 ROMANS V. 20. 

atonemeht of Christ could not have been called obedience ; it is 
for this reason He is so often praised as, a/j!,u//,og, blameless. — 
xaratrai^eovrai, shall be constituted) It is one tiling for a man to 
be constituted righteous, even where imputation is spoken of, it is 
another thing to be justified, since the former exists as the basis 
and foundation of justification, and necessarily precedes true jus- 
tification, under which it is laid as the substratum [on which it 
rests] ; for a man must of necessity stand forth as righteous, before , 
he can be truly justified. But we have both the one and the other 
from Christ, for both the merit of Christ's satisfaction for sin, im- 
puted to a man in himself unrighteous, already constitutes that same 
person righteous, inasmuch as it procures for him the righteousness, 
by which he is righteous; and by virtue of this righteousness, 
which is obtained by that merit, he is necessarily justified wherein- 
soever that justification be needed ; that is, he is justly acquitted 
by merit, who in this way stands forth righteous. Thorn. Gataker. 
Diss, de novi instr. stylo, cap. 8. This is quite right. Never- 
theless the apostle, as at the end of the period, seems to set forth 
such a constituting of men as righteous, as [which] may follow 
upon the act of justification, and which is included in the 
expression being found, Phil. iii. 9 ; comp. with Gal. ii. 17. — 
0/ -jtoXXol, the many) all men, ver. 18, 15. 

20. No>of, law) the omission of the article tends to increase 
the sublimity [elevation of tone]. — rapsiat^Xk) came in stealthily 
by Moses, ver. 14. The Antithetic word is, entered, ver. 12 ; 
Sin therefore is more ancient than the law. — wXtovderi, might 
abound) ch. vii. 7, etc. Sin is not reckoned in the absence of 
the law ; but when the law came in stealthily, sin appeared as 
abounding; but, before the law, the fall of Adam should be held 
as the cause of death. — ro ', the offence) supply xai i\ 
aji^afria, and sin. All the sms of mankind, compared with the 
sin of Adam, are as it were ofishoots ; it is the root. 'A/xafr/a, sin, 
in the singular number, is considered as a plague most widely 
spread ; and it also comprehends all actual Tapa-sTti/iara, offences, 
ver. 16. — n kiiaprla. [the} sin) or in other words, the offence and 
sin ; for there is a difference between them ;' see notes on ver. 
14; the sin, in the singular number, John i. 29. — uvipi'ripjif- 

' The latter being the result of the former Ed. 

ROMANS V. 21. VI. 1-3. 77 

eiuai, superdbounded [did much more abound'^ A third party con- 
quering the conqueror of the conquered is superior to both : sin 
conquered man : grace conquers sin ; therefore the power of 
grace is greatest. 

21. 'Ev rp iamTifj — lig ^uriv, in death — unto life) The diffe- 
rence is here exemplified between the particles bv and lig. [Death 
has its limits and boundary, whereas hfe is everlasting, and [by 
divine power^ divinely extended. Death is not said to be eter- 
nal ; whereas life is said to be eternal, ch. vi. 21, etc. — fi %«;>/? 
^aeiXsiidrj, that grace might reign) Grace therefore has had, as it 
were, no reign, that is, it hip,s had a most brief reign before the fall. 
We may believe, that Adam sinned not long after that he was 
created. — 'irieou, Jesus) Now no longer is Adam even mentioned : 
the mention of Christ alone prevails. 


1. ' Em/jiiivoiJ/jLiv ; shall we continue?) Hitherto he treated of the 
past and the present : now he proceeds to treat of the future ; 
and the forms of expression are suited to those, which imme- 
diately precede, whilst he speaks] respecting the ' abounding' of 
grace. In this passage the continuing in sin is set before us ; in 
the 15th verse, the going back to sin, which had been overcome. 
The man, who has obtained grace, may turn himself hither or 
thither. Paul in this discussion turns his back on sin. 

2. ' A-jriSdvo/isv, we are dead) in baptism and justification. 

3. "h) Or ? [' an,' Latin. The second part of] a disjunctive 
interrogation. — ayvoiTn, know ye not ?) The doctrine concerning 
baptism was known to all. The same form of expression occurs 
again ch. vii. 1. to which the phrase, know ye not? corresponds, 
ver. 16, xi. 2 [Wot ye not ?] and 1 Cor. throughout. Ignorance 
is a great obstruction ; knowlege is not sufficient.' — oeoi, whoso- 

•■ The point in this sentence is putting officii in antithesis to svfficit, but 

78 ROMANS VI. i, 6. 

ever) [as many soever]. No one of the Christians was by that 
time unbaptized. — i^a-jTTMvi/ji.ev, were baptized) The mentioning 
of Baptism is extremely well suited to this place ; for the adult, 
being a worthy candidate for Baptism, must have passed through 
the experience of these things, which the apostle has hitherto 
been describing. Paul in his more solemn epistles, sent to the 
churches (Eom. Cor. Gal. Eph. Col.), at the beginning of which 
he caUs himself an apostle, mentions Baptism expressly ; in the 
more familiar (Phil. Thess.) he presupposes it. — ilg) into. The 
ground on which we are baptized. — Xpigrhv 'ineouv, Christ Jesus) 
The name Christ is here put first, because it is more regarded 
here, ver. 4, Gal. iii. 27. — s/'s rh Sdvarov avrov, into Sis death) 
He who is baptized puts on Christ, the second Adam ; he is 
baptized, I say, into a whole Christ, and so also into His death, 
and it is the same thing as if, at that moment, Christ suffered, 
died, and was buried for such a man, and as if such a man 
suffered, died, was buried with Christ. 

4. '2uverdprif/,ev, we were buried with Sim) The fruits of the 
burial of Christ. Immersion in baptism, or at least the sprink- 
ling of water upon the person, represents burial, burial is a 
confirmation of [facit ratam] death. — I'lg, into) Construed with 
baptism, with which comp. ver. 3. — ug-ffep — outu, as — so) An 
abbreviated expression for,^ As Christ was raised from the dead 
by the glory of the Father, so we should also rise, and as Christ 
reigns for ever in the glory of the Father, and in that life to 
which He has risen, so we also should walk in newness of life, — 
di&, by) By concerning the Father is also found at 1 Cor. i. 9. — 
Trig So^rig, the glory) A6^a is the glory of the divine life, of 
incorruptibility, ch. i. 23, of the power and virtue, by which 
both Christ was raised, and we are restored to a new life, and 
are conformed to God, Eph. i. 19, etc. — h xonvorriri, in newness) 
Ch. vii. 6; 2 Cor. v. 15, etc. This newness consists inhfe, 

5. ^ifiipvToi) LXX. jSouvhs e{i//,(puTog, Spvfihg ffu/ipuro?, a planted 
hill, a planted forest, Amos ix. 13 ; Zech. xi. 2, and on this 
account o/io;w/ian here may be taken in the ablative. But 

it cannot be imitated in English— it might he, ignorance is exceedingly 
efficient, knowledge is not sufficient, were efficient an English word, which it 
is not. — Tk. 
' See App., under the title Concisa Locutio. 

ROMAICS VI. 6-10. 79 

Hesychius has eu//,(purov, eu/i-Tropiiio/ieiiov, eu\i6v, and so eu/LSivroi 
with the dative is a word very significant; comp. ver. 4, 6. 
Cluverus translates it, engendered together [connaturati, endowed 
with the same nature together] grown together^.) AH spiritually 
quickening power is in Christ, and that power has been confer- 
red upon [brought together into] baptism ; eiv is used [in the 
compound suf/,ipvroi'], as in the opposite word guvieraupuSri ; and the 
simple [root] word <piiofj,a,i refers to idvaroii, and avderaen. — aXXa, 
but) The contrast is between death and the resurrection. — Ttjg) 
that is, rSj bi/,oi(jifLari TTJg dvaardeeoig, in the likeness of His resur- 
rection. — se6ft,e6a) scU. eb/iipvToi, we shall be, "viz. planted in a new 
life. The future, see ch. v. 19. 

6. "Av6puvos, man) The abstract for the concrete, as in ch. vii. 
22, and in many other places. — ha, — roS //.rixiri) The particles 
should be carefully noticed ; as also the three synonymous 
nouns, and the verbs added to them. — xarapy^S?!, may be de- 
stroyed) may be stripped of its dominion [ver. 14]. — ro tf5/ta rra 
ctfAafTioii, the body of sin) the mortal body, abounding in sin and 
lusts, etc., ver. 12, so the body of death, ch. vii. 24, note. 

7. ' Aynoiaviiv, dead) to sin, ver. 2. — SeSixalarai, [is freed from 
sin"] is justified) Sin has now no longer any claim against him 
in law ; with which comp. ver. 6, 9, so that he is no longer a 
debtor, ch. viii. 12. In respect of the past, he is justified [just] 
from the guilt of sin ; in respect of the fiature, from its dominion, 
ver. 14. 

8. 'El, if) The Apodosis falls principally on the verb, we shall 
live with. 

9. E/Sorsj, knowing) This word depends on, we believe. — 6diia- 
rag, death) without the article, any kind of death. — oZx. 'in, no 
more) Death never had dominion over Christ, but yet it had 
assailed Him, Acts ii. 24 ; and if it had held Him, it might have 
been said to have had dominion over Him ; which God forbid. 
Paul was unwilling to say here, ^aaiXibn, reigneth. 

10. 0, in that) This has more force than on, that. — r^ a/iaprlcf, 
to sin) The dative of disadvantage, as in ver. 11. Sin had been 
cast upon Christ, but Christ stbohshed it by His death for us ; 
He truly died. — lipd'TDi^) This has a stronger meaning in this 

^ Concreti. 


passage than a-raf. So Heb. vii. 27, and ava^, 1 Pet. iii. 18. — 
l^ri Tp 0s w) He lives to God, a glorious life derived from God, 
ver. 4 [raised up — by the glori/ of the Father] full of divine 
vigour, lasting for ever. Tor God is the God of the living. 

11. Aoy/^Eir^E, you reckon) The indicative ; for the imperative 
begins in the following verse. So Xoyi^6/i,i6a, iii. 28 [we conclude 
that a man is justified by faith, etc.] Whatever is the standing in 
which every one is, in and according to that standing he ought to 
account himself.^ — ihai) is omitted by a few copies, but they are 
ancient. Baumgarten adopts this reading — I consider It doubt- 
ful.^ — h, in) It is construed with alive, nay even with dead too : 
So ver. 8, only that the prepositions witJi [euv, ver. 8] and by, 
ch. vii. 4 [3/a, by the body of Christ] are rather used in that 
connection. — rSi xvpliji u/j^Zv) See App. crit. Ed. II. on this 

12. M^, not) Eefer the aXX& but [yield yourselves unto God, 
ver. 13] to /^ri, not [here] : and refer xat r& [i.i'kri, and your mem- 
bers, etc., to ^jjSs, neither [both in ver. 13] [There is a remarh- 
able force in this dehortation on the one hand and exhortation on 
the other, V. g.] — ^^^ olv jSaeiXsviroi, let not sin therefore reign) 
The same verb occurs in ch. v. 21. A synonymous term in 
ver. 9. It is a correlative of serve, ver. 6. — Svjjrp, mortal) For 
you, who are now alive, are become alienated from your body, 
ch. viii. 10. — aurri iv) This savours somewhat of a paraphrase. 
Baumgarten and I, as usual, hold each his own opinion, as to the 
mode of interpreting this passage.— Jv raTg im6u/iiaig ahnv, in its 
lusts) viz. eu/Marog, of the body. The bodily appetites are the 
fdel ; sin is the fire. 

13. M))as vapisrdviTi) neither yield ye. The first aor. -ffapa- 
erfisari, which occurs presently, has greater force than this 
present. — ret /i'lXr} v/^ur lauToug xal ra /i'eX^, your members ; your- 
selves and your members) First, the character of the Christian 
is brought under consideration; secondly. His actions and 

1 So also the Christian, whose standing is, that of being dead to sin with 
Christ, and raised with Him in newness of life. Ed 

2 AI>(A)G Memph. Vers. Hilary, omit the £!;/«<.' But BC Vuk fa and 
Rec. Text retain it Ed. ■"' 

3 ABD(A)6/^ Vulg. Hilary, reject rS ^vpl^ i,f<,Z,. But C Memph. and 
Syr. Versions retain the words. — Ed. 

ROMANS VI. 14-17. ^1 

duties. Man, vAio is dead in sin, could not, with propriety, be 
said to yield himself [Sistere seipsum, to present himself} to 
sin : but the man, who is aUve, may yield [present] himself to 
God. — oirXa, arms) [instruments'] a figurative expression, derived 
from war, as wages, ver. 23. — aSixiag, of unrighteousness) which 
is opposed to the righteous will of God. — rjf a/xapriif, to sin) 
Sin is here considered as a tyrant. — Tapaar^sare [yield'] present) 
as to a king. — Ix, vexpuv, from the dead) The Christian is alive 
from the dead. He had been dead, he is now alive. Comp. 
Eph. V. 14, note, Key. iii. 1-3. Sleep, too, in these passages, 
is the image of death. — bmaioguvm, of righteousness) The anti- 
thetic word is aSixiag, of unrighteousness. 

14. Ou xvpiexisei, Shall not have dominion) Sin has neither the 
right nor the power ; it will not force men to become slaves to 
it against their will. — iTh v6/j.o\i, under the law) Sin has dominion 
over him, who is tmder the law. 

15. 'r-rrh, under) eh. vii. 2, 14. 

16. AoilXou?, servants) Servitude is here denoted, from which 
obedience follows as a consequence. — SouXoi, servants) The state 
of servitude, which follows as the consequence of obedience, is 
signified, 2 Pet. ii. 19. — slg, unto) elg, unto, occurs twice in this 
verse, and in both cases it depends on servants. — iiTraxo??, oj 
obedience) Obedience, used absolutely, is taken in a good sense. 
Righteousness, too, promptly claims as her own, those who act 
obediently to her. — ilg Sixaiosdvriv, unto righteousness) Supply, 
and of righteousness unto life : as appears from the antithesis 
[death], with which comp. the similar antithesis, ver. 20 and 22, 
iii. 20, note. 

17. Xdpig Si rifi ®eu), but God be thanked) This is an idiom 
peculiar to Paul, who usually expresses categorical propositions, 
not categorically and nakedly, but, as it were, with some modi- 
fying qualification, i.e., with an intimation of afiection, thanks- 
giving, prayerful wish for them, etc. — 1 Cor. xiv. 18 ; 2 Tim. 
ii. 7, note. The enthymeme^ of this passage stands thus : you 
were the servants of sin ; but now you have become obedient to 
righteousness : but there is added the moral mode^ or moral 

I 1 The simple enunciation. See Appendix. 

« See Appendix, under the title, Modalis Sermo A proposition not 

VOL. in. F 

82 KOMAKS VI. 17. 

sentiment, God he thanked, that though ye were the servants oj 
sin, ye have now obeyed righteousness. This mode, however, in 
this place, implies this also, that this is the blessed state of the 
Komans, which they ought by all means to maintain. This 
observation wiU clearly bring out the meaning of the apostle's 
language in many passages, and will show the ardour that was 
within his breast. — on, that) so that, with indeed, to be under- 
stood, John iii. 19.' — SoSXo/, servants) especially in heathenism. 
— Ik xapblag, from the heart) The truth and efficacy of the 
Christian religion [lies in its having its root in the heart.J 
Wicked men cannot be altogether wicked with their whole 
heart, but even unconsciously and continually repent of their 
past conduct, and of their slavery to sin ; but good men are 
good from the heart, and without constraint. [It is not any 
doctrine of men, but the doctrine of God alone, which takes by 
storm (takes complete possession of) the human heart. — V. g.] — 
elg ov) This is the explanation vntn'x.ohsa.Ti ilg rwov dida^vjg d) or 
5/; ov 'jrapiSoSijrs, comp. iig. Gal. i. 6 ; you were obedient to [with 
respect to, towards] the form of doctrine (comp. sig 'ffavra mnx.001, 
obedient in all things, 2 Cor. ii. 9) unto which you were delivered 
(which was delivered to you). The case of the relative, expressed 
in abbreviated form,^ depends on the word preceding, ch. iv. 17, 
or following ch. x. 14. — irajnUSnn, you were delivered) Elsewhere 
the doctrine is said to be delivered. That phrase is here ele- 
gantly inverted, and is a very graceful expression respecting 
those who, when freed from sin, devote and yield [present] them- 
selves, ver. 16, with a great change of masters, to the honourable 
service of righteousness.— rii^oi/, form) a very beautiful term, Ex. 

XXV. 40. The form meant is the 'form' of Christ, Gal. iv. 19 

Uaxng, of doctrine) That rule and standard, to which the 
servant conforms himself, is merely shown to him by the doc- 
trine; he does not need to be urged by constraint. 

stated nakedly, but with intimation of feeling accompanying it. Instead of 
the najced statement, "Ye were servants of sin," Paul says, in the moral 
mode, " Thanks be to God, that, though ye were servants of sin, ye have 
now obeyed," etc. 

1 Light is (indeed) come into the world, and (yet) men loved darkness, 
etc. So here, = though ye were, — yet now, etc. — Ed. 

^ See App., tit. " Concisa Locutio." 

i < 

ROMANS VI. 18. gS 

18. ''EKiukpuKtrig, being made free) It will be of use to have 
this connected view of the plan of the apostle, up to the point 
which it has now reached : — • 

I- ^n, . . . . Ch. iii. 9. 

n. The perception [the coming to "the 
knowledge"] of sin from the law; 
the sense of wrath; internal [spiritual] 
death, .... iii. 20. 

HI. The revelation of the righteousness of 
God in Christ, by the Gospel, directed 
against sin, and yet in behalf of the 
sinner, .... iii. 21. 

rV". The centre of Paul's system. Faith; 
embracing that revelation without 
reservation, and striving after, and 
succeeding in its eflfort to reach right- 
eousness itself, . . . iii. 22. 
V. The remission of sins, and justification, 
by which God the judge, views sin 
committed by man, as if it had not 
been committed, and righteousness 
lost, as -if had been preserved [re- 
tained], .... iii. 24. 
VI. The gift of the Holy Spirit; love 
Divine shed abroad in the heart ; the 
inner new life, . . . v. 5, vi. 4. 
Vn. The free service of righteousness in 

good works, ... vi. 12. 

From this view, it is evident why Paul, in proving justifica- 
tion by faith alone, against those who are in doubt or error, 
makes frequent mention of the gift of the Holy Spirit, and of 
the other things, which follow as the consequences of justifica- 
tion. As righteousness flows from faith; adoption [sonship] 
accompanies righteousness ; the gift of the Holy Spirit, with the 
cry, Ahha, Father, and with newness of life, follows upon adop- 
tion ; but faith and righteousness are not in themselves clearly 
perceived by sense ; whereas the gift, of the Holy Ghost pro- 

84 KOMANS VI. 19, 20. 

duces very conspicuous and prominent [standing out palpablej 
effects; comp. [God] bare them witness [giving theni the Holy 
Ghost] Acts XV. 8. Farther, the surpassing excellence of 
these fruits, most effectually proves the worthlessness of men's 

19. ' AvSpiimm, after the manner of men) Language after the 
manner of men, is frequent, and in some measure alvcays occur- 
ring, whereby Scripture condescends to suit itself to our capacity. 
Too plain language is not always better [the best] adapted to 
the subject in hand. The accusative is used for the adverb. 
[According to our mode of speaking, it may be translated, Ich 
muss es euch mir massiv sagen, / must speak to you with great 
plainness and simplicity. — Y. g.]— 3/a, because of) Slowness of 
understanding arises from weakness of the flesh, i.e., of a nature 
merely human, comp. 1 Cor. iii. 3. ' Ae^imav, weakness) Those 
who desire discourse to be continuously in all respects quite 
plain, should perceive in this a mark of their own weakness, 
and should not take amiss [take offence at] a more profound 
expression of the truth, but they should consider it with grati- 
tude, as an ample benefit, if in one way or the other, they have 
had the good fortune to imderstand the subject : at first, the 
mode of expressing the truth is more sublime, then afterwards 
it is more plain, as in the case of Nicodemus. — John iii. 3, 15. 
That which pleases most [the greatest number] is not always 
the best. — V. g. — rjj aKo/i/qs e/'s djv avo/ilav, to iniquity unto ini- 
quity) A ploce^ not observed by the' Syriac version. The 
word [to] iniquity [aw^/a] (before which uncleanness is put, as 
a part before a whole) is opposed to righteousness; the word 
[unto] iniquity [avo/i/ai/] is opposed to holiness [end of verse] 
Righteousness corresponds to the Divine will, holiness as it were, 
to the whole of the Divine nature. Those who are the servants 
of righteousness, make progress [i.e., advance from righteousness 
to holiness, whereby they partake of the Divine nature] ; cho/ioi, 
workers of iniquity are workers of iniquity, nothing more. 

20. T^s ai^aprlag, of ain) This case contains the emphasis of 
the sentence ; sin had taken possession of you.^-r^ dnaioemri, 
to [towards] righteousness) that is in respect of righteousness. 

' See App., tit. Place. A word twice put, once in the simple sense, au<J 
once again to express some attribute of the word. 

KOMANS VI. 21, 22. g6 

21. Tiva ouv xa/i'xh iiy%ri Ton, Ip oTg vuv eTatg^ivesh) This 
whole period has the force of a negative interrogation. He 
Bays, that the righteous have their fruit unto holiness ; but he 
does not consider those things which are ' unfruitful' [axaf ^a] 
worthy of the name of fruit. — ^Eph. v. 11. He says, therefore, 
those things which now cause you to feel ashamed, were, indeed, 
formerly not fruits. Others put the mark of interrogation after 
roVs, then, so that Jp oTs may be the answer to the interrogation ; 
but then the apostle should have said i<p'JJ, sc. xa/»*a [Sanctifica- 
tion is the reverse of this shame, ver. 22, evidently just as in 1 Cor. 
i. 28, 30, that which is base ("base things") and sanctification, 
are in antithesis ; but the multitude of Christians are now ashamed 
of sanctification, which is esteemed as something base. What a 
fearful death hangs over such persons ! the degeneracy of the 

times and the manners (principles of men) ! — ^V. g.] — wv, now) 
when you have been brought to repentance. — yap, for) instead 
of moreover [autem] ; but it has a greater power of separation, 
comp. ver. 22 at the end, hi, and moreover [autem] ; so yiif, 
for, ch. V. 7. — ixtlvuv, of those things) He does not say, of these 
things ; he looks on those things as the remote past. — Sdmrog, 
death) The epithet eternal {alum;) ver. 23, is never added to 
this noun, not only in relation to those, in the case of whom, 
death yields to life, but not even in relation to those who shall 
go away into everlasting fire, torment, and destruction. If any 
one can think, that it is by mere chance, and not design, that 
Scripture, yfh.en eternal life is expressly mentioned, never names its 
opposite, eternal death, but everywhere speaks of it in a different 
manner, and that, too, in so many places, I, for my part, leave 
to him the equivalence of the phrases, eternal destruction, etc.^ 
The reason of the difference, however, is this : Scripture often 
describes death, by personification, as an enemy, and an enemy, 
too, to be destroyed ; but it does not so describe torment. 

22. Nuvl Se, but now) Paul has used mvl very often, and always 
with di, but. — s%sr£, you have ; or, have ye, with which comp. 
ver. 19. — e/'j ayiaeiih, unto sanctification \holiness], an antithesis 
to ; £p' dfi liraiiyfVHdh, of which you are ashamed, ver. 21. Ye 
are a holy priesthood of God. The reference seems to be to 

1 I leave him to his own foolish notion, that the phrases eternal destruc- 
tion, etc., wre equivalent to eternal death.— Et>. 

86 ROMANS VI. 23-VII. 1. 

Amos ii. 11, CDnrJ^, Lxx, ilf ayiaeiim \ Engl. Vers, has Naza- 

23. Ta, Th) The mark of the subject. — o-^iima — x&fidiio,, wages 
— gift) Bad works earn their own proper pay; not so, good 
works ; for the former obtain wages, the latter a gift : h-^Sivia., 
wages, in the plural : %a^/(r/ia, a gift, in the singular, with a 
stronger force. 


1. "h) The disjunctive interrogation. - There is a close con- 
nection here with ch. vi., the words of which, at ver. 6, 14, 21, 
xarapyiTd^ai, xvpieCiiv, xapvhg, Mvaros x.r.x. again occur prominently 
in this chapter. The comparison of the Old and New state 
is continued. — yivwexougi, to them that know) the Jews ; although 
it is the duty of all Christians to know the law. — o v6//,os, the law) 
for example, of marriage. The whole law, in consonance with 
the opening of this portion, is put by synecdoche,^ for the law 
of marriage. — rov avSpiimv, over a man) i.e., over a woman, ver. 
2, comp. 1 Pet. iii. 4, where the inner [" the hidden man"] pre- 
supposes the outer man, and the parallelism consists in this, that 
man is predicated also separately of the woman, not merely of 
Adam, the husband [' viro,' the man, in the restricted sense of 
the term.] Man here is used genericaUy ; but in the second 
verse, Paul applies it in a special and subordinate sense to the 
woman, as falling under the generic term. — sip' Sgov, as long as) 
neither any longer nor any shorter. — ^Ti, lives) the Law [lives. 
But Engl. Vers. " As long as he — ^the husband — liveth."] A 
personification. In the apodosis, life and death are ascribed, not 
to the law, but to us ; whereas, here we have the protasis, in 
which, according to the meaning of the apostle, life or death is 
ascribed to the [marriage] law itself, and to the husband. What 

' See Appendix. 

ROMANS VII. 2-6. 87 

is here said, depends on the nature of the things related, which 
are the law and man. When either party dies, the other is 
considered to be dead. Thus the protasis and apodosis cohere. 

2. °T«avhpoc) So the Lxx. — didsrai, is bound) It may be con- 
strued with to her husband, and with by [to] the law. — rov v6/i,ov 
rou avdphs) It would not be an unsuitable apposition, were we 
to say, from the law [that is, froni] her husband, 

3. Xptj/ioiTieii) viz. Eaun^)/, she will come under the appellation of 
an adulteress, and that too by the power of the law. Slie shall 
bring upon herself the name of an adulteress. — i&v y'evnrai uudpl 
irepijj, LXX. Deut. xxiv. 2. 

4. "ciffrs) This word has a stronger meaning than if ouTiai had 
been used. — Uavarti^nn, ye Jiave become dead) which denotes 
more than ye are dead. The comparison is thus summed up : 
the husband or wife, by the death of either, is restored to 
liberty ; for in the protasis, the party dying is the husband ; in 
the apodosis, the party dying is that, which corresponds to the 
wife. — &i& rov (fw^aro;, by the body) A great mystery. In the 
expiation [atonemen^t] for sin, why is it that .mention generally 
is made of the body, rather than of the soul of Christ ? Ans. 
The theatre and workshop of sin is our flesh ; and for this, it is 
the holy flesh of the Son of God, which is the remedy. — syip6iwi, 
who is raised) and so is alive [which the law no longer is to the 
behever]. — xapmf)opf}gcii/i,iv, we should bring forth fruit) He comes 
from the second person to the flrst ; fruit corresponds to off 
spring ; for the simile is derived from marriage. 

5. '''H./jbiv h Tji eapxt, we were in the flesh) that is [we were] 
carnal. See the opposite ver. 6, at the end. — S/ti, by) ver. 8. — 
rS} 6avdr({i, to that death) of which ver. 13, ch. viii. 6, speak. 

6. ' AmSavovTig, being dead) So ver. 4, ye became dead, said of 
that party, which corresponds to the wife : comp. Gal. ii. 19. 
I have shown in der Antwort wegen des N. T. p. 55. A. 1745, 
that Chrysostom also read avoSavivni, not amSavovrog.^ — if) A 
plain construction in this sense : we have been set free by 
death from the law, which held us fast. — ■'^i^") an expres- 

1 So also A (B ?) C, both Syr. Versions, Memph. The first correction of 
the Amiatine MS. of Vulg. read A'^^odkwytK. D (A) G fg Vulg. read toS 
ta,r«.TW [The law of death]. Rec. Text (and B ?) «5rii^«i/o<'TOf.— Ed. 

88 KOMANS VII. 7. 

sive term ; comp. ewixXuei, ch. xi. 32, s<ppoupou//,sSa, Gal. iii. 23.—- 
h xaivoTrjTi irH{i/ji,aTo;, xal ou craXa/orjjn ypd//^/iaroi, in newness of 
spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter) We have the same anti- 
thesis, ch. ii. 29 ; 2 Cor. iii. 6. The letter is not the law con- 
sidered in itself, inasmuch as, thus considered, it is spiritual and 
living [instinct with life] ver. 14 ; Acts vii. 38 [the lively oracles], 
but in respect of the sinner, to whom it cannot give spirit and 
life, but leaves him to death, nay even it to a more profound 
extent hands him over to its power : although he may in the 
mean time aim at the performance of what the letter and its 
mere sound command to be done ; so that the appearance and 
the name may still remain, just as a dead hand is still a hand. 
But the Spirit is given by the Gospel aad by faith, and bestows 
life and newness, 2 Cor. iii. 6 ; comp. John vi. 63. The words 
oldness and newness are used here by Paul in relation to the two 
testaments or covenants, although believers have now for a long 
time enjoyed the first fruits of the New Testament ; and at the 
present day unbelievers retain the remnants, nay rather the 
whole substance, of the Old Testament. Observe too, the Iv, in, 
is put once, not twice [The Engl. Yers. wrongly supplies in 
before the oldness. But Beng. That we should not serve the old- 
ness, etc.] We have served oldness not God : comp. Gal. iv. 9, 
oT?, to which [The beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again 
to be in bondage'] ; nowwe serve not nawness, but [we serve] God 
in newness, ch. vi. 22. 

7. 'o vo/ios kihapTia, ; is the law sin ?) He, who has heard the 
same things predicated of the law and of sin, will perhaps make 
this objection : is, then, the law sin, or the sinful cause of sin ? 
comp. ver. 13, note — rnv a/iapriav, sin) We must again observe 
the propriety of the terms, and the distinction between them : 

v6/iog' rh Xeysiv rou vo/iou. 

the law ; the fact of the law saying [Taken out of, 

" Except the law had said"], 
ri knapria.- ij em6u/iiot. 
sin ; lust. 

tix lymv, (from yivwixa-) ovx rtbuv, (from olba.) 'iyvm is the 
greater, olha the less. Hence the latter, since even the less 

ROMANS VII. 8j 0. 89 

degree is denied, is expressive of increase.^ A/LapTia, sin, is as 
it were sinful matter, from which all manner of [The all taken 
from vaiav smivfiiav, ver. 8] disease and paroxysm of concupis- 
cence [ver. 8] originates. — oiix tyvm, I had not known) Paul often 
sets forth his discourse indefinitely in the first person, not only 
for the sake of perspicuity, but from the constant appHcation of 
what is said to himself; see 1 Cor. v. 12, vi. 12. And so also 
in this passage. — r^v n y&p cviiv/i^iav, for even lust) 'H afiaprla, sin, 
is more deeply seated [inward] and recondite : 5) lmSuf/,la, lust, 
rather assails .[rushes into] the sense, and at the same time 
betrays [the inwardly seated] sin, as smoke does fire. The 
particles re y&p, for even indicate this 8iopig/jb6;, this contra-dis- 
tinction ; and sin, that one indwelling evil, works out [pro- 
duces] a variety of lust [all manner of concupiscence] : see what 
follows ; and again lust brings forth sin consummated \_finished2, 
James i. 15. \_Sin lies concealed in man, as heat in drink, which, 
if we were to judge hy mere sensation, may possibly at the time he 
very cold, V. g.] — obx, fiSiiv, I had not known) lust to be an evil ; 
or rather, I had not known [even the existence of] lust itself; 
its motion at length [when the law came, then and not till then] 
met the eye. — iXiyiv, said) Moreover it said so, [first] by itself; 
then, [also] in my mind : comp. when the law came, ver. 9. 

8. A/a r^g BvroXij;, by the com,mandment) The construction is 
with the following verb {Kanipy adaro, wrought concupiscence hy 
the commandment. Not as Engl. V., Taking occasion by the com- 
mandmerit, here and at ver. 11] ; as in ver. 11 twice. — x^P'^ — 
Hxpa, witlwut — dead) A self-evident principle. — vsxpa, dead) viz. 
was : it did not so much rage through concupiscence : or the 
word to be supplied ,may be, is. 

9. "E^wii, I was alive) ^jjv here does not merely signify to pass 
one's life, but it is put in direct antithesis to death. This is 
the pharisaic tone, comp. the following verse. [J seemed to 
myself indeed to be extremely well, V. g.] — ^wp/V v6/jt,ov, without 
the law) the law being taken out of the way, being kept at a 
distance, as if it did not exist. — sXhxigrig) The antithesis to 
■X<»ek. — hrokTig, the commandment) hroXfi, a commandment is part 
of the law, with the addition of a more express idea in it of 

1 The increase in force is this ; I had not full knowledge (tyvau) of sin, 
nay I had not even been at all sensible (jihiv) of lust. — Ed. 

so ROMANS VII. 10-13. 

compulsory power, which restrains, enjoins, urges, prohibits, 
threatens. — a/e^rietv, revived) just as [even as] it had been alive, 
when it had entered into the world by Adam. 

10. A<!riSoi,m, I died) I lost that life, which I [fancied that 1} 
had. — £vps6n, was found) So ivplexa, I find, ver. 21. — sis ^wiji', to 
life) on the ground of the original intention of God, and in 
another point of view, on the ground of my own opinion, which 
I held, when I was living without the law. Life pointedly indi- 
cates both joy and activity ; while death impHes the opposite. — 
a\irr\, itself) the same [the very same commandment]. It is 
commonly written airn, but Baumgarten has ahrrt, which is cor- 
rect.^ Comp. Acts viii. 26, note. > 

11. 'Eg»)crarjj(rE, deceived) led me into by-paths, as the robbei 
leads the traveller; and while I supposed that I was going 
onward to hfe, I fell into [upon] death. — aviKrunv, slew me) 
This is the termination of the economy of sin, and is on the 
confines of that of grace. 

12. "Ayio;, holy) supply from what follows, and just and good; 
although it was necessary to accumulate these synonymous 
terms chiefly in defence of the commandment, with its stinging 
power [rather than of the hw] : holy, just, good,- ia relation 
respectively to its efficient cause, its form, and its end ; (as we 
find in the MS. notes of Dorscheus) or holy in respect of my 
duties to God ; just, in respect of my neighbour ; good in respect 
of my own nature ;'' with which whatever is commanded is in 
harmony, for Hfe is promised, ver. 10. The third of these three 
epithets is taken up with very great propriety in the following 

13. TJ) therefore what is good. — The power of the article is to 
be noticed. — ^dmres, death) the greatest evil, and the cause of 

' Lachmann and Tischendorf, the two ablest exponents of modern textual 
criticism, prefer uvrn. — Ed. 

2 Aixctio; Th. S/xn, is that which is precisely what it should be, without 
regard to the question whether good or evil flow from it, just, right. But 
dyaUs, what is profitable and of benefit to men. The commandment is 
S/xa(«, for it teaches nothing but what is just; dyaSiiyior it regards the 
happiness of those, to whom it is given. It is also S.yia, not because it 
makes holy, but because it is holy in itself, sacred to God, and therefore tn 
he held inviolate. — See Tittmann Syn. Or. Text. — Ed. 

ROMANS Vn. U. 31 

death, the grestest evil : xarepyat^ofihr}, working [death in me]. — 
aXXSc. n a/jiapTia, hut sin) namely, was made death to me ; for the 
participle x.a.TBpya'toiMhnj working, ■without the substantive verb, 
does not constitute the predicate. — iVa <pa,\iri a/jjapria,, that it might 
appear sin) Ploce^ : sin, [which, b& opposed to the law, which is 
good, is] by no means good. This agrees with what goes before. — 
bia Tou. ayahv — Sdvarov, by that which is good — death) A paradox ; 
and the adjective good is used with great force for the substantive 
£of which it is the epithet] the law. — ■/.a.npyal^o/^svn, working) A 
participle, which must be explained thus : sin was made death 
to me, inasmnch as being that which accomplished my death even 
by that "which is good. It is no tautology ; for that expression, 
by that which is good, superadds strength to the second part of 
this sentence. — ha yhrjrai, that it might become) This phrase is 
dependent on working. So ha, that, repeated twice, forms a 
gradation. If any one should rather choose to make it an 
anaphora,^ the second part of the sentence will thus also explain 
the first. — v.a6' v'TTip^oX'^v a/LapniiXh;) Castellio translates it, as 
sinful as possible : because, namely, [sin,] by tliat which was [is'] 
good, i.e. by the commandment, works in me that which is evil, 
i.e. death. — di&, by) It is construed with might become [that sin 
might by the commandment become exceeding sinful]. 

14. nvsu/iarixog egri, is spiritual) it requires, that every feehng 
of man should correspond to the feeling [i.e. the will] of God ; 
but God is a Spirit. — gapxixhg, carnal) ver. 18. — ii//,l, lam) Paul, 
after he had compared together the twofold state of believers, 
the former in the flesh, ver 5, and the present in the Spirit, 
ver. 6, proceeds in the next place from the description of the 
first to the description of the second, and does so with a view 
both to answer two objections, which, in consequence of that 
comparison might be framed in these words : therefore the law is 
sin, ver. 7, and, therefore the law is death, ver. 13 ; and to inter- 
weave in the solution of those objections the whole process of a 
man, in his transition from his state under the law to his state 
under grace, thinking, sighing, striving, and struggling forth, 

» See Appendix. The same term twice used, once expressing the idea 
of the word itself, and once again expressing an attribute of it. 

« See Appendix. The frequent repetition of the same word in the be- 
ginnings of sections or sentences. 

03 ROMANS VIl. U. 

and to show the function of the law in this matter : this, I say, 
he does, ver. 7-25, until at ch. viii. 1, he proceeds to the topics, 
which are ulterior to these. Therefore in this 14th verse the 
particle for does not permit any leap at all, much less does the 
subject itself allow so great a leap to be made from -the one 
state into the other; for Paul diametrically opposes to each 
other the carnal state in this verse, and the spiritual state, 
ch. viii. 4, as also slavery in this [" sold under sin"] and the 
23d [" bringing me into copiiriiy] verse, and liberty, viii. 2, 
["/ree from the law]. Moreover he uses, before the 14th verse, 
verbs in the preterite tense ; then, for the sake of more ready 
expression [more vivid realization of a thing as present], verbs in 
the present tense, which are to be resolved into the preterite, just 
as he is accustomed to exchange cases, moods, etc., for the sake 
of imparting ease to his language ; and as an example in ch. viii. 
2, 4, he passes from the singular to the plural number, and in 
the same chapter ver. 9, from the &st to the second person. 
Also the discourse is the more conveniently turned from the 
past to the present time, inasmuch as a man can then, and then 
only, understand really the nature of that [his former] state 
imder the law, as soon as he has come under grace ; and from 
the present he can form a clearer judgment of the past. 
Finally, that state and process, though being but one and 
the same, has yet various degrees, which should be expressed 
either more or less in the preterite tense, and it is step by step 
that he sighs, strives eagerly, and struggles forth to Hberty : The 
language of the apostle becomes hy degrees more serene, as we 
shall see. Hence it is less to he wondered at, that interpreters 
take so widely different views. They seek the chief force [the 
sinews] of their arguments, some from the former, others from 
the latter part of this passage, and yet they endeavour to explain 
the whole section as referring to one simple condition, either 
that under sin, or that under grace. [We must observe in gene- 
ral, that Paul, as somewhat often elsewhere, so also in this verse, 
all along from ver. 7, is not speaking of his own character, but 
under the figure of a man, who is engaged in this contest. That 
contest is described here at great length, hut the business itself, so 
far as concerns what may he considered the decisive point, is in 
many cases quickly accomplished ; although believers must contend 

ROMANS VII. 15, 16. 68 

toith the enemy, even till their deliverance is fully accomplished, 
ver. 24, ch. viii. 23, V. g.J — vivpa/Lhog, sold) A man, sold to be a 
slave, is more wretched, than he who was bom in that condition, 
and he is said to be a man sold, because he was not originally a 
slave. The same word occurs in Judg. iii. 8, 1 Kangs xxi. 25. 
Sold : Captive, ver. 23. 

15. 'O yap, for that which) He describes slavery in such a way 
as not to excuse himself, but to accuse the tyranny of sin, and to 
deplore his own misery, ver. 17, 20. Vap, for, tends to strengthen 
the word sold. The slave serves an unworthy master, iirst, 
with joy, then afterwards, with grief, lastly, he shakes off the 
yoke. — ou yivuaxoi, I do not acknowledge [alloioj) as good ; 
([y/vwtfxw] the same as to consent to it, that it is good, ver. 16, 
which forms the antithesis) ; its opposite is / hate. — 6iXu, I would, 
[wish^) he does not say, / love, which would imply more, but / 
would, intending to oppose this [I would] to, I hate, following 
immediately after. — Tpageu — to/S) There is a distinction between 
vpaeiio and «/w commonly acknowledged among the Greeks ;^ 
— the former implies something weightier than the latter. The 
former is put twice in the present tense, first in a negative asser- 
tion, and then in an affirmative assertion, ou irpdaaoi I practise not, 
the thing is not put in practice ; to/S / do, refers to action both 
internal and external. These words are interchanged, ver. 19, 
xiii. 3, 4 ; and this interchange is not only not contrary to the 
nature of the discourse which is gradually rising to a chmax,.but 
it even supports and strengthens it ; for at ver. 15, the sense of 
the evil is not yet so bitter, and therefore he does not so much as 
name it, but by the time he reaches ver. 19, he is now become 
very impatient [takes it exceedingly ill] that he should thus im- 
pose evil on himself. The farther the soul is from evil, the 
greater is its distress '[torture], to touch even the smallest particle 
of evil with so much as one finger. 

16. 2u/ipjj/i/, / consent) 'Suv^So/, I delight is a stronger ex- 
pression, ver. 22, note. The assent of a man, given to the law 
against himself, is an illustrious trait of true religion, a powerful 
testimony for God. — xaXhs, beautiful) The law, even apart from 

1 See my previous note. TJpurva is ago. Xloiiu, facio. 'Epy»^oficci, 
ojwror. --Ed. 

94 ROMANS Til. 17-21, 

its legality, is beautiful: xaXJs, beautiful, suggests holiness, 
justice, and goodness, ver. 12. 

17. Ouz sV;, no longer) These words are repeated, ver 20. — 
olxoijga, dwelling) ver. 18, 20. This word is afterwards used con- 
cerning the Spirit, ch. viii. 9. 

18. oTSa, I know) This very knowledge is a part of this state, 
which is here described. — TovTisnv, that is) It is a limitation of 
the sense ; in me is more than in my flesh, and yet the flesii 
is not called sin itself^ (we must make this observation con- 
trary to the opinion of Flacius) ; but what Paul says, is : sin 
dwells in the flesh. And already this state, of which Paul is 
treating, carries along with it some element of good. — ^iXnv to 
will) The Accusative, good, is not added after to will; and the 
delicacy [minute accuracy] of this language expresses the deK- 
cacy [minute accuracy] in the use of the expression, to will. — 
Tapaxsirai) [is present\ lies in view, without [my being able to 
gain] the victory. The antithesis, concerning the performance 
of good works, is the not [I find not] which occurs presently 
after. My mind, though seeldng [that, which is good], does not 
in reality find it. 

20. Ohx 'in) no longerj' namely, as I formerly used to perpe- 
trate it [taken from xoi.Tipya,t,oix,ai\. Some degree of serenity and 
deliverance gradually arises. I is emphatic, in antithesis to sin. 
He who says with emphasis, it is not I that will it [non volo ego], 
instead of the former, I would not [non volo (without ego) I do 
not will] (ver. 15) is already farther removed from sin. 

21. Ebpkxu) In this distressing conflict I find the law, [But 
Engl. Vers. " a law"] without which I formerly lived. This is 
all [I merely find the law]. That proposition, which occurs at 
ver. 14, is repeated. — riv v6/iov) the law itself, which is in itself 
holy. — Tw SsXovri, [for, or to mej willing) The Dative of advan- 
tage : I find the law, which is not sinftj or deadly [for, or] to 
me [so far as I am concerned ; in my experience]. The first 
principles of harmony, friendship, and agreement between the 
law and man, are expressed with admirable nicety of language. 
The participle is purposely put first, tu SsXom i//,ol, for, or to the 

1 It is only called sinful. — Ed. 

* Not now, as informer times, when I was wholly dead in sin. Ed. 

ROMANS VII. 22-24. gr, 

person willing, viz. me,^ in antithesis to the second [with'] me, 
which presently after occurs absolutely. With the words, for, or 
to me willing, comp. PhU. ii. 13. — on, because) [But Engl. Vers. 
I find a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me], 
— irapdxtirai, lies near, ps present with me]) Here the balance is 
changed ; for at ver. 18, the good will lies near ps present ;] the 
same word, ffa/'azs/'ra;] as the lighter part [side of the scale] ; 
whereas by this time, now the evil, though not the evil will, 
lies near ps present], as the lighter part [side of the scale]. 

22. iM\inboiJ,ai, I delight) This too is already a farther step 
in advance than gu/i^rjfjui, I consent, ver. 16. — riv eW, the inward) 
He already upholds the name and character of the inward, but 
not yet however of the new man ; so also in ver. 25 he says, 
" with my mind," not, with my spirit. 

23. BXi'TToi) I see, from the higher department of the soul, as 
from a watch-tower, [the department, or region of the soul] 
which is called vovs, the mind, and is itself the repository of con- 
science. — enpov, another [law] and one aHen [to the law of my 
mind]. — //^iXiai, in the members) The soul is, as it were, the 
king ; the members are as the citizens ; sin is, as an enemy, 
admitted through the fault of the king, who is doomed to be 
punished by the oppression of the citizens. — tSj v6ij.ui roij voog /iou) 
the dictate [law] of my mind, which delights in the Divine law. — 
(x'f)(jj,a,X<i>ri^ovTd /is, bringing ?ne into captivity) by any actual 
victory which it pleases.^ The apostle again uses rather a harsh 
term, arising from holy impatience :* the allegory is taken from 
war, comp. the similar term, warring. 

24. TaXai-irupos syii S.vSpwTrog) [" wretched man that I am!" 
Engl. Vers. But Beng.] wretched me, who am [inasmuch as I 
am] a man ! Man, if he were without sin, is noble as well as 
blessed ; with sin, he rather wishes not to be a man at all, than 
to be such a man as man actually is : The man [whom Paul 
personifies] speaks of the state of man in itself, as it is by 
nature. This cry for help is the last thing in the struggle, and, 

' The participle cannot be placed first in English Tr. What he means is ; 

the law is found by Mm who wills to do good, which is now the case with 

me. — Ed. 

^ i.e. leading me at will to do whatever it pleases. — Ed 

' To express his holy impatience to be rid of the tyrant. — Ed. 


after that henceforth convinced, that he has no help in him- 
self, he begins, so to speak, unknowingly to pray, who shall 
deliver me ? and he seeks deliverance and waits, until God 
shows Himself openly in Christ, in answer to that who. This 
marks the very moment of mystical death} Believers to a certain 
extent continue to carry with them something of this feeling 
even to the day of their death,* viii. 23. — pveirai, shall deliver) 
Force is necessary. The verb is properly used ; for puigSai, is, 
sx. 0ANATOT I'Xxeiv (to drag from death), Ammonius from 
Aristoxenus. — Ix) from. — roD ffw/taros, from the body of death) 
the body being dead on account of sin, ch. viii. 10. The death 
of the body is the fiill carrying into execution of that death, of 
which ver. 13 treats, and yet in death there is to be deliverance. 
— Toirou) g&i/ia Savarou Tourou is said for ifca/io, ^anarou roDro, the 
body of this death, for, this body of death. — Comp. Acts v- 20, 

25. Bu^apidru, I give thanks) This is unexpectedly, though most ■ 
pleasantly, mentioned, and is now at length rightly acknowledged, 
as the one and only refiige. The sentence is categorical : God 
will deliver me by Christ ; the thing is not in my own power : 
and that sentence indicates the whole matter : but the moral 
mode [modus moralis. See Append.] (of which, see on ch. vi. 
17), I give thanks, is added. (As in 1 Cor. xv. 57 : the senti- 
ment is : God giveth us the victory ; but there is added the 
7i6og, or moral mode, Thanks be to God.) And the phrase, I 
give thanks, as a joyful hymn, stands in opposition to the miser- 
able complaint, which is found in the preceding verse, wretched 
that I am. — ouv, then) He concludes those topics, on which he 
had entered at ver. 7. — aMg syiii) I myself. — vo/^oj GeoC — vo/iw 
afiHtprlag, the law of God — the law of sin) vo/iw is the Dative, 
not the Ablative, ver. 23. Man [the man, whom Paul per- 
sonifies] is now equally balanced between slavery and liberty, 
and yet at the same time, panting after liberty, he acknowledges 
that the law is holy and free from all blame. The balance is 
rarely even. Here the inclination to good has by this time at- 
tained the greater weight of the two. 

1 The becoming figuratively dead in a spiritual sense to the law and to 
sin, ver. 4. — ^Bd. 

* This longing for deliverance from the body of this death. ^Ed. 

EOMANS Vm. 1, 2. 97 


1, OhSiv apa vuv x-ardxpifia, There is therefore now no condem- 
nation) The apostle comes now to deliverance and liberty. 
Moreover lie does not employ the adversative Sh, but ; he uses 
the conclusive cipa, therefore, comp. on ch. ii. 1 ; because at the 
end of ch. vii. he had already reached the confines of this 
condition. He also now evidently returns from his admirable 
digression to the path, which is pursued [he had entered on] at 
ch. vii. 6. And, as a proof of this, the particle now, which 
denotes present time (like the German wiirklich, actually, truly) 
was used there, and is resumed here. Condemned [" God c. 
sin"] in ver. 3, refers to condemnation here. 

1, 2. Jlepi'Trarougiv' 6 y&p vo/jiog, to them that walk : for the law) 
the aetiology [assigning of the reason, see Append.] by a paren- 
thesis suspends the train of thought {for the law of death (ver. 
2) : in us luho walk [resuming the same word and train of thought 
as ver. 1], ver. 4) ; and as this parenthesis is terminated by 
epanalepsis,"^ the expression but according to the spirit com- 
pletes the period, in which the but is opposed rather to the 
not in ver. 1, than to the not in ver. 4. The phrase, but after 
the spirit (aXXa Kara miuf/.a) is omitted in the first verse on 
the most respectable testimony." Baumgarten retains it. But 
Paul immediately treats of that expression /tj) xara edpxa, not 
according to or after the flesh ;^ then as he advances,* he adds, 

^ See Appendix. When the same word or words are in the beginning of 
the preceding member and in the end of the following member : as here ^jj 
Kxroi ai.px,a 'Trepiirnrovaii/, before, and at the close of the parenthesis. 

" A and the later corrector of D Vulg. Syr. add with Eec. Text, the words 
fiij xxTct aapy.a irepivxrouaiu. But they omit aXX« xara wivficc. BOD 
(A) (iff/, Memph. and Theb. Versions omit the whole fc^ xecra — Tn/ivfta. 
Eec. Text has, of ancient authorities, only_^, one or two later vmcial MSS. 
and Theodoret. — Ed. 

* Which makes it likely, that not x«t» imivfia, but x«t» capKa was whs.t 
went immediately before. — Ed. 

* And not till then, — Ed. 

VOL. III. & 

98 ROMANS VIII. 2, 3. 

aXKoi xctrSi ftvevfua, but according to or after the spirit, ver. 4, 

2. No,ttoj rou mi\iiia,roi) the law of the spirit, the Gospel in- 
scribed on the heart ; comp. ch. iii. 27 ; 2 Cor. iii. 8. The spirit 
makes aUve, and this life invigorates [vegetat] the Christian. — 
fiXiufiptaai (li, hath made me free) a mild term, and in the preterite 
tense ; he had formerly put the weightier verb pvairai in the 
future. Grace renders that most easj, which seems difficult to 
man under the law, or rather does it itself. Both are opposed 
to the phrase, bringing me into captivity, ch. vii. 23. — r^s d/^af^ 
tIcx,; roD ^avarov, of sin and death) He has respect to those 
things which he said in behalf of the law of God, ch. vii. 7 
and 13. Observe that and is put here, and is not put at the 
beginning of the verse in the antithesis, •yv£u,aaroj rric t,urig, of the 
spirit of life, where either the conjunctive particle is wanting^ 
of spirit, [and] of life, or it must be explained thus, rh Xlvivfio, 
Tjjg l^aijjs, the Spirit of life. 

3. Th) This word has the force of an adjective [or epithet'], to 
be simply explained thus : God has accomphshed the condem- 
nation of sin, which was beyond the power of the law ; God 
condemned sin in the flesh (a thing ivhich the law could not 
do, namely, condemn sin, while the sinner is saved). TJ aSuraroi', 
what was impossible, has an active signification in this passage ; 
and the paraphrase of Luther is according to the meaning of 
the apostle. — See Wolfii Cur. on this place. — rou ro^ou) of the 
law, not only ceremonial, but also moral ; for if the moral law 
were without this impossible [impossibility of condemning sin, 
yet saving the sinner], there would have been no need that 
the Son of God should have been sent. Furthermore, the word 
impossible, a privation [of something once held], supposes that 
the thing was previously possessed : formerly the law was able 
to afford righteousness and life, ch. vii. 10. Hence it is that 
man so willingly follows the traces of that first path even after 
the fall. — taurou) 'Idiov, ver. 32. His own, over whom sin and 
death had no power. — vifi'^a;, sending) This word denotes a 
sort of separation, as it were, or estrangement of the Son fi-om 
the Father, that He might be the Mediator. — sv o/ioiiifian ea,pxb( 
a/iaprias, in the likeness of the flesh of sin [sinful fleshj) The 
construction is with xarixpm, condemned [not as Engl. Vers. 


His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh]. We, along -witli 
our fieshj utterly tainted as it was with sin, ought to have been 
consigned to death ; but God, in the likeness of that Jlesh (for 
iustice required the likeness), that is, in the flesh of His own 
Son, which was real and at the same time holy, and (that too) 
for sin, condemned that sin (which was) in (our) flesh,^ that we 
might be made free ; Iv [before o//,oiu)/iaTi] is construed with 
condemned, compare by, ch. vii. 4 [Dead by (dia) the body of 
Christ]. — 'irepl a//,a/>r/as t^\i afi,apriav, for sin, sin) The substan- 
tive is here repeated, as in Luke xi. 17, note, when the house «'.« 
divided, the house falls. But the figure ploce^ is here added, 
as is indicated by the use of the article only in the latter place 
[on the second employment of the word o^afr/a]. These two 
terms mutually refer to one another, as do the words the likeness 
of flesh ani flesh, mpl, for : "jripl a/iaprlag is equivalent to a noun, 
as in Ps. xl. (xxxix.) 6 ; Heb. x. 6, 8. But here, in the epistle 
to the Romans, I explain it thus : God condemned sin on this 
account, because it is sin. Sin was condemned as sin. So sin 
is put twice in the same signification (not in a double significa- 
tion as happens in an antanaclasis), but the article Ttiv adds an 
epitasis.' — xarixpin, condemned) took away, finished, put an end 
to, destroyed all its strength, deprived sin of its power (compare 
the word impossible above [What the law was powerless to do, 
God had power to do, and deprived the law and sin of their 
power"] — sin which was laid on the Son of God. For the exe- 
cution of the sentence also follows the condemnation of sin. It 
is the opposite of the expression to justify, ver. 1 ; ch. v. 18, and 
2 Cor. iii. 9. 

4. Ti hnaiujia, the law's just commandment \_jus, Engl. Vers. 
' righteousness^'^) an antithesis to condemnation, Yer. 1. — -aXrifiadri, 
might be fulfilled) That/M^/i^Jweniispresentlyafter described, ver. 
5-11 ; thence it is that we have the for, ver. 5. Works of justice 
{righteousness] follow him that is justified [i.e. follow as the con- 

^ God condemned that sin, which was in our flesh, in the likeness of that 
sinful flesh, [i.e. in His incarnate Son,] and that too, for sin. 

" See Appendix. The same word repeated, once expressing the simple 
idea of the word, next expressing an attribute of it. 

» See Appendix. Epitasis, when to a word, which has been previously 
used, there is added, on its being used again, some word augmenting its force. 

100 ROMANS VIII. 5-9. 

sequent fruits of his justification] : sin is condemned, lio who had 
been a sinner, now acts rightly, and the law does not prosecute 
its claims against him. — iv rii/,n) in us. — i/,fi xar&, eapxoi, not after 
the flesh) an antithesis to, in the flesh, ver. 3. Now at length 
Paul has come to the open distinction between ^es/t and spirit} 
The spirit denotes either the Spirit of God, or the spirit of be- 
lievers, ver. 16. The latter is a new power produced and main- 
tained in us by Him ; and it is to this that the reference is, 
wherever yfes^ stands in opposition. 

5. O/' yap, for they that) From this passage and onward Paul 
primarily describes the condition of believers ; and secondarily, 
for the purpose of illustrating it, what is contrary to that state. 
— bvTig, who are) This refers to a state, or condition. — <pfoyo\J(s, 
\jninc[\ have a feeling for) A feeling which flows from the con- 

6. (pfivriiia, [minding] feeling for, or of) Fr. sentiment. Corre- 
sponds to the Yevhfhave a feeling for [mind] (p^Ji'0!/ir/,ver.5). — Sdva- 
Tog — t,uri, death, — life) in this present life with its continuation in 
another, comp. ch. vi. 23. — ^wj) xa/ uprivri, life and peace) By the 
addition of the word peace, he prepares the way for himself for 
the transition to the following verse, where enmity is described. 

7. ohhi — iitvara,!, neither can he) Hence the pretext of impossi- 
bility, under which they are anxious to excuse themselves, who 
are reproved in this very passage, as carnal. — V. g. 

8. As) is imrciTixov, [employed to give epitasis (See Appendix) : 
i.e. where to an enunciation already stated, there is added some 
word to give increased emphasis, or an explanation]. — apieai) 
apeffxii here, as elsewhere, signifies not only / please, but / am 
desirous to please, 1 Cor. x. 33 ; Gal. i. 10 ; it is akin to the 
phrase, to be subject, in the preceding verse. 

9. Uviu/ia ©£oD, miij/ia Xpierou, the Spirit of God, the Spirit of 
Christ) A remarkable testimony to the doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity, and its economy in the hearts of believers, comp. ch. v. 
8, 5, xiv. 17, 18, XV. 16, 30 ; Mark xii. 36 ; John xv. 26 ; Gal. 
iv. 6 ; Eph. i. 17, ii. 18, 22 ; 1 Pet. i. 2 ; Acts ii. 33 ; Heb. ii. 
3, 4; 1 Cor. vi. 11, 13, etc. ; 2 Cor. iii. 3, 4. We are to refer 
ver. 11 [The Spirit of Him that raised Jesus] to "the Spirit 

^ A proof ngainst tlie words «XXa xutx Wivfiet, ver. I, which would be too 
premature a distinguishing of ■xvivfiei antl «jJ{j. — Ed. 

ROMANS VIII. 10, 11, 101 

of God" in this verse, and Christ in you — [the Spirit is life] ver. 
10, to " the Spirit of Christ" in this verse. For the distinctive 
marks [_Gnorismata of the Christian] proceed in this order: He 
who has the Spirit, has . Christ ; he who has Christ, has God. — 
Comp. respecting such an order as this, 1 Cor. xii. 4, etc ; Eph. 
iv. 4, etc. — £v u/i/i), in you) In, a particle very careftdly to be at^ 
tended to in this chapter, ver. 1-4, 8-11, 15, concerning the 
carnal and spiritual state. We in God, God in us. — ovrog) 
this man in particular does not belong to Christ ; and therefore 
this whole discourse has no reference to Him. — airdv, His) 
Christ's ; he is a Christian, who belongs to Christ. 

10. E; &i XpiiThg, And truly if Christ) Where the Spirit of 
Christ is, there Christ is, comp. the preceding verse. — ffJD/ia) the 
body, sinful, for here it is opposed to the Spirit, not to the soul. 
— vexphv) The concrete [not the abstract death ; as the antithetic 
^«4 life in the abstract] : he says dead, instead of, about to die, 
with great force; [already] adjudged, and deUvered over to 
death. This is the view and feeling of those, who have experi- 
enced in themselves [in whom there succeeds] the separation of 
soul and spirit, or of nature and grace. — bl, but) Implying, that 
the opposition is immediate [and direct between the body and the 
spiri{}, which excludes Purgatory, [a notion] suited neither to 
body nor spirit, and not consonant to the remaining economy of 
this very full epistle, ver. 30, 34, 38, ch. vi. 22, 28.— (w,?, life) 
The abstract. — dia on account of) Righteousness brings forth life, 
as sin brings forth death ; life does not bring forth righteousness, 
[justification] contrary to the opinion of the Papists. — dixaioevvriv, 
justice [righteousness']) The just — shall live [Rom. i. 17]. 

11. 'irieouv, Jesus) Afterwaxds in Apodosis, Christ. The name 
Jesus has respect to Himself; the name Christ has reference to 
us. The former appellation, as a proper name, belongs to the 
person; the latter, as an appellative, belongs to the office. — 
^«o*(M^«(, sJiall quicken [make alive]) comp. life, ver. 6. This life 
knows no condemnation, ver. 1. — Sicc on account of [or by means 
of]) 2 Cor. i. 22, He is one and the same Spkit, who is the 
Spirit of Christ, and who is in believers; therefore as Christ lives, 
so behevers shall live : See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.* 

' ABC and ace. to Dial. c. Maced. " Several old MSS.," Meraph. and 

102 ROMANS Vm. 12-14. 

12. 'Eo/tfi') we are, we acknowledge and consider ourselves to 
be. A kind of teaching, which borders on exhortation ; (so, we 
are, is also used in Gal. iv. 31) and which presupposes men al- 
ready 6f their own accord well inclined. A feeling of delight 
[see ch. vii. 22] mitigates the sense of debt. [But what is the 
condition of carnal men ? These are really debtors, and confess 
themselves to he debtors, as often as they declare that it is not in 
their power to Ivoe spiritually. — Y. g.J. — ou tT} aapxl, not to the flesh) 
add, but to the spirit; but this is elegantly left to be understood. 
— xar& adpxa, after the flesh) which endeavours to recall us to 

13.^ ToD eu/j^arog) Others read, T^g gapxog. Baumgarten de- 
fends the former, I leave it undetermined.^ — t^rjeeisSe, ye shall 
live) He does not say, /iiXXin i^riv, you are about (thereby) to 
obtain life, but ^■fjeesk, you will remain in life. In the repent- 
ance of those, over whom the flesh had dominion, and in the 
temptations of those, over whom the spirit reigns, the flesh and 
the spirit are, so to speak, evenly balanced ; grace preventing 
[i.e. in the old English sense of prevent : going before, so as to 
give a good will to] the former, sin, preventing [going before, so 
as to get the advantage over] the latter ; to whichsoever side a 
man turns himself, from it he receives his denomination. Begin- 
ning with this passage, Paul entirely dismisses the carnal state, 
and now that he has finished that part, which he had begun at 
ch. vi. 1, he describes the pure and living state, which is the in- 
heritance of beUevers. 

14. "Ayowat) In the middle voice : are led w illin gly [This is 
the sum of the antecedents (the preceding statements) ; ukl &iou 
s/V/i/, the sum of the consequents (the statements that foUow) is, 
ulol ©£oD sim. — ^V. g.] — slah u'lol ©soD) Others read uiol Beou slgiv 

later Syr. Versions read iid rau hoixavi/ro; — ■jrueifietro;. But D(A)Gt/g 
Vulg. Syr. Theb. Versions, Orig. 2, 534a, and 3, 618o, 8l2d, Iran. 304, Hil. 
803, read litl to sooikovii — irvivjAa,. With the accus. the meaning will be 
on account of the Spirit, etc. with the genit. i^ or through. Beng. translates 
it ' propter.' — Ed. 

'^ y^P^ for) the flesh repays with the worst retribution [or is a very bad 

paymaster] : and is there a man, who would wish to owe anything to it ? 

V. g. 

' ABC Orig. 1, 616a; 721& ; 7326; 3, 59lJ read to5 <ri>fieiros. But (A) 
DOfy Vulg. Orig. 2, 266; 3, 1706 Iren. and Cypr. read r^f ir»pxcs Ed. 

ROMANS Vm. ir,, 16. 103 

or uhi ilei 0£oD, There are thus three readings, of which Baum- 
garten defends the first, I the second, which is supported by the 
third, inasmuch as the, word u'lo! is placed first for the sake of 
emphasis ; and it was the emphasis that induced me to touch 
upon this variety in the readings.^ — vhi sons) The Spirit is given 
to sons, Gal. iv. 6. At this passage Paul enters upon the dis- 
cussion of those topics, which he afterwards comprehends under 
the expression. He glorified, ver. 30, but he does not describe 
unmixed glory, but only such glory, as that, the taste of which 
is still diluted with the cross. Therefore the sum of what he 
says is : through sufferings [we must pass] to glory ; patient 
endurance [or else, support] is interwoven with sufferings. 
Hence the whole connection of the discourse will be obvious. 

15. T&p, for) This word has reference to sons in the preced- 
ing verse. — wsij/jia douXilag, the spirit of bondage) The Holy 
Spirit was not even in the Old Testament a Spirit of bondage ; 
but He so unfolded His power in the case of those behevers, in 
whom He then dwelt, that there however was lurking, beneath, 
a feeling arid sense, which carried with it something of bondage, 
inasmuch as being in the case of those who [under the law] 
were still but children, Gal. iv. 1. — irdXiv, again) as formerly 
[under the law]. The Romans in their state as Gentiles had 
had groundless [vain] fear ; but not the spirit of fear, as those 
had had, into whose place the Gentiles had come. The^Church 
of all ages is, as it were, one individual, moral person ; so the 
word, again, Gal. iv. 9, v. 1. — s/'s (po^ov, to fear) See Heb. ii. 15, 
note. — viohfflag, of adoption) See Gal. iv. 1, etc. — xpd^o/jnv, we 
cry) one and all. Cry is a word implying vehemence, accom- 
panied with desire, confidence, a just claim, perseverance. And 
the Holy Spirit himself cries : Abba, Father, Gal. iv. 6, note. 
[If, while you are alive, yow have not attained to this experience, 
it ought to be the subject of lamentation to you, and you ought 
eagerly to seek it ; but if you have attained it, see that you joy- 
fully continue in it. — ^V. g.] 

16. T^li) Our spirit testifies : the Spirit of God Himself testi- 
fies along with our spirit. [Our spirit is human, 1 Cor. ii. 11 ; 

^ T/oi ihiu Sum is read by BGjr Vulg. (Amiat. MS.) Orig. 1, 574c Hilary. 
But t A)DAC Fuld. MS. of Vulg./, Orig. a, 685c Cypr. have viol iiou sicrts. 
Rec. Text with Iren. has siam viol ^tov. — Ed. 

104 ROMANS VIII. 17-19. 

and therefore its testimony is in itself not infallible, Mai. ii. 16. — 
V. g.] Blessed are they, who distinctly perceive this testimony.— 
aM ri has reference to ver. 14. 

17. iMyvXnpowiMi, jointrheirs) that we may know, that it is a 
very great inheritance, which God gives to us : for He has 
assuredly given a great inheritance to His Son. — e/'te?, if indeed?) 
This short clause is a new proposition, which has respect to those 
things, which follow. — eMfj/xasxpt^^h ^^ suffer with) To this word 
refer sufferings in the following verse, and in like manner, we 
may he glorified together in this verse refers to the glory in the 
following verse. 

18. Vaf, for) The reason assigned,^ why he just now made 
mention of suffering, and of glorification. — roD vDi/ %aifo\i, of 
the present time) The cross [laid on the children of God], in the 
New Testament is greater than it formerly was, but -it is of 
short continuance, -/.aiflg, a short time ; the present and future 
are opposed to each other. — ir^of, to he compared with) that is, 
if they be compared together. — s/'s ;i^«j, with respect to [towards] 
us ; comp. 2 Cor. v. 2. 

18, 19. ' A-!roxa\v(pSjjvai — a'jroxd.Xv-^^iv) The gloTj is revealed, and 
then also the sons of God are revealed. 

19. ' A'ffoxapaSoxlci. This term denotes the hope of the coming 
event, and the effort of the mind, which is eagerly panting for 
[gaping for] it. Tlie expectation of the creature, that is, the 
creatiu-e waiting, or expecting. Luther on this passage in Post, 
eccl. calls it, das endliche Harren, final waiting. — rra xriaioig, of 
the creature) The creature here does not denote angels, who are 
free from vanity [weakness] ; nor men of every kind, provided 
only they are men, although not even the weakest men [those 
most under bondage to vanity] are excluded, who, although in 
the bustle of life they consider vanity as if it were liberty, and 
partly stifle, partly conceal their groaning, yet in times of 
sobriety, quietness, sleeplessness and calamity, they have many 
sighs, which are heard by God alone ; nor are the virtiaous 
Gentiles excluded ; but believers are expressly opposed to the 
creature. As to the rest, all the Adsible creation [the whole 
aggregate of creatures : " creaturarum universitatem"] without 

' Aetiologia. See Appendix. 

ROMANS Vlll. iO-21. 105 

exception is intended (as xrlgfio, in Macarius everywhere denotes 
the visible creation [creaturam], Homil. vi. § 5, etc.), and every 
kind of creature according to its condition (captu) [ver. 39, i. 25]. 
As every creature stands in its relation to the sons of God, so, in 
this passage, the things predicated of the former stand in rela- 
tion to the things predicated of the latter. The wicked neither 
desire, nor wiU obtain liberty. Disadvantages have redounded 
to the creature in consequence of [from] sin ; reparation vidll 
accrue to the creature in consequence of [from] the glory of the 
sons of God. — u'luv) Tfxvuv, ver. 21. — airsxde^irai) ' Airh in this 
compound verb signifies the waiting for a thing hoped for in 
consequence of the promise. The same word is in ver. 23 and 
in like manner a-soxapaSoxla above. 

20. MaralorrjTi, to vanity) whence the first of believers, whom 
the Scriptures commend, was called ?3n, Abel [vanity']. Glory is 
opposed both to vanity and corruption ; and the greatest vanity 
is idolatry, ch. i. 21, 23. Vanity is abuse and waste; even the 
malignant spirits themselves have dominion over the creature. 
— ■j'jTira'yri, was made subject) In the passive voice, with a middle 
signification, though it has however in it somewhat of the figure, 
personification. — ou;^' i-A.o\J(Sa, not willingly) For in the beginning 
it was otherwise : thence it is that the creature would rather be 
made subject to Christ [" Thou hast put all things in subjection 
under His feet"], Heb. ii. 7, 8. — S/dciriv i'?rora^a\ira, on account 
of [propter : owing to] Him who hath subjected) that is on 
account of [by reason of] God, Gen. iii. 17, v. 29. Adam 
rendered the creature obnoxious [liable] to vanity, but he did 
not subject it. 

21. 'Et' iKirlbi [super spe: resting on hope], in hope) It is con- 
strued with, was made subject, so, in hope [super spe], is put abso- 
lutely. Acts ii. 26; and comp. by hope [spe], ver. 24. — aurj) jj -/.rigig) 
itself, to wit, the creature. — kXmhpuSfisiTai, shall'be delivered [set 
freej) Dehverance is not accomplished by means of complete 
destruction; otherwise quadrupeds, when they are butchered, 
would fall with pleasure.' — avo rns douXilag r^s iphpa; iig nji/ 
iXeuhfiav r^s So^ris, from the bondage of corruption into the glorious 

1 i.e., were death and annihilation a deliverance. Therefore the coming 
restoration of the creature and its deliverance will not consist in their de- 
struction and annihilation — Fn 

106 KOMAUS Vin. 22, 23. 

liberty) 'Avi, from, and lig, into, are opposed to each other. 
From denotes the point, from which we set out ; into, the point 
at which we arrive. Bondage and liberty belong to the creature ; 
corruption and gbry to men, even behevers [the latter, glory to 
beHevers alone : the former, corruption, to men in general]. 
Vanity, ver. 20, is something more subtle than <pkp&, corruption. 
Not only deliverance, but also liberty, is that goal, to which the 
creature in its own way is directing its course. — ilg rriv sXeuhpiav, 
into the liberty) In order that they may in freedom be subservient 
to the glory of the sons [of God]. — Cluverus. 

22. Tkf,for) This aetiology^ [assigning of a reason] supposes, 
that the groaning of the creature is not in vain, but that it is 
heard by God. — iraea) all [the whole]. It is considered as one 
whole, comp. ver. 28, 32, 39. — eugnvdl^si, groaneth together) with 
united groanings [sighings]. Dio Cassius, book 39, gives a 
singular example of this in the wailing of the elephants, which 
Pompey devoted to the public shows contrary to an express 
pledge [promise given], as men at the time interpreted it ; 
and the people themselves were so affected by it, that they 
imprecated curses on the head of the commander. — «%?/, until) 
He insinuates, that there will be an end of pains and groans, the 
pains and groans of the creature. 

23. Ob /j,6vov Si, but [and] not only) The conclusion is drawn 
from the strong groaning [of the creature] to that which is 
much stronger [that of ourselves]. — avTol — xai fi/ni's aunl, our- 
selves — even we ourselves) The former avrei, ourselves, is to be 
referred [has reference] by antithesis to the creature [the whole 
creation groaneth'] ver. 22 : the latter refers to ver. 26, concern- 
ing the ^irit [maketh intercession for us with groanings] ; and 
yet one and the same subject is denoted [the two aiiToi belong 
to >i/ii'i] ; otherwise, the apostle would have said, aurol oi rtiv 
a-mpxfiv x.r.x. [the article o! would have followed the first aurol, 

had it referred to a different subject from the second avroi]. 

Tijv avapyrii tou -prKsi/tarof, the first fruits of the Spirit) that is 
the Spirit, who is the first fruits ; see 2 Cor. i. 22, note. We 
are a kind of first fruits of God's creatures, James i. 18 ; and 
we have the first fruits of the Spirit; and the same Spirit enters 

1 See Appendix. 

ROMANS VIII. 21-26. 107 

into all creatures, Ps. cxxxix. 7, a passage, from which the 
groaning of the creature is distinctly explained. The 'Sons of 
God are said to have the first fruits, so long as they are in the 
way [whilst as yet they have not reached the end, when they 
shall have full fruition]. Tliey who possess the first fruits, and 
the good, which attends the first fruits, are the same. — exovn;, 
Juzving) This word involves the idea of cause ; because we have. 
— £v iuuroTi, in ourselves) It implies, that the groaning of believers 
is widely different from the groaning of the creature. — anvdioiJiiv) 
^Tivdi^a here, and in ver. 22, signifies to desire [yearn after] 
with groaning ; comp. 2 Cor; v. 4. — rrtv) This article shows by 
the apposition, that this sentiment, if it be resolved [analyzed], 
is contained in it, the redemption of our body is what constitutes 
the adoption. — rijv amXiirpum [redemption'] deliverance) This will 
be at the last day, which already at that time they were setting 
before themselves as being at hand ; iXiuhpla, liberty [ver. 21], 
is a kindred expression to this amXurpMis. — Comp. Luke xx. 36. 
[That liberty is not intended here, by which we are delivered from 
the body, but that, by which the body is delivered from death. — 


24. 'BX-jridi) the dative, not of the means, but of the manner ; 
we are so saved, that there may even yet remain something, for 
which we may hope, — both salvation and glory. He limits the 
present -salvation, but, while he limits, he by that very circinn- 
stance takes it for granted. — r/ xal) why yet does he hope for 
it? Where there is vision, there is no need of hope. The 
blessed will be sure of the eternity of their blessedness, because 
they shall have no need of hope ; and therefore they wiU be 
established in it. 

25. e; di, but if) The patient waiting of believers is deduced 
from the nature of hope. 

26. Kal, even) Not only the whole creation (every creature) 
groans, but the Holy Spirit Himself affords assistance ; comp. 
ver. 23, note 2. On both sides, believers have such as groan 
with them, and make common cause with them ; — on the one 
side, they have the whole creation [creature] , on the other, what 
is of still more importance, they have the Spirit. In as far as 
the Spirit groans, it respects us : in as far as He also affords 
assistance ['helps,'] it respects the creature [creation']. — ffwatTi- 

108 ROMANS VIII. 27. 

Xa//,^a,verai) giiv has the same force in this compound as in tfu/t- 
uaprupei', ver. 16, [i.e., along with us]. — raTg asdivilaig) infirmities, 
which exist in our knowledge and in our prayers ; the abstract 
for the concrete, infirmities, that is our prayers, which are in 
themselves infirm. — yap, for) Paul explains what the infirmities 
are. — ri — xaih, what — as) comp. how or what, Matt. x. 19. — 
viripiVTuyxdni) mip, abundantly [over and above] as in ver. 37, 
i'!ripvix.S)/j,iv, and {iirepemplenvtrsv, ch. v. 20. Both v'jsfivTvyx"'^^' ^^ 
this verse, and hrvyxann, ver. 27, are the predicates of the same 
subject, viz. the Holy Spirit. It is the general practice, first 
to put the compound verb with its proper emphasis, and then 
afterwards merely to repeat, in its stead, the simple form. Thus 
in Rom. xv. 4 we have first 'xpoiypd<p7i, and subsequently in the 
second place, lypaprt follows, which is the genuine reading. — 
eTimy/ioii, with groans) Every groan (the theme or root of the 
word being ffrsvo's, strait) proceeds from the pressure of great 
straits : therefore the matter [the component material] of our 
groaning is fi-om ourselves ; but the Holy Spirit puts upon 
that matter its form [puts it into shape], whence it is that the 
groanings of believers, whether they proceed from joy or sorrow, 
cannot be uttered. 

27. Ae) [Not and, as Engl. Vers., Jwf] refers to a privative 
in dXaX^roi; [Though they can not be uttered, yet, etc.] — jrot,g 
xapdlag, the hearts) The Spirit dwells in the hearts [of believers], 
and makes intercession. Christ is in heaven. He who searches 
the hearts is the Father, to whom especially that act is attri ■ 
buted in Scripture. — to <pp6vri/ia rou -rvivfiaroc, the mind of th,. 
Spirit). — Com-p. f>p6vr}/j,a, ver. 6, (Senswrn,'^ the nominative : firom 
the plural sensa, sensorum. — roD Tviifiarog, of the Spirit) the 
Holy Spirit, as in the preceding verse. — xara) according to [ad], 
xarA &ihv, according to God, not xa,T& aydpuTov, according to man 
(comp. 1 John iii. 20) [after the manner of God, not man], as 
is worthy of God, and in a manner acceptable and manifest to 
Him. The Holy Spirit understands the style of the court of 
heaven, which is acceptable to the Father. Kara is the em- 
phatic word of the sentence, inasmuch as it is placed at the 

' Beng. uses senium here to express ip^6vnpi.», not the accus. otsensus, but 
an old disused nominative singular, the plural of whiah is often found sensa 
sensorum. — Ed. 

BOMANS VIU. 28, 29. 109 

beginning of the clause. — vTep ayluv, for saints) The article is 
not added ; they are saints, who are both near to God, and are 
deemed worthy of assistance, being those for whom [the Spirit] 
makes intercession. 

28. O'idafiiv 8i, Moreover we know) An antithesis to, we know 
not, ver. 26. — roTg ayavSiei, to them tliat love) The subject is here 
described from the fruit of those things, which have been 
hitherto mentioned, — namely, love to God ; and this love also 
makes believers [by a happy art] dexterously to take in good 
part all things which God sends upon them, and perseveringly 
to overcome all difficulties and temptations, [James i. 12. Paul 
is an example, 2 Cor. i. 3— !!• — V. g.] Presently after, in the 
case of the called, the reason is given, why a predicate so excel- 
lent is attributed to this subject [why such blessed things are 
predicated of them who love God]. — •jravra guvspyif) all things 
work together, by means of groanings, and in other ways. So 
1 Mace. xii. 1, o xcx.iphg airffl euvipyeT, time works with (serves) 
him. — th ayadhv, for good) even as far as to [up to] their glori- 
fication, ver. 30, at the end. — nig xara •Hfoheiv xXriroTg oZbiv, to 
those who are the called according to His purpose) This is a new 
proposition in reference to what follows. The apostle designs 
to give a recapitulation of all the advantages involved in justi- 
fication and glorification, ver. 30, and accordingly returns now 
first of aU to its deepest [most remote] roots, which only can 
be known from these their sweetest fruits themselves :* he at 
the same time hereby prepares us for the ninth chapter [which 
treats chiefly of Gods election and calling'] : vpokeig is the purpose, 
which God determined to carry into effect concerning the sal- 
vation of His own people. xXriroTg, the called, is a noun, not a 
participle ; inasmuch as oZaiv is added [which it would not be, 
if xXriToTg were a participial adjective], who are the called : — the 
purpose is unfolded, ver. 29, the called, ver. 30. 

29. TlpoiyviS) He foreknew. Hafenreffer translates it — He 
formerly acknowledged, 'xpihaig, the purpose, comprehends vpoy- 
vagif, foreknowledge, and 'rpoopig/jkh, predestination, for calling is 
annexed both to the former (vpihaig) and to the two latter 

%.e. the root, Go^s calling and everlasting election, is known from the 
blessed fruits {all things working for their good) which it bears to the called. 

110 ROMANS VIII. 30. 

{vpiymisii and irpoopitf/iog), ver. 28—30 ; Eph. i. 9, where how- 
ever ii'kriiJi.a, His will, is in a more extensive sense, than predesr 
tination, and assuredly predestmation accompanies foreknowledge., 
for foreknowledge takes away rejection or reprobation [casting 
away] : ch. xi. 2. Moreover reprobation [casting away] and 
predestination are opposed to each other. — vfodpige, ev/Ji,/i6pipovg, 
predestined, (to be) conformed) He declares, who they are, whom 
He foreknew, namely, those who are conformed. This is the 
character of those [impress of God's seal on those : referring to 
seal, 2 Tim. ii. 19], who were foreknown and are to be glorified, 
2 Tim. ii. 19; Phil.iii. 10, 21. — rrj; sixSvos, to the image) con- 
strued with gu/ji,/i6p<povg, although au/i/:iop(pov, PhU. iii. 10, governs 
the dative. Here it has more the power of a substantive with 
[followed by] the genitive. This likeness [conformity to His 
Son's likeness] constitutes the very adoption of sons itself, not 
the cross or glory ; for this [the glory] follows only after [not 
tUl after] justification ; concerning which, see ver. 30 : but they 
who are the sons of God are the brethren of Christ [at an earlier 
stage in the successive links, viz. ver. 29]. Conformity to His 
cross or His glory is the consequence that follows in the train 
of conformity to the Son of God, Gal. iv. 19. So Eph. i. 5, 
predestinating us unto the adoption of sons (children). — elg t6) 
The cause, why predestination is conjoined with foreknowledge, 
namely, Christ ought to have many brethren ; but this multi- 
tude of brethren would fail, or at least would be diminished, if 
there were foreknowledge without predestination. Predestination 
overcomes everything that obstructs the salvation of believers, 
and changes adversity into prosperity. — sTmi) that He might be, 
and might be seen to be. — 'irptaroToxov, the first-bom) The glorious 
resurrection of Christ, and of behevers, is itself a kind of gene- 
ration [the regeneration], Matt. xis. 28. 

30. Toirou? xal idixalugiv, them He also justified) Paul does not 
fix the number of those, who are called, justified, glorified, to be 
absolutely equal ; he does not afiirm that the believer may not 
fail between the special call, and final glory, ch. xi. 22 ; nor does 
he deny that there are also persons called, who may not be justi- 
fied ; but he shows, that God, so far as He Himself is concerned, 
conducts His people from step to step. — kU^asf, He glorified) ver. 
l''-24. He speaks in the preterite, as if he were looking back 

ItOMANS VIII. 31. 11] 

from the goal to the race of faith, and from eternal glory, as it 
were, backward to the eternity itself, in which God decreed the 
glorifying of His people. — l_Comp. Ps. xvi. 3.] 

31. Uphe raZra) to [as regards] these things, which have been 
spoken of in chapters iii, v. viii. : that is to say, we cannot go, 
we cannot think, we cannot wish for anything farther. And if 
any one, by reason of his unbelief, should feel inclined to bring 
forward anything in opposition to these things (comp. Luke xiy. 
6, to=in opposition to these things) he cannot do it. [It may be 
justly said, that the gate of heaven is thrown open in this passage, 
ver. 31—39. — ^V. g.] — £')*/• The conditional used instead of the 
causal, renders the conclusion the stronger. Many are of opinion, 
that there are three sections l_periochcB, complete portions of the 
discourse] in this passage, every one of which begins by an in- 
terrogation with rig, who ? with an anaphora,' and has its answer 
immediately following, which is called anthypophora.^ But the 
apostle contemplated a different analysis. There are four sec- 
tions beginning with this verse ; one, a general section ; and three 
special ones : every one of them has glorying concerning Grace 
in the first instance ; and then presently after a suitable question, 
challenging all opposition, to which the expression, I am per- 
suaded, is an answer. The fijrst, a general section, is this : If 
God be for us, "WHO can be against us ? The first special section 
is this, which concerns the past : He who did not even spare His 
own Son, but delivered Sim up for us all ; How shall He not 
also with Him forgive [But Engl. Vers, freely give\ us all things ? 
Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? (Where 
in the question, the logical consequence is from [is drawn from] 
glorying concerning the past : for the nature of the subject did 
not admit of the section being only expressed by preterite tenses. 
Accordingly there is [besides the Preterites] also a double future 
in, shall He forgive, shall lay to the charge ; but it has a manifest 
reference to past events. God will forgive all the sins, that have 
been committed [by believers]. No one can now accuse God's 

1 The frequent repetition of the same word in the beginnings of sections. 
— See Appendix. 

2 See Appendix. The answer to a foreseen objection of an adversary, by 
anticipation, or an answer to an objection actually made, by the statement 
of an opposite sentiment or fact. 

113 KOMANS VIII. 32. 

elect on account of those sins committed by them. And the Tiow 
and who are thus combined in one and the same section, but 
there is also a double relation, 1.) God did not spare His own 
Son. Therefore, He will also forgive us with Him all things. 2.) 
He delivered Him up for us all. Therefore, no one shall lay any- 
thing to the charge of God's elect.) The second section has re- 
spect to the present ; It is God that justijieth, Who is he that 
condemneth ; comp. by all means, Isa. 1. 8, 9. The third section 
is concerning the future : It is Christ [that died], etc. Who 
shall separate us ? For it is a future non-separation which is 
imphed in the shall separate, as appears by comparing this 'Sfith 
the end of ver. 38. The Past and Present are the foundation of 
the Future, and often the love of Christ is inferred from His 
death, ch. v. 5, etc. ; Gal. ii. 20 ; Kev. i. 5. An interrogative 
apodosis such as this is frequent, and is admirably suited to a 
spirited discourse. — ^Acts viii. 33 ; Num. xxiv. 9 ; Job ix. 12, 
xxxiv. 29 ; Ps. xxvii. 1 ; Isa. xiv. 27, xhii. 13 ; Lam. ii. 13, at 
the end of verse ; Amos iii. 8. 

32. "Ogyi, who) This first special section has four sentences: 
the third has respect to the first, the fourth to the second. He 
did not spare His own Son : therefore there is nothing, which 
He wiU not forgive. He delivered up His Son for us : therefore 
no one shall accuse us on account of our sins, ch. iv. 25. He 
was delivered [for our offencesl. Nor does the clause, who shall 
lay anything to the charge, so closely cohere Avith that which fol- 
lows, as with that which goes before ; for the delivering up of 
Christ for us forbids all laying ought to our charge : whereas our 
justification [ver. 33, it is God that justifietl{\ does not forbid the 
laying things to our charge, but overcomes it. Ts has a sweetness 
full of exultation, as the xa/, even — also, ver. 34, repeated : h, who, 
has its apodosis, he, imphed in the following words. — olx ipileaTo, 
did not spare) Lxx. cix s<pi!ffcii rou u/oD eov x.r.X., Gen. xxii. 16, con- 
cerning Abraham and Isaac, and Paul seems to have had that 
passage in his mind. God, so to speak, offered violence to His 
love as a Father. — ^/ia)» -jravTuv, us alt) In other places it is gene- 
rally said, all we, of all of us ; but here us is put first with greater 
force and emphasis. The perception of grace in respect to our- 
selves is prior to our perception of universal grace [grace in re- 
spect to tJie world at large\. Many examples of its application 


are found without any mention of its universality, for instance, 
1 Tim. i. 15, 16: whereas its universality is subsequently com- 
mended for the purpose of stimulating to the farther discharge 
of duties, ib. ii. 1, etc. — irapihoijuv) delivered up. So Lxx., Isa. 
liii. 6. — xa.1 euv airffl, with Himself also) -/.a,! also adds an epitasis' 
to the reasoning from the greater to the less. It was more [a 
greater stretch of love] not to spare His Son ; now, with the Son, 
that is, when we have the Son already sacrificed, at all costs, to 
us [by the Father], He will certainly forgive us [give us freely] 
all things. — •jraira) all things,tiiat are for our salvation. — y^^apieirai, 
will freely give [and forgive] ) The antithesis to He did not spare. 
The things which are the consequence of redemption, are them- 
selves also of grace [freely given : yafUiTai, xa.(ii\. 

33. 'ExXsxriii 0£oD, of God^s elect) ver. 29. — dixaiSiv, that justi- 
Jieth) To justify and condemn are the words in antithesis to each 
other, ver. 3, note. In Isa. 1. 8, 9, a passage, which we have 
previously quoted, there similarly comes first an hypothesis in 
each of the consecutive sections, and there follows the Answer 
subjoined by the speaker, in each case respectively, expressed in 
the form of a question ; for example, 

A. He is near, who justifies me :^ 

B. 1. Who will contend with me? we shall (let us) stand 
2. Who is the lord of my cause ? let him draw near to me. 
C. Behold the Lord God will help me : 
D, Who is he that shall condemn me ? 

Here the apostle seems to have assumed A, and on the con- 
trary to have omitted B, and likewise to have omitted C, and on 
the contrary to have quoted D 

34. ' O uToiavuiv, fiaXXov Si — og xal — o; x-al, that died, yea rather 
— vjho even — who also) The order of the enumeration of the 

1 See Appendix. Some word added to give increased emphasis or clear- 
ness to a previous enunciation. 

" This expression, that He is near, seems to be in the meanwhile said 
m the Old Testament sense, whereas, on the contrary, He is said in the 
Romans to be the God that justifieth, without any restriction. 


114 ROMANS VIII. 35. 

ttmgs contrary, ver, 35, 38, 39, corresponds to these four weighty 
turning points of his argument. In ver. 35, the former are hghter 
and less considerable [thau in ver. 38], and may be all referred 
to [reduced to the one head, viz.j death, ver. 38, inasmuch as 
they are, as it were, previous tendencies towards death. The 
contraries in the way of the elect, enumerated in ver. 38, 39, are 
more, weighty ones. That topic will be by and by brought out 
more fully. — /j,aX\ov, rather) ch. v. 10. Our faith ought to lean 
on the death of Christ, but it ought rather also to make such 
progress, as to lean on His resurrection, kingly dominion, and 
second coming. — 'ieriv h Si^i^ rou ©soD, is at the right hand of 
God) He is able to save ; He Himself and the Father. The 
ascension is not previously mentioned, nor does the mention of 
His glorious coming follow : for the former is the act of sitting 
at the right hand of God, the latter entirely takes away all, 
that threatens separation from the love of God, and brings in 
the state of glory, of which ver. 30 treats. — hrvyx"'Vii, intercedes) 
He is willing to save : He Himself and the Father. 

35. T/'s ^/i&g ■xaipkii, who shall separate us) The perpetuity of 
the union, for the time to come, with the love of Christ and of 
God, is deduced from the death of Christ, from His resurrection, 
His sitting at the right hand of God and His intercession, comp. 
ch. v. 5, 6, 9, 10 ; Heb. vii. 25. But the who is presently after 
explained by the enumeration [shall tribulation or distress, etc<], 
without an aetiology following after : from which again it is 
evident, that the aetiology, [assigning of the reason] must be 
sought for before the words, who shall separate us, in ver. 34 : 
and he says who, not what, although he subjoins [shall] affliction, 
etc., because personal enemies lurk under these adverse things. — 
rrig ajd-^rra, from the love) towards us, ver. 37, 39. The founda- 
tion of the impossibility of being separated from the love of 
Christ is love ; the foundation of this confidence is love clearly 
perceived. — roD Xpigrou, of Christ) The love of God is one with 
the love of Christ, ver. 39. — yu/j^voTng) nakedness, the want of 
clothing, the extreme of poverty, 1 Cor. |_iv. 11 ; 2 Cor. xi. 27. 
The enumeration for the most part goes on in pairs, hunger and 
nakedness, etc. — xhSwog, peril) Hypocrites often sink under mere 
dangers. — n f^a.X'^'P") "'' sword) an instrument of slaughter. Paul 
^mentions the kind of death, with which he himself had been 

KOMANS vni. 36-38. US 

Bometimes threatened, ch. xvi. 4; Phil. ii. 17, note. Many 
martyrs, who survived other tortures, were despatched vvdth the 
sword, Iri'ktmSnsa.y [consummati sunt]. 

36. Ka^ws, as) He gives th« reason, why he enumerates in 
the preceding verse so many trials. — on — e<pa,yrii) So the Lxx., 
Ps. xhv. 23. Both the church of the Oldi Testament, and much 
more that of the New Testament, might have so spoken ; and 
the latter may still so speak. — sWxa tfoD, for thy sake) It is a 
good thing thus [i.e. for Christ's sake] to suffer : the sorrows, 
in which the world abounds, and which are braved for other 
reasons, are vain. — 6a.vaTovfi,ida, we are killed) The first class of 
the blessed [departed saints] is for the most part filled up with 
those, who met a violent death, Matt, xxiii. 34, 35 ; Heb. xi. 37 ; 
Kev. vi. 11, XX. 4. — oXjjv riiv Tifkipav) all the day. So the Lxx., in 
many passages, DITi 72, a proverbial expression; the whole day, all 
the day : Matt. xx. 6. Ps. quoted above, ver. 16, 9. — iXoyie^rij^iv, 
we are accounted) by our enemies, as also by ourselves. 

37. 'T-Tripvixufieti, we are more than conquerors) We have 
strength not only equal and sufiicient, but far more than suffi- 
cient for overcoming the preceding catalogue of evils : and not 
even shall the catalogue of evils, which follows, injure us, be- 
cause Christ, because God is greater than all. In this section 
there is designated that (as it were) highest mark which the 
Christian can attain, before his departure to the abodes of the 

blessed di& tou ayavriitavTos) The Aorist : through Him, who hath 

with His love embraced us in Christ, and for that very reason 
proves us by trials and adversity. 

38. Uiviii/jiai, I am persuaded) all doubt being overcome. — 
■yap) Things of less weight do not hurt us : for even things of 
greater weight shall not hurt us. — o'iiri ddvaros, x.r.X., neither death, 
etc.) This is introduced firom ver. 34, in an adrnirable order : 

Neither death shall hurt us, for Christ hath died : 
nor life : comp. ch. xiv. 9. He rose again : 
nor angels, nor principalities, nor things ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^J^^ 
present, nor things to come : comp. Eph. j ^ ^^ q^^ 
i. 20, 21. ■' 
nor power, nor height, nor depth, nor any He makes inter- 
other creature. cession. 

116 ROMANS VIII. 38. 

Hence we have an illustration of the order of the words. For 
the enumeration moves in pairs ; neither death nor life ; nor 
things present, nor things to come. The other two pairs are 
subjoined by chiasmus ;^ nor power [1], nor height [2], nor 
depth [3], nor any other [4] creatwhe ; [the first referring to the 
fouHh, the second to the thirdl ; in such a way, however, that 
in some sense, also power and height, depth and any creature may 
be respectively joined together. A similar chiasmus occurs at 
Matt. xii. 22, so that the blind and dumb both spake and saw, 
[blind referring to saw ; dumb to «pafe]. But if any one should 
prefer the more commonly received reading of the order of 
enumeration, he may read as follows • — 

Neither death, nor life : 
nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers : 

nor things pfesent, nor things to come : 
nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, 

so that there may be four pairs of species, and the second and 
fourth pairs may have the genus added in the first or last place. 
But testimony of higher antiquity maintains the former order of 
enumeration to be superior.^ See App. Ciit. Ed. ii., p. 329, etc. 
I acknowledge for my own part that the generally received 
order of the words is more easy, and the reader is free to choose 
either. At all events the relation of this enumeration to ver. 34, 
which was demonstrated above, is so evident, and so full of the 
doctrine of salvation, that it cannot be admitted to be an arbi- 
trary interpretation. Now, we shall look at the same clauses 
one by one. — 6a,mrog, death) Death is considered as a thing most 
terrible and here it is put first, with which comp. ver. 34, and 
the order of its series, and ver. 36. Therefore the death also, 
which is inflicted by men, is indicated : burning alive, strangu- 
lation, casting to wild beasts, etc' — t^un, life) and in it ^T^-^ig, 

1 See Appendix. From the Greek X. When the component parts of 
two pairs of words or propositions have a mutual relation, inverse or direct. 

" ABCD(A)Gcfg. Memph. later Syr. Versions, Orig. Hilary 291, Vulg. 
put the ivvctftii; before oWe liij/afix. Rec. Text has no very ancient autho- 
rity but Syr. Vers, for putting Iwafiiis before outs inMrara. — Ed. 

* The author in his Germ. Vers, expresses the siispicion, that the state o' 

KOMANS VIII. 39, ]17 

affliction, etc., ver. 35 : likewise length of life, tranquillity, and 
all living men [as opposed to angels\. None of these things 
shall be hurtful, comp. 1 Cor. iii. 22 [in ver. 21 men are in- 
cluded]. — ayyiXoi, angels) The mention of angels is made, after 
the implied mention of men, in the way of gradation ; 1 Cor. 
XV. 24, note. In this passage the statement may be understood 
as referring to good angels (conditionally, as Gal. i. 8), and of 
wicked angels (categorically) : (for it will be foimd that the 
latter are also called angels absolutely, not merely angels of the 
devil; Matt. xxv. 41) ; 1 Cor. iv. 9, vi. 3, xi. 10 ; 1 Tim. iii. 16 , 
1 Pet. iii. 22 ; 2 Pet. ii. 4 ; Jude, ver. 6 ; Eev. ix. 11, etc. , 
Ps. Ixxviii. 49. — «?%«/, principalities) These are also cotapre- 
hended under the general name angels, as well as other orders, 
Heb. i. 4, 14 ; but those seem to be specially denominated 
angels, who are more frequently sent than the rest of the 
heavenly orders. They are thus called principalities, and also 
thrones, Col. i. 16 ; but not kingdoms, for the kingdom, belongs 
to the Son of God, 1 Cor. XV. 24, 25. — ours biSTOira outi /i/tXkovra, 
nor things present nor things to come) Things past are not men- 
tioned, not even sins ; for they have all passed away. Present 
things are the events, that happen to us duiing our earthly 
pilgrimage, or which befall the whole world, until it come to an 
end. For the saints are Viewed either individually, or as a 
united body. Things future refer to whatever will occur to us 
either after our time in the world, or after that of the whole 
world has terminated, as the last judgment, the conflagration of 
the world, eternal punishment ; or those things, which, though 
they now exist, will yet become known to us at length by name 
in the world to come, and not till then. — oure 8{im,u,is,^ nor power) 
^A{iva/Ji,ig often corresponds to the Hebrew word K3V, and signifies 
forces, hosts. 

39. Oun u-vj/W|tta, ours 8a,6o;, nor height nor depth') Things past 
and future point to differences of times, height and depth to 

the dead is here indicated rather than actual slaughter; from the considera- 
tion, that already in ver 35, every hind of death may be comprehended under 
the term sword. — E. B. 

1 fg Vulg. Ambrose and Augustine support the singular Iviiafu;. But 
all the other authorities quoted in my last note support iuuafiu;. — Ed. 

' D corrected by a later hand, d. 

118 ROMANS VIII. 39. 

differences of places. We do not know, the number, magnitude, 
and variety of thingsj comprehended in these words, and yet we 
do not fear them. Height here, in sublime style, is used for 
heaven ; depth for the abyss ; with which comp. oh. x. 6, 7 ; 
Eph. iv. 8, 9, 10, that is, neither the arduous and high ascents, 
nor the precipitous and deep descents, I shall not say, of the 
feelings, of the affections, of fame, and of pecuniary resources, 
PhU. iv. 12, nor shall I say [the arduous ascents, etc.], of walls, 
of mountains, and of waters, but even of heaven and of the 
abyss itself, of which even a careless consideration has power 
sufficient to make the human mind beside itself [to fiU it with 
strange awe], produce in us no terror. Furthermore, Paul does 
not say in Greek, 'i-^og, ^dkg, as he does elsewhere in another 
sense ; nor u-^cafia, fid6u'ef/,a (as Plutarch says, i-^u/iara tZh 
aerspw, the heights of the stars, and Theophrastus, jSaSigfiara, rrn 
"kinvrii, the depths of the lake) but u'^ta/^ay^dhg; using purposely, 
as it were, the derivative and primitive, which strike the ear 
with variety in sound. "T'4/o5, the primitive noun, signifies 
height absolutely ; b-'l>a/ia, a sort of verbal noun, is not so much 
height, as something that has been elevated, or made high; 
\j-^og belongs to God, and the third heaven, fi-om whence we 
receive nothing hurtfal; u'^tafM has perhaps some likeness in 
sound [resemblance by aUiteration] to the word enpicaiMa, jirma^ 
merit, which is frequently used by the LXX. interpreters ; and in 
this passage certainly points to those regions, to which it is diffi- 
cult to ascend, and where the powers of darkness range, evcalting 
themselves awfdlly against us [2 Thess. ii. 4, eaialteth himself, 
Ephes. ii. 2, vi. 12] : fidh;, how far soever it descends, does no 
injury to us, — xrieig, creature) whatever things exist outside of 
God, and of what kind soever they are. He does not so much 
as condescend to mention visible enemies. — Suvrjgsrui, shall be 
able) although they should make many attempts. — ^caplaai, to 
separate) neither by violence, ver. 35, nor in the way of law 
[just right], ver. 33, 34. 

EOMANS IX. 1-3. 119 


1. 'AXfihiav, truth) Concerning the connexion, see on ch. i, 
16, note. The article is not added here ; comp. 2 Cor. vii. 14, 
xi. 10, tecause his reference is not to the whole truth, but to 
something true in particular [a particular truth], and in this 
sense also aXfihiai in the plural is used in Ps. xii. 2, LXX. ; 
2 Mace. vii. 6. This asseveration chiefly relates to ver. 3, 
vrhere for is put as in Matt. i. 18. Therefore ■ in ver. 2 on 
denotes because [not as Engl. Vers, that'], and indicates the 
cause of the prayer. For verse 2 was hkely to obtain belief of 
itself without so great an asseveration [being needed ; therefore 
on is not = that in ver. 2.] — xiyu, I speak) The apostle speaks 
deliberately. — Iv XpiarSi) 3, h, has sometimes the same force as 
an oath. — oi -vJ^siSo^a/, I lie not) This is equivalent to that 
clause, I speak the truth. Its own confirmation is added to each 
[both to, I lie not, and to, I speak the truth']. This chapter 
throughout in its phrases and figures comes near to the Hebrew 
idiom. — evviibfigsus, conscience) The criterion of truth lies in the 
conscience and in the heart, which the internal testimony of the 
Holy Spirit enlightens and confirms. "■ 

2. Aijff)), grief, [heaviness]) In spiritual things grief and (see 
the end of the eighth chapter) joy in the highest degree may 
exist together. Paul was sensible, from how great benefits, 
already enumerated, the Jews excluded themselves, and at the 
same time he declares [makes it evident], that he does not say 
those things, which he has to say, in an unfriendly spirit 
towards his persecutors. — /loi — rjj xapSlcf /iov, to me — in my 
heart) These are equivalent in each half of the verse. 

3. Hiip^o>9iii, I could wish) A verb in the imperfect tense, in- 
volving in it a potential or conditional signification, involving 
the cohdition, if Christ would permit. Sis grief was unceasing 
[continual], but this prayer does not seem here to be asserted as 
unceasing, or absolute. Human words are not fully adequate 
to include in them [to express ftdlyj the emotions of holy souls ; 
nor are those emotions always the same ; nor is it in the power 

120 ROMANS IX. 3. 

of those souls always to elicit from themselves such a prayer as 
this. If the soul be not far advanced, it is incapable of [cannot 
comprehend] this. It is not easy to estimate the measure of 
love, in a Moses and a Paul. For the narrow boundary of our 
reasoning powers does not comprehend it ; as the little child is 
unable to comprehend the courage of warlike heroes. In the 
case of those two men [duumvirs] themselves, the intervals in 
their lives, which may be in a good sense called extatic, were 
something sudden and extraordinary. It was not even in their 
own power to elicit from themselves such acts as these at any 
time they chose. Grief [heaviness] and sorrow for ^e danger 
and distress of the people ; shame for their fault ; zeal for their 
salvation, for the safety of so great a multitude, and for still 
farther promoting the glory of Grod through the preservation of 
such a people, so carried them away, as to make them for a 
time forget themselves, Exod. xxxii. 32. I am incHned to give 
this paraphrase of that passage : Pardon them ; if thou dost not 
pardon them, turn upon me the punishment destined for them, 
that is, as Moses elsewhere says, kill me, Num. xi. 15. It is 
therefore the book of temporal life, as distinguished from that 
of eternal life, according to the point of view, economy, and style 
of the Old Testament ; comp. Ex. xxxiii. 3, 5. The book of 
temporal life is intended in Ps. cxxxix. 16. — aJros lyii, I my- 
self) construe these words with to he \were\. — avakfio. ihai, to he 
accursed) It will be enough to compare this passage with Gal. 
iii. 13, where Christ is said to have heen made a curse for us. 
The meaning is, I could have wished to bring the misery of the 
Jews on my own head, and to be in their place. The Jews, 
rejecting the faith, were accursed from Christ ; comp. Gal. i. 8, 
9, V. 4. Whether he would have wished only the deprivation 
of all good, and his own destruction, and annihilation, or 
the suffering also of every evil, and that too both in body and 
in soul, and for ever, or whether, in the very excitement 
[paroxysm] of that prayer, he had the matter fully present 
before his understanding, who knows whether Paul himself, had 
he been questioned, would have been able exactly to define 1 
At least that word [Egoj I [all thought of seZ/] was entirely 
suppressed in him ; he was looking only to others, for the sake 
of the Divine glory; comp. 2 Cor. xii. 15. From the loftiest 

ROMANS IX. 4. 121 

pinnacle of faith (chap, viii.) he now shows the highest degree 
of love, which was kindled by the Divine love. The thing, 
which he had wished, could not have been done, but his prayer 
was pious and solid, although under the tacit condition, if it 
were possible to he done ; comp. Rom. viii. 38, I am persuaded; 
Ex. xxxii. 33. — a^i roD XpiSTov, from Christ) So a.Th from 1 Cor. 
i. 30 ; or, as Christ, being made a curse, was abandoned by the 
Father ; so Paul, filled with Christ, vrished in place of the Jews 
to be forsaken by Christ, as if he had been accursed. He is 
not speaking of excommunication from the everlasting society of 
the church. There is a difference between these two things, 
for xardpa iwp, curse, has the greater force of the two, and 
implies something more absolute : Din, anathema, something 
relative, Gal. i. 8, 9, 1 Cor. xvi. 22, the former is rather more 
severe, the latter milder ; the former expresses the power of 
reconciliation by the cross of Christ ; the latter is more suitable 
to [more applicable as regards] Paul ; nor can the one be sub- 
stituted for the other, either here, or in the passages quoted. — 
Tuv) The apostle is speaking of the whole multitude, not of indi- 
viduals. — adiX<paii /iou, for my brethren) This expresses the cause 
of his so great love toward them. — avyyevuv /lou xara sdfxa, my 
kinsmen according to the flesh) This expresses the cause of his 
prayer, showing why the prayer, other things being supposed to 
be equal [coBteris paribus, supposing there were no objection on 
other grounds], was right ; and by adding kinsmen, he shows 
that the word brethren is not to be understood, as it usually is, 
of Christians, but of the Jews. Christ was made a curse for us, 
because we were his kinsmen. 

4. o'lTiier, inasmuch as being those wJ^o) He now explains the 
cause of his sorrow and grief : viz. the fact that Israel does not 
enjoy so great benefits. He uses great ' euphemia' [softening of 
an unwelcome truth. Append.] in words. — wv fi vioheta — iTayye- 
Xlai, whose is the adoption of [as] sons — the promises) Six privi- 
leges are enumerated by three pairs of correlatives ; and in the 
first pair, regard is had to God the Father ; in the second, to 
Christ ; in the third, to the Holy Spirit : with which comp. 
Eph. iii. 6, note. — ri ukhela, xal it S6^a, the adoption of sons and 
the glory) i.e. that Israel is the first-born son of God, and the 
God of glory is their God, Deut. iv. 7, 33, 34 ; Ps. cvi. 20, 

£22 ROMANS IX. 5. 

(xlvii. 5) ; but by the force of the correlatives, God is at the 
game time the Father of Israel, and Israel is the people of God. 
In like manner this relation is expressed in abbreviated form 
(the two respective correlatives being left to be supplied. See 
Append, on locutio concisa) in Eev. xxi. 7 ; comp. Eom. viii. 
18, 19. Some understand Sogan, the glory, of the ark of the 
covenant ; but Paul is not speaking here of anything corporeal. 
God Himself is called the Qlory of His people Israel, by the 
same metonymy, as He is called the Fear, instead of the God 
[the Object of fear], of Isaac, Gen. xxxi. 42, 54. — xa) ai S/a- 
6ri%a,i, y.a.1 rj vo/^ohala, and the covenants and the giving of the law) 
comp. Heb. viii. 6. The reason why the covenants are put before 
the giving of the law, is evident from Gal. iii. 17. AiaSj^Kai is 
plural, because the testament, or covenant, both was frequently 
repeated. Lev. xxvi. 42, 45 ; Eph. ii, 12 ; and was given in 
various modes [■^roXurf oVws], dispositions [one, the law received by 
the disposition of angels, the other the Gospel covenant under 
Jesus], Heb. i. 1 ; and because there were two administrations 
of it. Gal. iv. 24, the one promising, the other promised [the 
subject of the promise]. — xal rj XarpiSa xal a) l-KayyiKiai, and the 
service of God and the promises) Acts xxvi. 6, 7 ; Eph, i. 13 ; 
Heb. viii. 5, 6. Here the giving of the law and the service of 
God, the covenants and the promises correspond by chiasmus.^ 
For the promises flow from the covenants ; and the service of God 
was instituted by the giving of the law. [It was the promises 
that procured (gained) for the service of God its peculiar dignity. 
Moreover, the Holy Spirit was promised. Gal. iii. 14. — ^V. g.] 

5. ^fLv 01 'jraripiz, x.t.X.) whose are the fathers, etc. Baum- 
garten has both written a dissertation on this passage, and has 
added it to his Exposition of this Epistle. All, that is of im- 
portance to me in it, I have explained im Zeugniss, p. 157, etc. 
(ed. 1748), [c. 11, 28]. — xa) Ig Sdi, and of whom, i.e. of the 
Israelites, Acts iii. 22. To the six privileges of the Israelites 
lately mentioned are added the seventh and eighth, respecting 
the fathers, and respecting the Messiah Himself. Israel is a 
noble and a holy people.- — o wv) i.e. Sg hn, but the participle has 
a more narrow meaning. Artemonius with great propriety proves 

' See Appendix. 

ROMANS IX. 5. 126 

from the grief of Paul, that there is no doxology in this passage : 
Part I. cap. 42 ; but at the same time he along with his associates 
contends, that Paul wrote m 6 w/ -TrdtTuv, &ihe, x.t.x. So that 
there may be denoted in the passage this privilege of the Israel- 
ites, that the Lord is their God ; and he interprets the clause, 
M vavTiuv, thus : that this privilege is the greatest of all the 
honours conferred upon Israel. But such an interpretation of 
the 6 hiri irawoiv, with which comp. Eph. iv. 6 (that we may- 
remove this out of our way in the first place), implies a meaning, 
which owes its birth merely to the support of an hypothesis, and 
which requires to be expressed rather by a phrase of this sort ; 
rh hfi icawm ihifQiv. Xhe conjecture itself, wv 6, carries with it an 
open violation of the text. For I. it dissevers rl xara ed^xa from 
the antithetic member of the sentence, xara, vnviJM^ which is 
usually everywhere mentioned [expressed]. 11. It at the same 
time divides the last member of the enumeration [of the cata- 
logue of privileges], before which xa/, and, is suitably placed, 
%ai i^ uv, x.T.K. into two members, and in the second of these the 
conjunction is by it harshly suppressed. 

Artemonius objects : I. Christ is nowhere in the sacred Scrip- 
tures expressly called God. Ans. Nowhere ? Doubtless because 
Artemonius endeavours to get rid of all those passages either by 
proposing a different reading, or by a different mode of interpreta- 
tion. He himself admits, that too many proofs of one thing ought 
not to be demanded, page 225. In regard to the rest, see note on 
John i. 1. He objects, U. If Paul wrote 6 uv, he omitted the 
principal privilege of the Israelites, that God, who is the Best 
and Greatest of all, was their God. Ans. The adoption and the 
glory had consisted in that very circumstance ; therefore he did 
not omit it ; nor is that idea, the Lord is the God of Israel, ever 
expressed in these words. Thine, Israel, is God blessed for ever. 
He urges further ; Christ is included even in the covenants, and 
yet Paul presently after makes mention of Christ ; how much 
more wovdd he be likely to make mention of God the Father 
Himself? Ans. The reason in the case of Christ for His being 
mentioned does not equally hold good in the case of God. Paul 

^ i.e., according to His divine nature. The words o' tvl ■xanau SeoV are 
equivalent to xosroJ ■jnitviiK,, and form a plain antithesis to to xaroi aajxa = 
Hit human nature. — Ed. 

124 ROMANS IX. 5. 

mentions in the order of time all the privileges of Israel (the 
fathers being by the way [incidentally] joined with Christ). 
He therefore mentions Christ, as He was manifested [last in 
order of time] ; but it was not necessary that that should 
be in like manner mentioned of God. Moreover, Christ was in 
singularly near relationship to the Israelites ; but God was also 
the God of the Gentiles, ch. iii. 29 : and it was not God, but 
Christ, whom the Jews rejected more openly. What? In 
the very root of the name Israel, and therefore of the Israelites, 
to which the apostle refers, ver. 4, 6, the name El, God, 
is found. He objects, HI. The style of the Fathers disagrees 
with this opinion : nay, the false Ignatius [pseudoignatius] 
reckons among the ministers of Satan those, who said, that Jesus 
Himself is God over all. Ans. By this phrase, he has some- 
what incautiously described the Sabellians, and next to them he 
immediately places the Artemonites in the same class. In other 
respects the fathers often apply the phraseology of Paul respect- 
ing Christ to the Father, and by that very circumstance prove 
the true force of that phraseology [as expressing Divinity] ; and 
yet the apostle is superior to [should have more weight than] the 
fathers. Wolfius refutes Artemonius at great length in vol. ii. 
Curar. ad N. T., p. 802, etc. — ivl ffacrwv, over all) The Father is 
certainly excepted, 1 Cor. xv. 27. Christ is of the fathers, accords 
ing to the flesh ; and at the same time was, is, and shall he over all, 
inasmuch as He is God blessed for ever. Amen ! The same praise 
is ascribed to the Father and the Son, 2 Cor. xi. 31. Over all, 
which is antithetic to, of whom, shows both the pre-existence 
{'^rpoiirap^iv) of Christ before the fathers, in opposition to His des- 
cent from the fathers according to the flesh, and His infinite 
majesty and dominion full of grace over Jews and Gentiles ; 
comp. as to the phrase, Eph. iv. 6 ; as to the fact itself, John 
viii. 58 ; Matt. xxii. 45. They are quite wrong, who fix the 
full stop either here [after wa>rwv], (for the comma may be placed 
with due respect to religion) ; for in that case the expression 
should have been, ivhoynrog 6 ^eog [not o — 'bthg ilXcynros], if only 
there had been here any peculiar occasion for such a doxology ; 
or [who fix a full stop] after edpxa ; for in this case rh xara 
eupua would be without its proper antithesis [which is, " who 
in His divine nature is God over all" [. — ©si;, God) We should 

ROMANS IX. 6. 125 

greatly rejoice, that In this solemn description Christ is so plainly 
called God. The" apostles, who wrote before John, take for 
granted the deity of Christ, as a thing acknowledged ; whence it 
is that they do not directly treat of it, but yet when it comes in 
their way, they mark it in a most glorious manner. Paul, ch. v. 
15, had called Jesus Christ man ; but he now calls Him God ; 
so also 1 Tim. ii. 5, iii. 16. The one appellation supports the 
other. — ivXoytirh;, blessed) napn. By this epithet we unite in 
giving all praise to God, 2 Cor. xi. 31. — ilg nui o.]mag,for ever) 
[He] Who is above all — -for ever, is the Ji7'st and the last, Rev. 
i. 17. 

6. Ou;:^' oTov,) This is not of that kind [not as though"] The 
Jews were of opinion, that, if all the Jews were not saved, the 
word of God becomes of none effect. Paul refutes this opinion, 
and at the same time intimates, that the apostacy of the Jews 
had been foretold, rather than otherwise, by the word of God. — 
Si) but ; namely, although I profess great sorrow for Israel, who 
continue without Christ. — Ix^swriwxEi', hath taken none effect) A 
suitable expression, 1 Cor. xiii. 8, note. If all Israel had failed, 
the word of God would have failed ; but the latter cannot occur, 
so neither can the former : for even now there are some, [Israel- 
ites believers], and in future times there will be all. For this 
sentence comprehends all the statements in Chapters ix. x. xi., 
and is most aptly expressed. It is closely connected with what 
goes before in ver. 2, and yet in respect of what follows, where 
the word Xoyog occurs again, there is a studied gentleness of ex- 
pression and anticipatory caution^ that whatever is said of a 
disagreeable description may be softened before it is expressed ; 
as in 1 Cor. x. 13. — o Xiyoi, the word) of promise, which had 
been given to Israel. — o\i yap -s-avrs;, for not all) yap, for begins 
the discussion, not all, is mildly said instead of, there are not 
many. This was what the Jews held : We all and we alone are 
the people of God. Wherefore the all is refuted here ; and the 
alone at veir. 24, etc. The Jews were Particularists (' Particu- 
laristse') ; therefore Paul directly refutes them. His whole dis- 
cussion will not only be considered as tolerable, but will even 
be much admired by those, and those alone, who have gone 

' See on 'Euphemia' and T^oh^efiruec the Appendix. 

126 ROMANS IX. 7, 8. 

through the former chapters in faith and repentance ; for in this 
the prior regard is had to faith [rather than to repentance]. The 
sum of this discussion, in the opinion of those who deny universal 
grace, is as follows. God gives faith to whom He will; He 
does not give it, to whom He will not ; according to the mind of 
Paul, it is this : God gives righteousness to them that believe, 
He does not give it to them, that work ; and that is by no means 
contrary to His word. Nay, He himself has declared by types and 
testimonies, that those, the sons of the promise are received ; that 
these, the children of the flesh are rejected. This decree of God is 
certain, irrefragable, just ; as any man or people listens to this 
decree or strives against it, so that man or that people is either ac- 
cepted in mercy or rejected in wrath. The analysis of Arminius, 
which has been gleaned from Calovius Theol. Apost. Horn. 
Oraculo Ixviii., and adopted Oraculo Ixix., comes back to this 
[amounts to this at last]. Compare by all means i. 16, note. 
In the meantime Paul, in regard to those, whom he refutes, does 
not make any very wide separation between the former chapter 
[or head] concerning faith and the latter concerning righteous- 
ness; nor indeed was it necessary. — 'igparjX, 'igpa^X, Israel, Israel) 

7. "Or/) because; this particle makes an epitasis^ in respect 
of the preceding sentence. — A^paA/n,, of Abraham) That, which 
happened to the children of the Fathers in the most ancient 
times, may much more happen to their later descendants. — dXX' 
h 'liraax, x.r.'k., but in Isaac, etc.) This clause is put as a 
" Suppositio Materialis" [See Append.] ; for we supply, it was 
written, and it is being fulfilled, Lxx., Gen. xxi. 12 : on Iv a'Trif/ia. 
Here we even find a suitableness in the origin of the name 
Isaac ; for they are the seed, who embrace the covenant of grace 
with a pure and noble-minded joy, Gen. xvii. 19 [Isaac Heb. 
= laughter, joy]. 

8. TovTBdrii) The apostle, using boldness in speaking, puts 
that is for therefore. — raSra) Dn, that is, are. The substantive 
pronoun for the substantive verb ; so olroi, these, ver. 6 : and 

■■ See Appendix. A word twice put, once in the simple sense, once to ex- 
press an attribute of it. 

2 Appendix. An addition made to a previous enunciation, to explain, or 
give emphasis. 

KOMANS IX. 9-11. 127 

frequently olrog this, ver. 9. The mode of expression in this 
chapter becomingly assumes the Hebrew idiom, so ver. 28, etc. 

9. 'M'jrayysXlag, of promise) It corresponds to the expression, 
of the promise, ver. 8. — ouroj, this) viz., is. — xarci rhv xaiphv roiiroi/ 
iXsuio/jiCii, xal israi rri 'Sdp^if uios) At this time will I come, and 
Sarah shall have a son. LXX., Gen. xviii. 10 : Idoii liravaerpifmii 
ri^oi vpo; (Si %a,ra, rh xaipitv rourov iig upag, xal s^ii v'liv ^d^pa, t; yuvq 
(Sou ; comp. Gen. xvii. 21. 

10. Oi /ioDov di, and not only so) That is : it is wonderful, what 
I have said; what follows is still more wonderfiil. Ishmael 
under Abraham, Esau under Isaac, and those, who resembled 
Ishmael and Esau under Israel, rebelled. — 'Pi^ixxcx,, Rebecca) 
viz., s(st1v, is, i.e. occurs in this place. She, the mother, and 
presently after Isaac the father, are named. — ig bog, by one) 
Isaac was now separated from Ishmael, and yet under Isaac 
himself, in whom Abraham's seed is called, Esau also is separated 
from Jacob. Ishmael and Isaac were bom not of the same 
mother, nor at the same time, — and Ishmael was the son too of a 
bondmaid, Isaac of a free woman. Jacob and Esau were bom 
both of the same mother, and she a free woman, and at the same 
time. — Kolrrjv) so Lxx. for n33E' ; it often occurs, e.g. Lev. xviii. 
20, o!i Sdasig xoktjv (Svip/Jtarog, said of the man, which is opposed to 
the phrase tx^iv xolrriv, of the woman in this passage. 

11. Mij^riw ysnti^hTiav, when they were not yet bom) Carnal 
descent profiteth nothing, John i. 13. — /iJjSs -rpa^avruv, and when 
they had done nothing) This is added, because some one might 
think as to Ishmael, that he was driven out, not so much be- 
cause he was the son of a bondmaid, as because he was a mocker ; 
although this slave-like scurrility afterwards shows itself in [lays 
hold of] the son of the bondmaid, so that he [pnSD, and xaxo^riXog 
ro\j priS*] laughs and mocks at Isaac, whom he envies and insults. 
— xar sxXoyri,) The purpose, which is quite free, has its reason 
founded on election alone ; comp. xarai ch. xvi. 25 ; Tit. i. 9. It 
might be said, in Latin, propositum Dei electivum, the elective pur- 
pose of God. — /ihji, might stand [remainj) incapable of being set 
aside. It is presupposed that the vp6k(Si)/, the purpose, is prior 
to the, might stand. — oux l§ 'ipyoiv, not of works) not even of works 
foreseen. Observe, it is not faith, which is opposed to election, 
but works. — Ix roD xoiXoZwog, of Him that calleth) even Him, who 

128 ROMANS IX. 12-14, 

called Jacob to be the superior, Esau to be the servant : comp, 
ver. 25. 

12. Aurri, to her) It was often foretold to mothers before con- 
ception or birth, what would happen to their sons. — on 6 — Ixde- 
oow) Gen. XXV. 23, LXX., xa! o — Ixdegovi. — 6 fisli^cav) the elder, who, 
it might be reasonably thought, should command, as the younger 
should obey. — SouXiueu, shall serve) and yet not so for ever, Gen. 
xxvii. 40. 

13. KaSug, as) The word spoken by Malachi, at a period so 
long subsequent, agrees with that spoken in Genesis. — rhv 'laxiilS 
riydirr^ga. x.r.X.) Mai. i. 2, LXX., ;jya^jj(fa rhv 'laxii^ x.r.X. — ^yaTjjaa 
— i,u,!ffr}(fa, T have loved — I have hated) The reference is not to the 
spiritual state of each of the two brothers : but the external con- 
dition of Jacob and Esau, in like manner as the corporeal birth 
of Isaac is a type of spiritual things, ver. 9. All Israelites are 
not saved, and all Edomites are not damned. But Paul inti- 
mates, that as there was a difference between the sons of Abra- 
ham and Isaac, so there was a difference among the posterity of 
Israel. So far has he demonstrated what he purposed ; he in 
the next place introduces an objection, and refutes it ; fi^ieiiv 
properly signifies to hate, nay, to hate greatly. See Mai. i. 4, at 
the end. 

14. T; oh, what then f) Can we then on this ground be accused 
of charging God with unrighteousness and iniquity by this, as- 
sertion ? By no means ; for what we assert is the irrefragable 
assertion of God ; see the following verse. — M)5 yivoiro, God for- 
bid) The Jews thought, that they could by no means be rejected 
by God ; that the Gentiles could by no means be received. As 
therefore an honest man acts even with greater severity [aTOTo/t/a] 
towards those who are harshly and spitefully importunate, than 
he really feels (that he may defend his own rights, and those of 
his patron, and may not at an unseasonable time betray and cast 
away his character for liberality) so Paul defends the power and 
justice of God against the Israelites, who trusted to their mere 
name and their own merits ; and on this subject, he sometimes 
uses those appropriate phrases, to which he seems to have been 
accustomed in former times in the school of the Pharisees. This 
is his language : No man can prescribe anything to the Lord God, 
nor demand and somewhat insolently extort anything from Him as 

ROMANS IX. 15. lag 

a debt, nor can he interdict Him in anything [which He pleases 
to do] or require a reason, why He shows Himself kind also to 
others [as well as to himself]. Therefore Paul somewhat 
abruptly checks by a rather severe answer the peevish and spite- 
ful objectors. Luke xix. 22, 23, is a similar case. For no man 
is allowed to deal with God as if by virtue of a bond of agree- 
ment, [as if he were His creditor], but even if there were such 
a bond, God even deals more strictly with man [i.e. with a man 
of such a hireling spirit] ; let the parable. Matt. xx. 13-15, which 
is quite parallel, be compared : / do thee no wrong, etc. There 
is therefore one meaning of Paul's language, by which he gives 
an answer to those who contend for good works : another, of a 
milder description, in behalf of believers, lies hid under the veil 
of the words. In the Sacred Scriptures too, especially when we 
have come from the thesis [the proposition] to the hypothesis 
[that on which the proposition rests], the manners, to, rjSri, as well 
as the reasonings, o'l Xiyoi, ought to be considered ; and yet there 
can be no commentary so plain, which he, who contends for 
justification by good works, may more easily understand than 
the text of Paul. 

15. Tw yap lAiiKSTi, for to Moses) Many are of opinion, that the 
objection extends from this verse to ver. 18 ; in which view the 
for, is used, as in ch. iii. 7, and thus thou wilt say then, ver. 19, 
concludes the objection, which was begun at ver. 14. And 
indeed by this introduction of a person speaking there would be 
a fitting expression of that avramxpjsig (rejoinder of the opponent), 
which is censured at ver. 20, and is subsequently refuted by 
taking up the words themselves or their synonyms. In the 
meantime Paul so expresses himself, as to make i avm.'xoxfmi/.ivoi, 
the objector whilst replying at the same time answer himself ; 
and therefore the words in this verse may be also taken, without 
injury to the sense, as spoken in the person of the apostle, as we 
shall now endeavour to show. Moses, Exod. xxxiii., had prayed 
for himself and the people by in, the grace of the Lord, ver. 12, 
13, 16, 17, and had concluded with, show me thy glory. The 
Lord answered : / will make all My goodness pass in the presence 
of thy face, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord before thy 
face, cms -it^K-ns inomi tnx nSfK-ns Tljni, And will be gracious, 
to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy, to lohom I will show 


130 ROMANS IX. 15. 

mercy, ver. 19. .The Lord did not disclose even to Moses without 
some time intervening, to whom He would show grace and mercy, 
although the question was respecting Moses and the people of" 
Israel alone, not respecting the Gentiles. To this Moses, then, 
not merely to others by Moses (Mueri, says Paul, as presently 
after, rfi ^apaa) the Lord spoke thus : By My proclamation, arid 
by My most abundant working, subsequently, I will designate 
[mark out] him, as the object of grace and mercy, whosoever he be, 
whom 1 make the object of grace and mercy. By these words He 
intimated, that He would make proclamation [would reveal His 
own character] as regards grace and mercy ; and He shortly 
after accordingly made proclamation, Ex. xxxiv. 5, p3ni Dim 
[oiKTIPMriN -Aal EAEHMXIN x.r.X. ilg ■)(^iXiaias\, merciful and 
gracious, etc., to thousands ; and added [xa/ rh 'hoyov ou xaSapisT, 
ivaywi aiLapr'tac, irar'spoiv, x.r.X.], and He will not clear the guilty, 
etc. Therefore according to the subsequent proclamation itself, 
the following meaning of the previous promise comes clearly out : 
I will show thee the most abundant grace, even to that degree that 
thou mayest see concerning Me [see centred in Me] all whatsoever 
thou dost both desire and canst receive [comprehend] in order that 
thou mayest furthermore understand, that it is [all of] grace ; and 
for this reason inasmuch as I have once for all embraced thee in 
grace, which thou acknowledgest to he grace ; and as to the rest of 
the people, I will show them the most abundant mercy, in not visit- 
ing tliem with immediate destruction for their idolatry, that they 
may further understand it to be mercy ; and for this reason inas- 
much as I have once for all embraced them in mercy, which thou 
in their behalf acknowledgest to be mercy. The Lxx. Int. and 
Paul have expressed the meaning of this sentence by the diifer- 
ence between the present and future tense : IXsrjeu h av iXsw, xal 
oixTiipfigia ov uv ohnip'a, I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, 
and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. And 
there is the figure Ploce [see Appen.], which nearly signifies the 
same as below, ch. xiii. 7, and here it expresses the liberty of the 
Agent, of whom the apostle is speaking, as in Ex. xvi. 23. 
Moreover, each of the two verbs, placed in the two clauses \i.e. 
repeated twice], contains the emphasis in the former clause ; [i.e. 
the emphasis is on the verb in each of the two clauses Gniis first 
mention, not on it when repeated ; I will have mercy, on whom I 

ROMANS IX. 16, 17. 131 

have mercy, etc.J : although generally in other passages the 
emphasis is on the verb in the latter clause [i.e. on its repetition] 
Gen. xxvii. 33, xliii. 14 ; 2 Kings vii. 4. That the acknow- 
ledgment of grace and mercy, on the part of Moses, and the true 
Israehtes, is entwined together, is evident from this, that Paul, 
ver. 16, speaks, on the opposite side, of the man that willeth and 
that runneth, to whom grace is not grace, and mercy is not mercy. 
He's nx ov civ is put twice, and intimates in the former passage 
that Moses (to whom the word tn, grace, is repeated in reply, 
taken from his own very prayers from Ex. xxxiii. ver. 13 : where 
there occurs the same Ploce), and that in the latter passage, the 
others, were ilg p(;/X;aSas among the thousands [as to whom God 
said of Himself, keeping mercy for thousands'], to whom sinners, 
their children, grandchildren, etc., are opposed, Ex. xxxiv. 7. 
And thus, this testimony is extremely well fitted to prove, that 
there is no unrighteousness with God. This sentiment is mani- 
fest to beHevers. But in regard to those, who maintain the effi- 
cacy of good works, it sounds too abrupt : the reason why God 
should be merciful, is none other than His own mercy, for no 
other is mentioned in the writings of Moses, concerning Moees 
and Israel. I will have mercy, i.e. no one can extort anything ly 
force ; all things are in My hand, under My authority, and depend- 
ent on My will, if I act otherwise, no one can charge Me with in- 
justice. This answer is sufficient to give to the defender of good 
works ; and if any farther answer is given to him, it is super- 

16. "Apa. oZv, therefore) so also ver. 18. The inference of Paul 
here is not drawn from the particle ov av, whomsoever, but from 
the words iXsS and olxTiipu, I have mercy, and I have compassion. 
— o!) roD) not of the man that willeth, nor of him that runneth, 
supply it is, the business, or, will, course [the race is not of him 
that runneth, etc.] ; not that it is in vain to will rightly, and, 
what is of greater importance, to run, or strive rightly, 1 Cor. 
ix. 26; Phil. iii. 14: but because to will and to run produce none 
of the things aimed at by those, who trust to their works. The 
human will is opposed to divine grace, and the course [the run'] 
of human conduct to divine operation. — Comp. ver. 30, 31. 

17. Aiysi) saith, i.e. exhibits God speaking in this manner, 
comp. ch. X. 20, saith. — y&p, for) He proves, that it is of Him 

132 ROMANS IX. 18. 

who shows mercy, even God. — ra (bapacti, to the Pharaoh) who 
lived in the time of Moses. — on eig alrh touto s^^ysipa ei, Sircai 
i\ibii^!a!/,ai h go! rrii dha/iiv /lov z.r.X.) Even for this same purpose 
have I raised thee up that I might show my power in thee. The 
LXX, Ex. ix. 16, Kal evixiv roirou dnrfif^Sris ewj rou vuv, ha hdsi^co/Mi 
h go! Tn'' igx^^ /*"" ^•'>:>- For this cause, thou hast been preserved 
until now, that I might show my power, etc. — i^riyupa gi) TTilDyn 
LXX. Int. dierrjpfiSris (as Exod. xxi. 21, TDV> diaB'ouv, to pass one's 
life), but Paul according to his custom says more significantly, 
i^fiyupa ff£ : but it should be carefully observed, that by iZ^iyiipa 
here the meaning of the word D^pn is not expressed, as it is used 
in Zech. xi. 16, but TiDVn, which in all cases presupposes the 
subject previously produced. See the difference of these two 
Hebrew verbs in 1 Kings xv. 4. The meaning then is this : I 
have raised thee up to be a king very powerful (in whom I migljt 
show My power) and illustrious (by means of whom [owing to 
whom] My name might be proclaimed throughout all the earth). 
Therefore this i^syspgig, raising up, includes the 8iaTr,piT\i, preserv- 
ing, as the LXX. render it, using the milder term : and also in- 
cludes the Iveyxeii, which in ver. 22, is introduced fi-om this very 
passage of Moses. The predecessor [the former Pharaoh] had 
previously begun rather to oppress Israel ; Exod. ii. 23 : nor vet 
did the successor repent. The Ordo Temporum,, p. 161 [Ed. II. 
142], determines his reign to have been very short, and therefore 
his whole administration was an experiencing of the Divine power. 
It must be added, that this was told to Pharaoh not at first, but 
after he had been frequently guilty of excessive obstinacy, and 
it was not even then intended to discourage him from acknow- 
ledging Jehovah and from letting the people go, but to bring 
about his reformation. — &vmfiiv, power) by which Pharaoh with 
all his forces was drowned. — SiuyyiXri, might be declared) This 
is being done even to the present day. 

18. "Ox SiXii) whom He will. Moreover, as regards the ques- 
tion, to whom God wills to show mercy, and whom He wills to 
harden ; Paul shows that in other passages. — sXeeT, has mercy) 
as for example on Moses. — SKX^pivei, hardens) as He did Pharaoh. 
He ns,es, hardens, for, has not mercy, by metonymy of [substitut- 
ing, for the antecedent,] the consequent, although not to have 
mercy has a somewhat harsher meaning : so, is sanctified, for, 

BOMANS IX. 19-21. 383 

IS not unclean, 1 Cor. vli. 14; and, you rescued from, lippUaek\, 
instead oiyou did not deliver up. Jos. xxii. 31. 

19. "Er(, as yet) even still. This particle well expresses the 
peevish outcry. To the objection here put, Paul answers in two 
ways. I. The power of God over men is greater than the power 
of the potter over the clay, ver. 20, 21. Then II. He answers 
more mildly: God has not exercised His power, not even over 
the vessels of wrath, ver. 22. — aurou. His) It is put for, of God, 
and expresses the feeling, by which objectors of this description 
show their aversion from God. 

20.^ ' Av^fuiti, Omxm) weak, ignorant of righteousness \i.e. the 
true way of justification]. — ii,r\ ipiT, x.r.X.) Isa. xxix. 16. Ou^ 
•jig irnXhg rou xif>a/j,sus XoyisS^gisSs ; /ji,fi epiTrh irXda/jtU rtti wXdeavri axirli, 
ou tfi) fii iirXagag. The same prophet, ch. xlv. 9, iJ,n epiTo 'jrnXig ra 
x.ipd/Mi' : Ti ■TToiii's, on oxix IpydZri, o\)ii £%£'S X^'P^^' ^^ aToxgiSrieeTai rh 
•xXdeiLa fphg rh 'rXdaavra, airo; Shall ye not be reckoned as the pattellas 
clay ? Shall the thing formed say to Him that formed it, Thou 
liast not formed me ? Is. xlv. 9, Shall the clay say to the potter, 
what art thou doing, that thou dost not work, thou hast no hands ? 
Shall the thing formed answer Him that formed it ? — (Vers. LXX.) 

21. "h) particle of interrogation [an?]. — l^ouelav, power) con- 
strued with, over the clay. The potter does not make the 
clay but digs it out ; God makes man, therefore He has 
greater power [over man], than the potter [over the clay]. 
But absolute power and liberty do not imply, that the will 
and decree are absolute. If God had left the whole human 
race under the power of sin and death. He would not have 
done unjustly, but He did not exercise that right. [Man is 
struck with the vivid exhibition of Divine power, so that he ever 
after unlearns all the outrageous (unreasonable) suspicions of his 
thoughts, against the justice [righteousnessl of God, Matt. xx. 15; 
Ex. XX. 20 ; Job xhi. 2, 6. — ^V. g.]. — pupd/j-aroi) lump, which has 
been prepared from clay and softened by steeping, and has its 

1 Mei/ovvyi, but truly) This answer savours of a severe and somewhat 
vehement nature. Men of fierce dispositions must certainly be restrained ; 
but the sweetest foundation of the whole argument is subsequently disclosed 
to them that are called, ver. 24. In this discussion, he who merely cuts off 
a portion of it from the rest, must be perplexed and stick at trifles ; but he 
proceeds easily, who thoroughly weighs the whole connection of chapters ix., 
X., xi.— V. g. 

134 ROMANS IX. 22. 

parts now more homogeneous. — u; ari/Jav, to dishonour) Paul 
speaks circumspectly, he does not yet say, to wrath : vessel must 
be construed with these words [To make one, a vessel unto 
honour, etc.J 

22. E/' dif but if) This particle has this as its apodosis to be 
supphed at the end of ver. 23 from ver. 20 : God has much 
greater cause to complain concerning man, and man has less 
cause to expostulate with God [than the potter concerning the 
clay, and the clay with the potter]. Comp. lav, John vi. 62, 
where also the apodosis is to be supphed. It is a question, but 
one imphed, not expressed, with an eUipsis, What reply hast thou to 
make [if God wiUing to show, etc., endured, etc.J. — SsXuv, willing) 
Corresponds to the. His will, ver. 19, and to. He will, ver. 18. 
Paul speaks xar avSgwirov, [" after the manner of man :" or, taking 
advantage of his opponents' unavoidable admissioni in the words of 
his opponent; and so el signifies whereas, [since, as you must grant]. 
At the same time, we must-observe that what he says of the vessels 
of wrath is more scanty, and of the vessels of mercy more copious; 
willing to show, he says, not, [wilhng, putting forth His will] 
that he might show, comp. next verse [where iu the case of the 
vessels of mercy, he says, ha, ymglgri, though here ver. 22 in the 
case of the vessels of wrath, he says, yvupisai], and Eph. ii. 7. — 
hdBi^asSai — rj hbvarov airov, to show His power) These words are 
repeated from ver. 17. — rriv 6py^v, wrath) He does not say, the 
riches of his wrath ; comp. ver. 23. — rh duvaThv) This signifies, 
what Pie can do (potentiam 'might') not what He may do 
(potestatem ' right' [l^outf/a]). — tinyxm, endured) as He endured 
Pharaoh. — h -jroXXfi fiaxpo6u/iicf., with much long-suffering) 
viz: in order that it might allure the wicked [the repro- 
bate] from their state of ahenation from Him to repentance, 
ch. ii. 4 ; 2 Pet. iii. 9. God endures many bad men, in the 
enjoyment of great and long continued good fortune in this 
life, when He might at the very first have consigned them 
to death. The gate of mercy and grace is still open to 
them. This long-suffering, humanly speaking, precedes His 
" will to show His wrath," nor does it merely follow it. 
His enduring is not wont to be exercised until He is about 
to show His wratK\ : wherefore myxev should be translated, 
Md endured [previous to His will to show His wrath.] By 

ROMANS IX. 23, 24. 135 

this very circumstance the question, wlio hath resisted ? ver. 
19, is most powerfully refuted. — ipyfjg) of wrath, which is not 
indeed without cause, but presupposes sins ; he does not say, of 
disgrace, nor unto wrath, but of wrath, [i.e. the fault is in them- 
selves. '\ — xaTripriBjjAm, fitted) It denotes the disposition [fitness] 
internal and full, but now no longer free [no longer now liable 
to change], not the destination ; he does not say, which He 
ftpoxarripriffi, previously fitted, although he says in the next verse, 
which he prepared, comp. ver. 19, ch. xi. 22, note ; Matt. xxv. 
34, mth ver. 41, and Acts xiii. 46, with ver. 48. This is dis- 
tinct from the ef&cient cause ; what is said merely refers to the 
state in which God finds the reprobate, when He brings upon 
them His wrath. — i'lg antiiiKuav, to destruction) The antithesis is, 
ver. 23, unto glory. 

23. '\m, that) Denotes more distinctly the end and aim, with- 
out excluding means. — yvupisfi, might make knowri) This verb is 
applied to things not formerly known ; it is therefore put both 
here and in the preceding verse, but hdeixwffSai, to show, is only 
used in verse 22 concerning wrath ; of which even the Gentiles 
have some knowledge. — ItI, upon) The sentence is thus quite 
consistent. But if God that He might make known the riches 
of His glory, supply, did this, or, in other words, made known 
the riches [of His glory] on the vessels of mercy ; respecting the 
apodosis, see the beginning of the note, ver. 22. — r^s ^ofis) of 
His glory : of His goodness, grace, mercy, wisdom, omnipotence, 
Eph. i. 6. — eX'sov;) of mercy, ver. 15, 16, 18, 25, which presup- 
poses the former misery of those, styled vessels. — rrporirol/iamv, 
previously prepared) antecedently to works, ver. 11, by the 
arrangement of all the external and internal circumstances, 
which he, who is called, finds tending to his salvation, at the first 
moment of his call. This is implied by the preposition in irporiroi- 
lj.aei\i. So a vessel unto honour, prepared, 2 Tim. ii. 21. 

24. Ous y.a.1, whom also) nal, also, in chap. viii. 30, Cluverus : 
whom (having been previously prepared for glory) He hath also 
called. — ixaXidiv, called) in some respects an antithesis to. He 
endured, ver. 22. Again, / will call, occurs in the next verse. — 
fifia;, us) This gnome ^ leads Paul to come to the proposition 

1 ' Noema,' a gnome or religious and moral sentiment appertaining to 
hnman life and action See Appendix. 

136 ROMANS IX. 25-27. 

respecting grace, which it laid open to Jews and Gentiles ; and 
he proceeds to refiite the Jewish Particularism, and to defend 
the universality of grace. — oi /isvon If, not only from) The believ- 
ing Jew is not called on the very ground that he is a Jew, but 
he is called from the Jews. This is the root of the word ixxXngici. 
\The epistle to the Ephesians most especially corresponds to this 
whole- section, as well as to the exhortation, chapters xiv. xv., 
deduced from it. — ^V. g.J — if 'loudalciiv, from the Jews) He treats 
of this at ver. 27. — If ihuv, from the Gentiles) He treats of this, 
ver. 25, etc. 

25. A'eyii, saith) God. Paul asserted the prior right of God 
in calling the Gentiles, and their actual calhng, and now at last 
that the event is shown, he brings in one testimony from the 
Old Testament, and ch. xv. 9, etc., a number more in succession, 
by a method worthy of notice. The predictions, though nume- 
rous and quite clear from their fulfilment, yet in the first in- 
stance do not easily obtain belief. The strength of the following 
quotation is not in the verb xaXltfw I will call [name], but in the 
other part of the expression : h.akisiv. He called, is used as in 
viii. 30. Nevertheless naming immediately accompanies calling,^ 
and in a manner precedes it. — xaXigu rhv oi \a6v ,<iou, Xaav fiou. xal 
rri]i oux ^ya-jrrj/j,evtiv, ^ya.'Trri/j.ivtjv) I will call them my people, who 
were not my people, and her beloved who was not beloved, Hos. ii. 
25. The LXX. have. And I will have mercy on her, on whom I 
have not had mercy, and I will say to them who are not my people, 
thou art my people. — [xat iXe^au rriv ovx. rjXirifiivriv. xat Ipw rffi ou Xaffl 
fiov, \a,6g /iou e? ffu.] — riyatrri[ihn\i loved) as one betrothed, as a 

26. xal — IxiT xXri^^sovTcti — t,uvTOs) Hos. ii. 1, LXX. xal — xXrjS^- 
govrai xal alrot — ^SivTog. — sxif) there : So it is not necessary for 
them to change their country and betake themselves to Judaea, 
comp. Zeph. ii. 11. 

27. Kpat^ii) crieth. See'Isa. x. 22, where the accents also may 
be compared. Israel utters an opposing reclamation [cries against'] : 
Isaiah with a still louder exclamation [cry] declares, a remnant 
«hall be saved. — utep) for Israel, Fr. en faveur, in behalf of. — 
lav ji apiSfihi run u'lZv 'iSpafiX — xaTaXsi/i/jba — •TToiiiffsi Kvpio; l« Tij; 
yns) Isa. X. 22, 23, LXX., xal i&v yivrirai i Xaig^IepariX- — xardXiifi/ia 
avTuv — Kupio; Toiridii h rri olx^v/i'evrj oXjj. In the last clause Sym- 

ROMANS IX. 28-30. 137 

machus and Theodotion have h /lssui rrdtrji rtjs yni- The word 
api6/jihs Paul introduced from Hos. ii. 1 [i. 10]. If Israel shall 
have been [or Iiave been] as numerous as the sand, a remnant [onlyj 
shall be saved, namely, from the misery of the Babylonish cap- 
tivity and from spiritual misery. That a remnant should re- 
main in the multitude of the remnant [i.e. in a case where the 
body from which the remnant is taken is a multitude] is less 
wonderful. The Many are hardened; but the seed implies a 
small number, ver. 29, note. When the rebellion of Israel 
reaches its height, at that point salvation begins. 

28. Aoyov) a thing heard, and therefore spoken, Isa. xxviii. 
22. — emrikm xai gwr's/ivuv) supply, as is often necessary in He- 
brew, the word is, comp. Acts xxiv. 5; 2 Pet. i. 17 ; Heb. 
nvnn:i nb'2 and JJlin jr^a. The Lord guvTiXiT, will consummate His 
Xoyov word [decree] concerning Israel, in respect to the appointed 
[fixed] punishment (so that it becomes Tt>2, consummated, corrh- 
pleted) ; and at the same time <s\ Xoyov, cuts short His word, 
in respect to the termination [will make a speedy termination] 
of the punishment (so that nsnm becomes rhn, this decree be- 
comes consummated). The word Lord is to be suppHed from 
the following clause ; and the word eut/nXm may be taken either 
as the subject, or rather, since the article is wanting, as a part of 
the predicate [the Lord is about to consummate, etc.] — iv dixccioeivti, 
npnx fiDiB*. Is. X. 22. 

29. El M — ufioi(i6ri/M\i) Is. i. 9, LXX., xal it fifj u/J-oiu>6ri//,ev. — 
-rpoilpnMv, said before) Before the event, or before the prophecy 
quoted at ver. 28. — eal3au6) In 1 Samuel and in Isaiah, m^aiii 
is put for the Heb. word nsnx ;. in all the other books it is 
translated Tatroxparup, Ruler over all. Prom this circumstance 
there is strong- ground for conjecturing, that one or perhaps 
several persons were employed to translate those two books, and 
that diiferent persons translated the rest. And in the same first 
book of Sam. Scripture begins to give this title to God, although 
others had been formerly used as it were in its place. — Exod. 
xxxiv. 2?,.—ei:ipiJ,u, a seed) There is denoted 1) a small number 
at the present time, 2) the propagation of a multitude after 
deliverance from captivity. — in ^6Sofj,a, as Sodom) where not a 
single citizen escaped ; no seed was left. 

30. T/, what) He returns from the digression, which he had 

138 ROMANS IX. 31-33. 

commenced at the middle of ver. 24, and takes in summarily 
the whole subject, ver. 30-32. There is a mitigation of the 
severity of the discussion continued from ver. 6 to ver. 23 ; but 
it will only be comprehended by him, who is acquainted with the 
way of faith. In short, by this tone of feeling the foregoing 
remarks are judged of. — xareXa/Ss) liave attained [Luke xiii. 29, 
24.] — -TTigTsug, hy faith), ver. 33, at its close. 

31. NoiMov diKMoevvrig eig v6//,ov bixaioelivrn, the law of righteousness 
to the law of righteousness) He did not use the word law, in the 
preceding verse, concerning the Gentiles ; but now uses it in 
speaking of the Jews ; and there is a ploce or repetition of the 
words in a different sense ; concerning legal and also concerning 
evangelical righteousness. While Israel is foUomng the one 
law, he does not attain to the other. The apostle appropriately 
uses the expression, the law of righteousness, for, the righteousness 
of the law. The Jews rather looked to the law, than to 
righteousness : vo^oj, doctrine, nTiD. — om ipSagt) did not attain. 

32. "Or; because) viz. they sought after it [followed after it\. — 
oux — aXX' iis) The Basle Lexicon says : iig in comparing things 
dissimilar is doubled, and the one as is elegantly understood in the 
former member, and as is only joined to [expressed in] the latter 
part. Examples are there subjoined from Aristotle ; we may 
compare John vii. 10 ; 2 Cor. xi. 17 ; likewise Acts xxviii. 19 ; 
Philem. v. 14 ; Phil. ii. 12. 

33. 'l8ov rlSrriJ,! h liiiv X!9ov •ffpoixo/J^^aTos, xai 'jrerpa.v anavhaXow 
xai iras o "irignxiuv im ahrSi ou Karaig^uvSijeerai) LXX., Is. XXviii. 16, 
Idoii iyii e/i^aXu sis r^ h//,iXia ^liiv Xlhv ffoXi/nXS), enXeXTov, axpoyu- 
viaiov, ivn/MV sis rSi 6i/j,sXia, auruv, xcx,! 6 iriSTshuv hr aurSi oh xaraia- 
X^'^^Vi Is- ^iii- l^' ""' "^X ^^ ^'^of '!rpoex6fif/,a,ri ewawfissah,' ovhs 
iis vsTpas TTUfian. Such, a one will not be made ashamed, and 
so will obtain glory ; comp. ch. v. 2, 5. This denotes eternal 
life, Is, xlv. 17. 

ROMANS X. 1-4. 139 


1. 'AdiXipol, brethren) Now that he has got over, so to speak, 
the severity of the preceding discussion, he kindly addresses 
them as brethren. — /ih, indeed) di usually follows this particle, 
but di, ver. 2, is absorbed in aXXa, but. — ivSoxla, well-wisMng, 
desire) I would most gladly hear of the salvation of Israel. — 
dsrisig, prayer) Paul would not have prayed, if they had been 
utterly reprobates [cast away.] 

2. ^z^Xou ©sou, a zeal of God) Acts xxii. 3, note. Zeal of God, 
if it is not against Christ, is good. — oi aar I'Triyvaan, not accord- 
ing to knowledge) An example of Litotes [expressing in less 
strong terms a strong truth] i.e. with great bhndness ; it agrees 
with the word, ignorant, in the next verse. Flacius says : The 
Jews had and now have a zeal without knowledge ; we on the con- 
trary, alas! to our shame, have knowledge without zeal. Zealand 
ignorance are referred to at ver. 19. 

3. Zriromris, seeking) by all means. — ov^ bvirdyneav, have not 
been subject) and have not obeyed," (yir^xoveav) ver. 16. 'T^oraysj, 
submits itself to the Divine wiU, ra iiXnv, the will of GoD. 

4. TeXoff, the end) bestowing righteousness and life, which the 
law points out, but cannot give. TiXtg, the end, and nthrt^unLoi., 
the fulfilment, are synonymous ; comp. 1 Tim. i. 5, with Eom. 
xiii. 10, therefore comp. with this passage Matt. v. 17. The law 
presses upon a man, tiU he flies to Christ ; then even the law 
itself says, thou hast found-a refuge. I cease to persecute thee, 
thou art wise, thou art safe. — Xpigrhs, Christ) the subject is, tJie 
end of the law. [Not as Engl. Vers. " Christ is the end of the 
law"]. The predicate is, Christ (viz. uv, who is) in [every one 
that believeth ; not as Engl. Vers., " the end of the law to every 
one"] etc. [ver. 6, 7, 9.] — crair/ rS msrsijovTi, in every one that 
believeth) The words, in the believer, are treated at ver. 5,' etc. : 
and the words, every one, at ver. 11, etc. -jravri, in every one, 
namely, of the Jews and Gentiles. The ix. chap, must not be 

' Tap, for.) Therefore even in those, who are not in a state of grace, 
something at least may be found which may induce those, who rejoice in the 
Divine favour, to intercede for them. — V. g. 

110 ROMANS X. 5, 6. 

shut within narrower limits than Paul permits in this x. chap., 
which is more cheerful and more expanded ; and in it the word 
all occupies a very prominent place, ver. 11, etc. 

5. Vpdfii, writes of), [thus exhibiting the truth that] " the 
letter killeth." It is antithetic to ver. 6, 8 : [the righteousness 
by faith] speaks, with the Uving voice [not writes, as Moses]. 
There is also another similar antithesis : Moses in the concrete ; 
the righteousness which is of faith in the abstract. — on o -Troirieac, 
x.r.X.) Lev. xviii. 5, LXX.,'7ro/;j(r£r£ aura a Toirjsag, x.r.X. 

6. 'H sx irldTit^g Sixaioivvri, the righteousness which is of faith") 
A very sweet Metonymy, i.e. a man seeking righteousness by 
faith. — X'syii, speaks) with himself. — /^jj £'V»jff, say not) for he, 
who says so, does not find in the law what he seeks ; and he 
does not seek, what he might find in the Gospel : viz. righteous- 
ness and salvation, which are in Christ and are ready for 
believers in the Gospel. And yet, whoever only hears and 
heeds that fi-om Moses, The man that doeih shall live, considers 
it necessary, thus to say [who shall ascend into heaven, etc.] — 
xapSicf, in the heart) The mouth [ver. 9] is also attributed to 
faith ; for faith speaks ; but unbelief generally mutters. — rig, 
x.T.X.) Deut. XXX. 11-14, LXX., Sn hroXf) aZrri, ^v syii hTiXXo/iai 
eoi BriiiiSpov ol'^ iiiripoyxog ieriv, oiiSi /j,axpav a'sh eou ienv. cux h ru 
oupawp sari, Xlyctiv rig a\iaj3ri(Si7v,i fi/iuv eig tov ovpavhv, xal Xff^irai 
riiJM ahrrtv ; xal axousavng avrrjv iroir}(So/iiv. oiiSi iripav rrig SaXasfftif 
sBt}, Xiyiar Tig Sia'TTipdaerai ri/J,iii tig rh Tipav rfig iaXdasrig xal Xfi-^iTai 
>]/j,iii airriv. xai axoudavng airijv vroiriifo/jiiv. eyyvg gov iari rh pril/jO, 
ifiodpa : h arofjiar! gov xal iv r5j xapiia gov, xal iv raTg ')(ipei gov, 'iroisiv 
xvrh. " For this commandment which I command thee this 
day is not overwhelmingly great ; nor is it far from thee ; it is 
not in heaven, that thou shouldst say, who amongst us shall go 
up to heaven and obtain it for us, that we may hear it and do 
it ? nor is it across the sea, that thou shouldst say, who shall 
cross the sea and bring it to us, that we may hear it and 
do it ? The word is very near to thee, in thy mouth and in 
thy heart and in thy hands to do it.'' This paraphrase, so to 
speak, very sweetly alludes to this passage, without expressly 
quoting it. Moses speaks of heaven, as well as Paul, but the 
former afterwards says, across the sea, instead of which Paul 
most dexterously turns his discourse to the abyss, that he may 

KOMANS X, 7. U\ 

on the contrary [in antithesis to their question as to the abyss] 
make mention of the resurrection of Christ from the dead. The 
abyss is a huge cavity in the terraqueous globe, at once imder 
the sea and the land. Compare, as to many things connected 
with this subject, Job xxviii. 14, 22 ; Phil. ii. 10, note. — rig 
ava^ndiTai ; who shall ascend ?) He, M'ho thus speaks, shows his 
willingness, but declares his inability to ascend and descend, so 
as to fetch righteousness and salvation from afar. — roui' ten, that 
is) Their perverseness is reproved, who say, Who shall ascend 
into heaven ? for they speak just as if the word concerning the 
Lord of heaven were not at hand, whom the mouth of the 
believer confesses to be Lord, ver. 9, and they who wish to 
bring salvation down from heaven, wish to bring Christ (as 
being the One, without whom there is no salvation) down from 
heaven, whence He has already descended : but as the latter 
cannot take place, so neither can the former. The words, That 
is, in the present is thrice used, with great force. 

7. Totjr esTi), that is. That is construed with to say, as sub- 
stantive and adjective. Moreover, they are again reproved for 
perverseness, who say, who shall descend into the deep ? for they 
speak just as if the word concerning the resurrection of Christ 
from the dead were not nigh at hand, and the heart of the 
believer acknowledges, that He has risen, in the same ver. 9 : 
and they who wish to fetch salvation from the depths of the 
earth, wish to bring Christ (since there is no salvation without 
Him) from the deep, which He left once for all at His resurrec- 
tion ; but as the latter cannot happen, so neither can the former. 
Therefore the believer, so far as this is concerned, regards not 
either heaven or the deep, since he has the thing which he desires, 
as near to him, as he is to himself. But unbelief is always 
fluctuating ; it is always wishing, and knows not what it wishes ; 
it is always seeking, and finds nothing. Hence it looks down 
at the deep with giddiness, nor can it look up to the heaven 
with joy. — Xpierov, Christ) The unbeliever does not fetch Christ 
m His own name, that is in the name of Christ [in His peculiar 
attributes as anointed Saviour] either from heaven or from the 
deep : but the righteousness by faith, speaking here, suggests to 
the ignorant unbeliever to call upon the name of Christ, as 
much as to say, that which thou art seeking, O unbeliever [O 

142 ROMANS X. 8-10. 

unbelief], whilst thou art moving heaven and the deep, and art 
taking refuge in heaven or the deep, (as we find in Virgil, I will 
move heir- [Acheronta movebo], know that it can neither be 
thought of by me, nor be found by thee, without [outside of] 
Christ, ver. 4. The expression is hypothetical. That, which 
cannot be done, — to fetch righteousness from afar [opposed to, 
is nigh thee'\, from heaven or out of the deep ; Paul sets this 
aside : and so leaves one only refuge, the word of Christ, which 
is very near. 

8. 'AXKfi, but) The particle here either has an augmentative 
[i'jrira.Tixnv : See Append, on Epitasisl meaning as in Matt. xi. 
8, 9, or faUs upon syyug, nigh thee. — lyyvs, nigh) We ought not 
to seek Christ at a distance, but within us. For while faith is 
beginning to believe, Christ dwells in the heart. This seeking 
for Christ [at a distance, instead of within one's own heart] is 
found not only in those who are merely beginning, but even in 
those who are making progress in faith, Song of Sol. iii. 1 ; Ps. 
cv. 3, 4. For he is here speaking, as if the righteousness of 
faith were itself conversing with itself. — In rip erofhari gov xal tv 
rjj xap&lcf, (Toil) so it is in the Hebrew, but the LXX. add xal h raTg 
X^po'i ffo" '""!''■' 's'"^") Tlie word, that is, the word of faith is nigh 

9. Eai/) if only — o/ioXoy ))?>);, thou shalt confess) Confession 
in itself does not save ; otherwise infants would not be saved : 
but only in as far as it includes faith. — Kipwv, the Lord) The 
summary of faith and salvation is found in this appellation. He 
who confesses that Jesus is Lord, does not now any longer [now 
for the first time ceases to] endeavour to bring Him down from 
heaven. — ijyeipsv sx vixpuv, hath raised Him from the dead) The 
special object of faith. He who believes the resurrection of 
Jesus does not now any longer endeavour to bring Him from 
the dead, ver. 7, 

10. KapSlcf,, with the heart) From the mentioning of the ' heart' 
and 'mouth' by Moses [in Deut. xxx. 14, quoted here at ver. 8], 
the consequence is [here by Paul referred, or] proved in reference 
to ' faith,' and ' confession ;' namely, because the * heart' is the 
proper subject of ' faith' and the ' mouth,' of ' confession ;' there- 

' Aen. vii. 312. 

KOMANS X. 11-15. 143 

tore Paul here in tWs verse begins his sentences, by saying, with 
the heart, and with the mouth. 

11. Asyti, saith) ix. 33, note.-' 

12. Ou yap idri SiagroXri, for there is no difference) ch. iii. 22 
Here the words first to the Jews, are not added, as at the begin- 
ning, ch. i. 16. — ydi,p aurhg, for the same) ch. iii. 29, 30. — 
Kup;of, Lord), ver. 9. — 'irXovrZv) rich and hberal, whom no mul- 
titude of believers, how great soever it may be, can exhaust ; 
who never finds it necessary to deal more sparingly. 

13. nS; OS av, whosoever, Acts ii. 21, note. This mono- 
syllable, vag (alV), more precious than the whole world, set 
forth [as a theme] ver. 12, is so repeated, ver. 12 and 13, and 
farther confirmed, ver. 14, 15, as not only to signify that who- 
soever shall call upon the name of the Lord, shall be saved, 
but that God wills that He should be called upon by all, for 
their salvation. 

14. 15. nwff, how) A descending climax; by which Paul 
argues from each higher to the next lower degree, and infers 
the necessity of the latter, as also from that necessity [infers] 
its very existence. He who wills the end, wills also the means. 
God wiUs that men should call upon Him for their salvation ; 
therefore He wills that they should believe ; therefore He mils 
that they should hear; therefore He wills that they should 
have preachers. Wherefore He sent preachers. He has done 
all that the matter [the object aimed at, viz., man's salvation] 
required. His antecedent will is universal and efficacious. 

14. 05 am ^xovgav) whom, namely, when speaking in the 
Gospel, ver. 15, or offering Himself, thei/ have not heard. 

15. TlZig ds xiipv^ouffiv, but how [how then] shall they preach) 
viz., 01 xripuggovTig, those preaching. This word, as well as those 
going before, is put in the future tense, in imitation of Joel, in 
whose writings this expression, shall call, is found, ver. 13, by 
that [manner, which Paul has at times, of] looking from the 
Old Testament [standing-point] to the New. — xaSojg, as) i.e. 
messengers [of the good tidings] were not wanting. Isaiah in 
spirit saw their eager steps. — ug — i'lpnvrtv, rSv Juay/sX/^o^E^wi/ to, 
ayaSa) Is. hi. 7. LXX iig — a-M^v eipmg og iuoi,yysXit,6/istiog ayaSa. 

' Ou<!icvii6-ii(!tra,i, shall not le ashamed) Unrighteousness and de- 
struction lead to shame : righteousness and salvation to glory. — V. g. 

114 KOMANS X. 16-18. 

- -iipaToi) it is properly said of what is beautiful and pleasant in 
nature. — o! -xobii, the feet) at a distance, how much more their 
countenances [or else mouths, as preachers] close at hand. — rm 
wayyiXiH^oiLimM, of them that bring glad tidings) for while they 
speak, the Lord Himself speaks, Is. lii. 7, with which comp. ver. 6. 

16. 'AXX', but) Here the fault is at last pointed out. — oh ■jravris, 
not all) An antithesis to every one, lohosoever, ver. 11, etc. 
The fault lies with men, especially with the Jews : not all, i.e. 
almost nobody, comp. the who ? which immediately follows. — 
■jir^xoveati) comp. wJ in vviTdyrigav, ver. 3. Those, too, should 
and might have obeyed, who have not become obedient. — X'eyii) 
says, presently after the words quoted from him in ver. 15, [by 
Paul]. See John xii. 38, note. 

17.^ "Apa, then) From the complaint of the prophet respecting 
the unbelief of his hearers, he infers, that the word of God and 
preaching, the proper source and handle of faith, were not 
wanting. — If axong) axori, hearing, and hence [the thing heard] 
speech, word, preaching. 

18. Mfi oux ^xougati, Have they not heard? [/i?) Interrog. implies 
a negative answer is expected : so Latin num ; you cannot say 
they have not heard, can youf]) You cannot say, can you, that 
the faculty of hearing was wanting in them, since faith comes 
only by hearing ? — ilg nraea^i — pinhara a\iTuv) So the LXX., Ps. 
xix. 5. In that Psalm, there is a comparison drawn, and the 
protasis is accordingly, ver. 2-7, and the apodosis, ver. 8, etc. 
Hence we clearly perceive the same reason for the Proclamation 
made by the heavens, and the Gospel,^ which penetrates into 
all things [So the proclamation of the heavens, " There is no 
speech," etc., " where thg ir voice is not heard," etc.] The Com- 
parison rests mainly on the quotation of the apostle, and offers 
no violence to the text. — o ipHyyog, the sound, Ps. xix, 5, Ip. 
AquUa had at a former period translated that word xctvm, rule. 
— Comp. by all means, 2 Cor. x. 13. Every apostle had his 
own region and province, as it were, defined, to which his voice 
was to come, but a rule only refei^s to single individuals, a sound 
or word extends to the whole earth. 

'H^Sj/, [the report] of vj) thy ambassadors, he means V. g. 

' The heavens declare the glory of God," etc. : x.iipitmiiu to preach, is 
properly to proclaim as a herald. — Ed. 

5 (f 

ROMANS X. 19-21. 146 

19. Mjj ovx iym 'lepdrtX ; Did not Israel know ?) The meanmo- 
is, that Israel could and should have known the righteousness of 
God, but did not wish to know it, ver. 3, and that is now shown 
from Moses and Isaiah. Paul in ch. ix.-xi. frequently calls the 
people, Israel, not Jews. — vpurog Mu'Caijg, first Moses) Moses, 
under whom Israel took the form of a people or nation, has 
already at that early time said. — eyii — u^aj — u/^as) Deut. xxxii. 
21. Lxx., ii.a,yii — alroiif — avroiig — oux 'Uvii) This may be ex- 
pressed in Latin by ne-gente, a not-nation. As the people fol- 
lowed gods, that were no gods, so God avenges the peiidy of the 
people, and took up a people that was no people, a people, who 
had not God as their God, a people quite unlike to Israel. So 
the term people does not recur ver. 20, [of the Gentiles] but 
ver. 21 [of Israel]. — aewiru, foolish) Wisdom makes a people. 
Job xii. 2. Therefore a foolish people is not a nation ; [a not- 
nation] a people that knows not God is foolish. i1J is a middle 
term, by which even Israel is denoted [jj^isov ; applicable to the 
people Israel, and the not-people, the Gentiles]. The epithet i>D3 
denotes other nations. 

20. ' AvoToX/iS,) What Moses had merely hinted at, Isaiah 
boldly and openly proclaims. — lipUtjv, I was found) I was 
ready at hand for, Isa. Ixv. i., LXX., J/tpanj? lyivfj^rjv roii sfii //,ri 
^jjroDtf/v, iipi6i]v roTi Ifii (iij l-jnpoiruaiv, I luas made manifest to them 
that sought Me not, I was found hy them who asked not after Me. 

21. "OXjji', whole) Isa. ibid. ver. 2, lxx., ii^intiraea. rag Xiipag 
I/jo\) 'iXriv rnt rjf/>ipa,v -Jtphg x.r.X., comp. the whole day, [all the day 
long] ch. viii. 36, see the remarkable dissertation of J. C. 
Pfaffi/us, on the continued grace of God. — i^tmrasa, I extended) 
A metonymy [see Appen.] of the antecedent [for the conse- 
quent]. They permit Me to extend My hands, nor do they come. 
Even by this one word alone the doctrine T)f the double will of 
God, viz., a mere good-will [which is towards all men], and a 
will of sealing [cerfam j)ersons as, His elect; beneplaciti et signi ; 
lidoxia, Luke ii. 14, good will ; but g<ppayl;, sealing as the Lord!s 
own, 2 Tim. ii. 19, or else the " voluntas beneplaciti" is God's 
effectual good wUl towards the elect, Eph. i. 5, eidoxla roxi kXn- 
l^arog aurou ; the " voluntas signi," His mere figurative and 
ostensible good will, whereby it is said in accommodation to 
human modes of thought " God willeth all men to be saved." 


14C ROMANS XI. 1, 2. 

Comp. Calvin Instit. B. iii. c. 20 and c. 24, sect. 17J, is shown 
to be absurd. — amhiitTa., not believing) with the 'heart.' — dvnXe- 
yovra, gainsaying) with the ' mouth ;' comp. ver. 8, etc. 


1. M^ aviieom) hath He cast away entirely ? So Gideon, ex- 
postulating in faith, says vuv airugaro n/jMc, now He has forsaken 
us (cast us away, Judg. vi. 13). But olx airiiaerai Kdpio; rhv XaJn 
auroD, but the Lord will not cast away His people, Ps. xciv. (xcni.) 
14. Has He cast them, away, says Paul, so that they are no 
longer the people of God? In ch. x. after he so impressively 
exhibited the grace [which God exercised] towards the Gentiles, 
and the rebellion of the Jews, this objection might be made. 
He therefore answers, far be it from us to say, that God has re- 
jected His people, when the very appellation, His people contains 
a reason for denying it. The negative assertion, far be it, [God 
forbid], is made distinctly, (1.) concerning the present time of 
the offending people ; both that there are now some, [behevers 
among them] ; comp. Acts xxi. 20, note ; and that ia the suc- 
cessively increasing admission of GentUes, there will be very 
many of Israel, who shall believe. These are called the remnant 
and the election ver. 5, 7. (2.) As to the ftiture ; that the people 
themselves, will at last be converted ver. 24, note. — lyw, /) Paul 
would rather draw a favourable conclusion from the individual 
[believing Israelites, as himself] to the genus, [the whole nation,] 
than one, on the unfavourable side, from the genus [the un- 
beheving nation] to the species [the individual] ;— I, formerly 
a persecutor, deserved to be cast away. The genus is the whole 
Jewish people: the species is believers among the Jews (of 
whom Paul was one as an individual) or such of that people as 
should hereafter believe. 

2. neoiyvu) foreknew^ as a people peculiar to Himself, ver. 29. 
— h'nXicj,, in Mias) in the" history of Elias, who was in the 
greatest straits, and thought himself to be aJone; when Israel, 
had become fewer than at any time before or since [1 Kings 
XX. 13]. — hruy^avii, Hesychius, ivrvyxavei, wpocepxtrai ; comp. 
Acts, XXV. 24 ; 1 Mace. viii. 32. 

ROMAN , XI. 3-5. 147 

3. Kipie, roui w/Jop^ras sou — ttjv -^u^iiv /£ou) 1 Kings xix. 14, 
liXX., eyxariXi'!rov rrjv SiaS^xriv gov oi u'loi 'lepar\\, to, 6uBia<irrjpia sou 
xaSiiXov, xal roig irpoipfiTag eou awexnivav in ^o/j,(paia,j xal woXiXii/Zi/iai 
lyii tiovuTaTOi, xal ^riTouai rriv -^u^riv //,ou ~Aa,^(Tv aur^v. The children, 
of Israel have forsaken Thy covenant, thrown down Thine altars, 
and slain Thy prophets with the sword, and I, even I only, am 
left, and they seek my life to take it away. The nicety of the 
apostle's style is remarkable ; the lxx. in this passage use /j^ovui- 
raros, as they often do ; Paul f/bovog. 

4. KareXcTTov, / have left [Engl. Vers, not so well, reserved]) 
who were not to be slain by Hazael, Jehu, or Elisha. The lxx., 
1 Kings xix. 18, have Jta/ xaraXh-^tiJ h 'IgpariX i<rrra -^iXidbag 
atSpav 'irdvrot. yovaTa, ci ovx i!>x7.asav yovu rw BaaX. jind I loill have 
in Israel seven thousand men, all the knees, which have not bowed 
to Baal. From the verb Xe/Vw [in xariXimv, I have left\ we de- 
rive XiT/L/j,a a remnant [a portion left] ; see what follows. — i^aurffi, 
to myself) Paul adds this for the sake of emphasis, in antithesis 
to the complaint of Elias about his being left alone. The Lord 
knows His own people. — kvraxie'xj'Kiovg, seven thousand) among a 
people, who had become reduced to a wonderfiilly small number, 
the number is not small, nay it was itself the whole people, 
1 Engs XX. 15. From these the whole posterity of the ten 
tribes at least were descended. Heb. ?3, i.e. purely such as these, 
without any admixture of the worshippers of Baal. I do not 
say, that they were the same individuals, who are mentioned in 
1 Kings XX. 15, and xix. 18 ; but the number is equal, viz., 
seven thousand, in ch. xx. 15, and about seventy years after- 
wards, in ch. xix. 18, after the time of Hazael, Jehu and Elisha, 
comp. 2 Kings xiii. 7, 14. — Hvhpa.g, men) Men were chiefly taken 
into account in reckoning, and were present at public worship ; 
therefore their wives and children also are to be added to the 
seven thousand. — Tjj BaaX) In the feminine gender, supplying 
iixovi, the image of Baal, used by way of contempt, and antithetic 
to men. So the LXX. also Judg. ii. 11, etc. Under the asser- 
tion of guiltlessness as to the worship of Baal, guiltlessness as to 
the worship of the golden calves^ is included. 

5. oh, then) The conclusion drawn from the Old to the Ne-w 

' Set up by Jeroboam in Dan and Bethel, 1 Kings xii. 29.— Ed 

148 ROMANS XI. 6-8. 

6. XdfiTi, hy grace) The meaning of the dative is one, and that 
of the particle ex. with the genitive is another [is different]. The 
former rather indicates the vehicle or instrument, as a canal, in 
the pure and simple sense ; the latter, more properly the mate- 
rial cause, the principle [first origin], the source. — ohx tn, now 
no longer \no morej) This phrase used four times shows the 
strength of the conclusion. This decree, which God has decreed, 
is absolute : I will make men righteous only hy faith, no man hy 
works. This decree no one shall break through. — yinrai — isrh, 
[becomes] is made — is) This is a nice and just distinction between 
these words [lost sight of in the Engl. Vers.]. Nature asks 
for works; faith acknowledges supervenient grace, ysvofihriii [gi'ace 
coming into exercise]. So, tyinro [came into exercise] John i. 17. 
ipepo^evrjv X"'P"j 1 -P^t. i. 13. — il &i l§ ipyuv, oux 'in icri yjli-fic,' s-ttiI 
ro 'ipyov ovx 'in kfri 'ipyov. But if it is of works, then is it 7io more 
grace, otherwise work is no more work) From this short clause, if 
is no more of works, this inference is drawn, Israel has not ob- 
tained : and from that short clause, it is no more grace, the in- 
ference is, the election has obtained. The first part of this verse 
excludes works, the second establishes grace ; with this comp. 
ver. 5. The first part forms the protasis, the last, the apodosis, 
which is always the more necessary part, and is improperly 
omitted by some in this passage, comp. by all means ch. iv. 4, 5 ; 
Eph. ii. 8, 9. Grace and work are opposed to each other, n^J?a 
LXX. for the most part interpret it spyov, work, for example Ps. 
cix. 20. 

7. 'H IxXoyn, the election) chiefly of the Israelites, the election, 
that is, the elected, inasmuch as being elected, obtain. 

8. "'EioiXiv axiToTs 6 0f Jf 'jrviv/ia xaravd^iu;, 6<p6a,XfMiig rou /xri 
BXimiv xa,} Sira, rou ^ij axoveiv) Deut. xxix. 4, yet the Lord God 
hath not given you a heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears 
to hear, unto this day. Is. xxix. 10, LXX., -Tnmnxiv hiLag Kvpio;, 
■s-vivfian xaTavii^sug, xal xafi,fj.\jgu roug op^aX/ioC? auTuiv x.t.X. 
The Lord hath made you drunk with the spirit of slumber, and 
Re will shut their eyes, etc. Add Matt. xiii. [12,] 14, note. 
"Eduxiv, hath given, by a most righteous judgment, and hath 
said to them, have.^ — xaravu^nag) Ka.rd\iu^ig in this passao-e 

' According as you have chose7i. The have, refers to spiritual goods. 
" From him who hath not (his spiritual privileges to any good purpose) 

ROMANS XI. 9-11. U9 

denotes suffering from frequent pricking, which terminates 
in stupor. It is taken in a good sense, Acts ii. 37, and very 
often among ascetic writers. The Latins use similarly com^ 
punctio, compunction. — lui, even unto) A tacit limitation, 2 Cor. 
iii. 14. 

9. TiVfi^^TCi] — uxitZiv sig •xa.yi&a xai elg Sripav xa! iig SxatSaXov xal 
s!r- avTa-jroSofia aiiToii — ffuyxa/i-vj/oi') Ps. Ixix. 22, 23, LXX., yevrr 
6^rco — a\iruv huviov avruv lis 'jrayiia xal s/'s avramSoeiv xa.) els 
axdvdaXov. Let their — be made before their eyes into a snare, and 
for a recompence, and for an offence. — uliyxa/i-'^ov. — rpdiri^a, a 
table) tn7B>, Ps. Ixix. 22, where, on comparing with it the pre- 
ceding verse, there is an allegory, i.e., while they are carelessly 
taking their food, let them be taken themselves. — exdviaXov, 
stumbling-block) It is taken in the more literal sense in this 
passage, to correspond with the synonyms, noose and instrument 
of capture (laqueus and captio) ; for sxdvBctXov is the moveable 
stick in a trap. It corresponds to B'pID in the above psalm. 
There is a gradation : the noose (laqueus) catches a part, for 
example, the foot ; the instrument of capture (captio, ifipa., trap) 
holds the whole ; the stumbling-block (scandalum) not only 
catches, but also hurts. — a.vTa'!r68o//,a, recompence) Their fault, 
therefore, not the absolute decree of God, was the mediating 
cause of their rejection. 

10. :SxoTi(rSriToitsa,v. — auyxot./i'^ov) They, who have their eyes 
darkened, and their back bent, are sure to stumble, ver. 11, and 
rush into a snare. 

11. "E.'TfTo.igav) <sra'ta is properly used for the stumbling of the 
feet. — Comp. James iii. 2, note. The physical propriety of the 
word 'xraios, both respecting the foot and the tongue, is con- 
trasted with its moral signification. — ha, ■jriaugi) that they should 
fall entirely, all of them, and that too without any hope of 
being lifted up again. A proverbial expression : they liave fallen 
in some measure, ver. 22, but not utterly. — to7s 'iSvisn, to the 
Gentiles) "We have here the article itself of the thing performed 
[)j gar. — rots Uv. By their fall has come the salvation which the 
Gentiles now enjoy]. Acts xiii. 46, lo ! [and. Behold, ver. 22]. 

shall be taken away even that he hath." God gives to men, that which 
they choose for themselves. You fancy you have, I give you accordingly. 

ISO ROMANS XI. 12-16. 

— elg rh rafaX^^XZisat aiirougy that they might be provoked to jealousy) 
That the Israelites might be provoked to believe, ver. 14. 
[Reader, see that you also he provoked, by every means whatever, 
to jealousy; you will thus in no ordinary degree he strong in 
grace. — V. g.] This word occurs elsewhere, ch. x. 19. 

12. e; de, Now if) This verse has two parts, the first is treated 
of, ver. 13, etc. : the latter, how much more, etc., ver. 23, 24. — 
xodfiov — eSvuv, of the world — of the Gentiles) The world denotes 
quality [in reference to the] irapdirrtafia, the original fall [i.e., 
the faU of man in Adam] ; the Gentiles, quantity, or, in other 
words, multitude, to which fewness [diminishing, Engl. Vers.], 
^rr})/ia, is opposed ; whence rh irXninaiia. [the fulness"] signifies, 
presently after, the large numbers of Israel abounding in grace. 
— riTTrjjjjo) the fewness, in opposition to -jrXfipaifi.a, fulness [abun- 
dance]. Is. xxxi. 8, sffovTo,! II g 7\Trri[ia, [His young men shall 
become a mere handful ; lit. a fewness]. — -troeui //,aXKov, how much 
mare) for where there are many seeds, their increase is the 
greater. — ri ixXYipoifia avrSiv, their fulness, [abundance] ; supply, 
vnll be the riches of the Gentiles. Therefore, even if the Jews 
had believed from the very first, the Gentiles would not have 
been excluded. The same word occurs in ver. 25. 

13. 'T/4/v) to you, not that you may be elated, but that the 
Jews may be invited. — haxoviav, ministry) apostleship among 
the Gentiles. — bo^aZji), magnify) To wit, Paul enhances the grace 
given to the Gentiles and its fulness, as about to be reciprocated 
upon [towards] the Israelites themselves [intended to have a 
reflex influence on Israel] ; and here he gives a reason for his 
so enhancing that grace. 

14. Tiji' eapxa, the flesh) i.e., brethren. Is. Iviii. 7. 

15. Tap, for) The particle connecting the discussion with the 
proposition. — an^oX^, the casting away) an antithesis to receiving, 
but in this sense, that God is said to receive by grace, men to be 
cast away [to sufier casting away] by their own fault. Upon 
the casting away of the Jews, the Gentiles were received, and 
obtained grace, ver. 30. — 'jrp6(fKti'^ig) airuv, Hesychius : <!rp6eXn-^i;, 
■yvZeig, comp. vpiKSiX&PiTo, ch. xiv. 3. T/s, concludes jfrom the 
less to the greater : acro/SoX^, casting away, and vpoaXn-^ig, receiv- 
ing, are contrary to each other; therefore, xaraXXayfi, recon- 
ciliation [of the world, in the former clause], precedes rri ^wj? 

ROMANS XI. 16-20. 161 

Ix yfxpuv, [of the Israelites, in the latter clause] life from the dead 

which implies much more [than xaraXXay^j] ^ajj, life) of the 

world, ver. 12. — ^wi) ex vixpuv, life from the dead) a thing much 
greater, and more desirable. The meaning is : the life of those 
who had been dead, Ez. xxxAdi. 3, etc., so Ix, from, ch. vi. 13 ; 
2 Cor. iv. 6. He is speaking of bringing the whole to life, 
that there may be no dead mass remaining. The conversion of 
the whole human race or the world will accompany the con- 
version of Israel. 

16. 'H airapx^, the first fruits) The patriarchs. — ay/a, holy) 
appropriated and acceptable to God. — Comp. ver. 15, with 
1 Tim. iv. 4, 5. — ip{ipa/j,a, a lump) Num. xv. 20, 21, a,ntafyy[ 
(pupd/Murog. — ri piZ,a, the root) the patriarchal stock, considered 
naturally, as also being regarded as in possession of circum- 
cision and of the promise. In the opinion of Weller, after 
Origen, Christ is the root, the patriarchs also are the branches, 
from whom the first fruits were derived. 

17. 2u, Thou) Roman, who art a Gentile. — ayp/sXaw;, a 
wild olive) the graft of tJie wild olive ; a singularly expressive 
[piiiifi. See Append. bemTrii\ Synecdoche. [Sad experience even 
in our age proclaims this fact. A promiscuous multitude, unwill- 
ing to hear true Christianity, labour under the wildest ignorance ; 
nor do we even except those, who boast no ordinary attainments in 
virtue and knowledge. — V. g.] — h auroTg) among them : The word, 
them, is not to be referred to the word, some, but to the branches 
generally. — gvyxoimvhg). Paul often uses guv concerning the Gen- 
tiles, Eph. ii. 19, 22, iii. 6 ; comp. /lisrii, Rom. xv. 10. 

18. M)i %a.ra,yia,\iyoi. Boast not against) Let them, who deny 
the [possibility of the} conversion of the Jews, take care, that 
they boast not against them. — ou eii, it is 7wt thou that) supply 
know or remember that ; know, or remember that it is not thou 
that bear est the root, but, etc. 

19. 'Ira, in order that) This particle expresses the chief force of 
the boasting [of the Gentiles] ; but in opposition to this boasting 
compare the, for your sakes, ver. 28, and rffi, ver. 31 [sc. v/isripcf) 
iXiii, they disobeyed to the end that through the mercy showed 
to you they might obtain mercy.] 

20. Tjj americf, — r^ vrlgrei, by [because of] unbelief — by faith) 
Neither of the two events (says Paul) [was ordered] absoiutely. 

1B2 EOMANS XI. 21-23. 

for if it were absolutely, there would be room for boasting, 
which is here shown to be out of place : faith, the gift of God, 
making men humble [could not be such as to give room to hoast- 
ing\. — 'igrriiiai) thou hast obtained and still holdest this standing, 
contrasted with the words, them, who fell, ver. 22. — fin u'vJ/tjXo- 
ippovii, aXKa ^o/3oO) be not high-minded, but fear ; Prov. iii. 7, 
lj.ii 'isSi (ppovi/jjos -xapa, eiauTu, po^ou di tov Seoh, Be not wise in thine 
own eyes ; but fear God. — po/Sou, fear) Fear is opposed not to 
confidence, but to superciliousness, and security. 

21. Mri-Troig) Repeat, poiSoC. — fulfirai) The Indicative, the 
particle /^ri-jrug being here in a manner disregarded, [by the 
Indie, instead of the subjunctive, the regular mood after /oi.jj] 
has a more categorical [positive, unconditional] force. Baum- 
garten would rather read <piiBr\ra.i with /j^nvwi. But Mart. Crusius 
shows, that ha, ug, ikrug, /j,rt, are sometimes joined with the ftiture 
indicative, Gram. Gr. Part II. page 867, and beside other 
examples, he specifies that passage of Demosthenes, Sirug toi. 
ttctpiwa si:anp6(>i^r)(SiTai. Blachwall has collected other examples 
in the Sacred Classics, p. 432, ed. WolL, where he praises this 
very passage of Paul on account of its elegance. Certainly lan- 
guage, framed, as this is, rather categorically, tends to excite 
fear [more than conditional or potential language, as pe/V^ira; 
would be.j 

22. X^JiffroVjjra Kal a-zoro/j^iav, goodness and severity) An im- 
portant disjunction. — imfishfjg, thou shalt have continued) To con- 
tinue is in respect to what is good, in this verse ; in respect to 
what is evil in the next [im/nivueiv, abide in unbelief]. The one 
is described on the part of God, the other on the part of man • 
comp. ver. 28, 30, etc. The Roman [Church] has not remained 
in goodness, since the righteousness of works has been intro- 
duced. — Itil, otherwise) Behevers may utterly fall away. — Ixzo- 
T^ff^i, thou shalt be cut off) by the sword ; not merely, shalt be 
broken off [exxXaeHrieri'], as they were, by the hand. m3, Lxx., 
ixxoKTu, I cut off, Jer. xliv. 8, not however generally in that 
sense, in which, / utterly destroy, (J^oXoSpiiu), is used. 

23. 'Eav iLr\, if not) Therefore their conversion will not be 
[the effect of] irresistible [grace]. — iuvarlg, [able] powerful) it 
might be a principal objection : how will the Jews be converted, 
who for so many ages act so as to withdraw themselves from the 

ROMANS XI. 24, 25. ]J3 

faith, separate [draw aside] the Old Testament revelations 
from the true Messiah, and snatch them out of the hands of 
believers ? Paul answers, God has power : comp. the, powerful 
[able], ch. xiv. 4 : and He will show the glory of this power, 
against which no one in the Gentile world can strive. There 
will then be a great work ! — ^aX(v, again) not only in [with] a 
smaller [comparatively small] number, as now, but in [with] 
a greater number, as formerly, when they were the people 
of God. 

24. ' AypieXaiou, of the wild olive tree) There is as great a dis- 
tinction between those, who either have not, or have the 
revealed word, as there is between the wild and cultivated olive- 
tree. — ■zapa, (pUii) quite contrary to nature, for in the art of 
gardening, the process of engrafting, which unites two trees of 
a different nature, commits the soft graft, which is followed by 
the fruit, to the woody stem : but Paul says, that the graft of 
the wild olive is inserted into the good olive-tree, in order that 
it may follow [in consequence partake of] the fatness of the good 
olive.— ^oVa; /jiaXkov, how much more) He gradually comes from 
that which can be, to that which actually is. The discourse in 
fact assumes an augmentation of force ; formerly Paul demon- 
strated from the prophets, that in Israel there were more wicked 
than good men, he now demonstrates in like manner from the 
prophets, that there will be hereafter more good than wicked 
men ; and while he is drawing forth this statement, he calls it a 
mystery, fitted to check the pride of the Gentiles, lest they 
should think that the part assigned to the Jews was to be always 

25. MugTYipiov, a mystery) Paul does not always apply the 
term, mysteries, to those doctrines, which from the very first are 
necessary to be known by behevers, but to the secrets, which 
were unknown even to many believers, until, as the case 
required, for the sake of faith or love they were opened up to 
them from the Scriptures, heretofore in this respect sealed. 
Comp. 1 Cor. XV. 51, and on a similar occasion Eph. iii. 3. 
The calling of the Gentiles had been a mystery, ch. xvi. 25. 
But now the conversion of Israel is likewise a mystery. [There- 
fore something different is intimated from such conversions, as were 
exhibited day by day in the times of Paul. — Y. g.] Each of these 

154 ROMANS XI. 26. 

forms a great part of that mystery, which is confirmed in Rev. 
X. 7. Furthermore, since it is a mystery, they ought to be 
treated with patient forbearance who do not recognise it so 
quickly, and we should hope for the time, when it will be 
recognised by all. — ^fpovifioi, wise) dreaming, that the church at 
Some cannot fail. Cluverus. The very term, mystery, checks 
the reader's pride. Hence the admonition is repeated at. ch. xii. 
16, which is already to be found atver. 20, note. — a-jrh /iipoug, in 
part) He speaks in a way softening the unwelcome truth ; for 0/ 
•TiipuSivre;, those, who were hardened, were as " the sand of the sea," 
ver. 7 ; comp. with ch. ix. 27. Therefore, in the following verse, 
the conversion, which will not be in part [as their hardening 
was, which yet comprised as many as the sand], but wiU include 
all Israel (see foil, verse), will be by far the most abundant. 
And in the mean time also, there are always some being con- 
verted, and for this desirable object it becomes believers to be 
always on the watch. — TrXtipoi/ia., fulness) a most abundant sup- 
ply ; the antithesis is in part. No nation shall remain, to which 
the Gospel shall not have been preached in the whole world ; 
although a great part of mankind will still continue to be 
wicked. — ileiXirt, shall come in) John x. 9, 16. For many ages, 
now, many obstacles retard [put a drag on the wheels of] this 
coming in, obstacles which will be broken through at the proper 
time, so that the fulness of the Gentiles, who have been long 
since called, may entirely come in ; and then the hardening of 
Israel will terminate, Ps. cxxvi. 2, 3. Paul provokes the Israel- 
ites to Christian jealousy ; and this presupposes the conversion 
of the Gentiles before that of Israel, and yet the remaining 
abundance of the Gentiles may afterwards be gained by the full 
conversion of Israel, ver. 11, 12, 15, 31 ; Ez. xxxix. 7, 21-27. 

26. -Ao.} o'\iT!a, and so) he does not say and then, but with 
greater force, and so, in which very expression the then is 
included ; to wit, the blindness of Israel will be terminated by 
the very coming in of the Gentiles. — tSs 'lepafiX, all Israel) 
Israel contradistinguished from the Gentiles, of which ver. 25 
treats. The words, JT'lsti', a remnant, and nt3''7a, deliverance, are 

' We should never consider a, mystery for the sake of curiosity : we should 
always seek to be humbled before it. — V. g. 

ROMANS XI. 27, 28. 155 

used in respect of those that perished ; but the Remnant itself, 

numerous in itself, will be wholly converted, Mic. ii. 12. 

euifiSiTai) shall be saved : The Latin Vulgate has expressed this 
by, salvus fieret; and not inappropriately.^ It contains this 
sentiment, the fulness of the Gentiles shall he brought in and so 
all Israel shall be made safe ; but a%f /s o5, until, has changed the 
former verb elasXiueerai [Indic.J into elffeXirj [Subj.J, the second 
verb, aca^eirai, remaining indicative]. — See similar instances 
noticed at Mark iii. 27. The Latin Vulg. has expressed the 
meaning. — ij^ii sx ^luv — diaSrjKri, oTav a.<psX!)i/j,ai ritg afjijapriag avruv) 
shall come out of Zion — the covenant, when I shall talce away their 
sins. Is. lix. 20, 21, LXX., xal ri^ii svixa liuv — dia^Tjxrj, ilin Kvpjog, 
X.T.X., and shall come for the sake of Zion — the covenant, saith the 
Lord, etc. Is. xxvii. 9, LXX., xa/ roDro hgriv ^ euXoyla airov, orav 
apiXu/jiai rfiv &/xaf>ria,v aurov, h.t.7'.., and this is Sis blessing, when 
I shall take away his sin. Heb. IVS? PSIJ, and there shall come to 
Zion (and for its benefit) the Redeemer, and to tJiose turning from 
transgression in Jacob. Paid, ch. iii., in describing sin had 
quoted Ps. xiv., and chiefly ch. lix. of Isaiah : now in describing 
salvation, he joins together the same texts. He says, Ix 'S.idiv, out 
of Sion, as the LXX., Ps. xiv. 7. The Deliverer or Redeemer 
comes (sx) out of Sion and (?) hixa.) for good to Sion. His 
coming has been already accomplished, and the firuit will arrive 
at perfection at the proper time. Sion is a whole, in a good 
sense, Jacob here is a whole, in a less favourable sense ; those 
returning are a part. 

27. A-vrn, this) of which see in the preceding verse. — vap 
iaov, from me) He himself wiU do it. — diaSrixri, testament [cove- 
nant]) — namely, it shall then be and shall be unfolded. — rug 
&fiapriag) sins, and the miseries arising from them. 

28. ''Ex,6poi) enemies. Therefore the obstinacy of the Jews 
ought not to be alleged to the prejudice of their conversion. 
Moreover, they are called enemies, in an active sense ; presently 
[by and by] they shall be called beloved in a passive sense (both 
in respect of God, not merely, of Paul) ; the evil is to be 
imputed to man ; the good proceeds from God. So also mercy 

^ Thus the "Vulg. makes au6iiatra.t depend on axV^ "^i ^"'^'^i " ""^^^ *^* 
fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, and until all Israel shall thus be saved." 

ISS ROMANS XI. 29-32. 

and unbelief are opposed to each other, ver. 30, etc.— i' hn,ai, 
for your sokes, ver. 31, 12, 15. 

29. ' A/iira/ieXrjra,, without repentance) Truly an apostolic axiom. 
Something absolute is signified ; for God will not give way to 
the unbelief of His own people [so as to suffer it to continue] 
for ever. Repentance is hid from the eyes of the Lord [i.e. 
change of His purpose, as to raising Israel from its present 
spiritual ' death,' is impossible with God], Hos. xiii. 14. — x."'^'"'' 
(lara, gifts) towards the Jews. — xKrigig, calling) towards the 

30. -/.al) ■'I formerly admitted this particle marked with an 
obelus, thus f, and am now glad that Baumgarten agrees with 
me, — 7}'?r£iSri(!aTi, ye have not believed) unbelief falls upon [applies 
to"" even those, who themselves have not heard the word of God, 
because they had however received it primitively in the persons 
of the patriarchs Adam and Noah. [The Gentiles are account- 
able for not having retained the revelation received from Adam, 
Noah, etc.] 

31. 'H'jriiSrioav, they have disbelieved) They have been left to 
their unbelief. — ra hnirip^, your [of you]) the Genitive of the 
object, [your mercy, i.e. the mercy, of which you are the objects^ 
as TO. ixiri Aauld, the mercies of David, 2 Chron. vi. 42, loy fiSn, 
the favour directed to thy people, Ps. cvi. 4. — iXeu, through 
mercy) construed with iXiriDuei, might obtain m,ercy ; for ha,, 
that, is often transJ)osed ; and in verse 30, the disbelief of the 
Jews precedes the mercy of the Gentiles ; wherefore in verse 31 
the mercy of the Gentiles does not [is not to be supposed to] 
precede the same disbelief of the Jews [as would be the case, if 
sXh;, owing to your partaking of mercy, were taken with riitiUrt- 
ffav]. See App. crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. — iXin^uai, might 
obtain mercy) that mercy, which goes before faith, and which is 
only acknowledged and received through faith, by which a-aeikia, 
disbelief is retracted. 

32. 'SvvixKsigi, hath concluded together), Jews and Gentiles, 
comp. Gal. iii. 22, note. The phraseology of the Lxx. Lit., 
Ps. Ixxviii. .50, is ilg idmrov auvsHXuee, He shut up to death, he 

] The German version agrees in this. — E. B. 

ABCD (later correction), G/g, omit xcci, before ifit7:. But Vulg. and 
Rec. Text, have it. — Ed. 

ROMANS XI. 33, 34. 167 

gave over, — s/s amlhiav, in \untd\ disbelief) Eph. ii. 2. Those 
who have experienced the power of disbelief, at length betake 
themselves with the greater sincerity and simplicity to faith. — 
ha) that. The thing itself will be accomplished. — roig vdvTag) 
them all without exception, [less accurately, all, in Engl. Vers.] 
all together ; comp. ver. 30, 31. — sXsrjgr], might have mercy) His 
mercy being acknowledged by them, ver. 6, when faith is given 
to them by Himself. 

33. 'n ^ados, the depth) Paul in ch. ix. had been sailing, as 
it were, on a narrow sea ; he is now embarked on the ocean. 
Tlie depth of the riches is described in ver. 35, and has respect to 
ch. ix. 23, X. 12. (wherefore it (of the riches) ought not to be 
resolved into a mere epithet) ; the depth of wisdom is described 
in ver. 34 ; the depth of the knowledge, in ver. 34. Comp. con- 
cerning riches and wisdom, Eph. iii. 8, note, and Eev. v. 12. 
The different meanings of biblical terms are worthy of being 
well noticed and collected. Wisdom directs all things to the 
best end ; knowledge knows that end and issue. — dig, how) No 
one examines, no one searches out, but He Himself. Here and 
in ver. 34', there is a Chiasmus i^ as is seen by comparing the 
antecedents and consequents together. The depth is described 
in the second part of ver. 33 [How unsearchable, etc., answering 
to the depth']. Knowledge itself, as we have said, is described in 
ver. 34, for who [hath known, etc.] — wisdom itself is described in 
the words or who [hath been His counsellor] : riches themselves, 
in ver. 35 [who hath first given to Him, etc.] — rd; xpl//,aTa, 
His judgments) respecting unbeHevers. — u! oSoi, His ways) re- 
specting believers. A gradation. His ways are as it were on 
the surface. His judgments more profound; we do not even 
search out His ways [much less His judgments]. 

34, T/'s yap — lyhiTo) Isa. xl. 13, LXX., Tig 'iyvu — xa/ Wj auroy 
tfu/ij8ouXoff. Who ? i.e. none : but He Himself. — ya/>, for. The 
more express quotation of Scripture follows. In proving 
doctrines the phrase is used, it is written, in other places, it is 
often omitted, ch. xii. 20. — voijv Kvplou, . the mind of the Lord) 
Isaiah has mn^ nn DX, the Spirit of Jehovah. Paul uses the 
version of the lxx. Otherwise mi and wvc, are not synonymous ; 
but the conclusion arrived at is very good ; no one apprehends 

' See Appendix. 

158 ROMANS XI. 35, 36. 

the Spirit, therefore no one apprehends the mind or sense of 
the Lord. Reference to the Holy Trinity is imphed, comp. on 
the words, els ahrh, to Him, ver. 36, Isa. xxxiv. 16, at the end 
of the verse. — glif^jBouXos Paul says, not only that no one has been 
eu/i^ovXoc, but not even now can be so : ev/ijSovXog is either a 
partner in counsels, or, one at least privT/ to them ; for he had said 
just now, for who hath known the mind of the Lord? And yet 
many in their discussions, for example, on the origin of evil, 
which touch upon the recesses of the Divine economy much 
more deeply than this, which is from religious reverence broken 
off by the apostle between ver. 32, 33 (for there is a great differ- 
ence between the fall of many angels and of the whole human 
race on the one hand, and, on the other, the fall of the Israelites 
[the latter is a much less profound mystery than the former]) 
many such, I say, boast, as if they were not only the Lord's 
counsellors, but also His inquisitors. His patrons, or His judges. 
Scripture everywhere stops short at this point, that the Lord 
hath willed, and hath said, and hath done it : It does not un- 
fold the reasons of things universal or particular; respecting 
those things that are beyond our present state of infancy, it re- 
fers believers to eternity, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, etc. The thirst of know- 
ing will torture and burn others, who unreasonably pry into 
mysteries, throughout eternity. 

35. "h rig, x.t.tC) Some adopt these words in the LXX., Isa. xl. 
14 : others do not ; but Job xli. 2, Hebr. and Vulg. have it 
thus : Who hath previotisly given to Me, that I may render to Him 
again ? All things which are under heaven are Mine. 

36. E^ aiiTou xal 5/' avTou nal slg airhv, of Him,, and through 
Him, and to Him) The Origin, Course, and End of [The Source 
from whom come, the Agent through whom is maintained the 
continuance of, the End for whom are] all things, is here denoted, 
comp. 1 Cor. viii. 6. [Furthermore, Ig aCroD, refers to riclies ; 8' 
aiiroO, to wisdom; fig auriv, to knowledge. — V. g.] — ^ So^a, the 
glory) of the Eiches, Wisdom, Knowledge. [Along with this dox- 
ology to Omnipotence, is included the praise of Divine Wisdom 
and Love, from which the creatures derive their strength, under- 
standing, and blessedness. — ^V. g.J — a^^v. The final word, with 
which the feeling of the apostle, when he has said all, makes a 



1. napaxa'AM, I exhort) Moses commands : the apostle exhorts, 
Paul commonly gives exhortations consonant to the doctrines, 
which had been previously discussed, Eph. iv. with which comp. 
ch. iii. So in this passage the general application drawn from 
the whole discussion is contained in ver. 1, 2, as the allegations 
which immediately follow prove. We have shown at i. 16 the 
special applications from ver. 3 up to the conclusion of the epistle. 
— dia, ruv oiKrip/Muv, by the mercies) The whole sentiment is derived 
from Chapters i.— v. ; the word has its origin in the antithesis to 
wrath, ch. i. 18 : for the whole economy of grace or mercy, ex- 
empting us from wrath, and rousing the Gentiles especially to 
the discharge of duty, is indicated in this passage, ch. xv. 9. 
He who is rightly affected by the mercy of God, enters into the 
whole will of God. \But the soul exposed to wrath scarcely de- 
rives any benefit from exhortations. You are ^^ pouring oil on a 
stone" — V. g.] — vapasTnaa^i, that ye present) Tn so large a list of 
duties, Paul has none of those things, which in the present day 
among the followers of the Church of Rome, generally make up 
both sides of the account, -sapaarrtiai is repeated from ch. vi. 
13, 16, 19, to yield, to present. The oblation is presented alive, 
not sacrificed. — e'StfJuarcx,, bodies) antithetic to the abominable 
abuse of their bodies among the Gentiles, ch. i. 24. For more 
antitheses presently follow in respect of this same topic. The 
body is generally an impediment to the soul : present the body 
to God, and the soul will not be wanting, ch. vi. 12. See also 
ch. vii. 4 ; Heb. x. 5. Vice versa, the soul, when subject to the 
magistrate, will be obedient with the body also, ch. xiii. 1. — 
guifiara, Xarpiiavj bodies, [worship^ service) We have here the 
apposition of these two words by metonymy,^ indicating body 
and soul. — Suaiav, sacrifice) Sin having become dead : comp. on 
this sacrifice, ch. xv. 16. — ^ueav, living) That life, which is men- 

1 Antecedent for consequent, or vice versa, as here ; service, for, the soul 
which serves. — ^Appendix. 

160 BOMANS XII. 2. 

tioned in ch. i. 17, vi. 4, etc. It is an abomination to offer a 
dead carcase. — Uyiav, holy) such as the holy law demands, ch. 
vii. 12. — shafudTov, acceptable, well-pleasing) ch. viii. especially 
ver. 8. — tSi ©eC, to God) construed with ■zapaar^gai, to present. 
— Xoyix^v, reasonable) sincere (1 Pet. ii. 2) in respect of under- 
standing and will : the verb doxi/id^eiv, ver. 2, is in consonance 
with this ; and <ppoviTv, h.t.X., ver. 3. The service [worship], 
Xarp'sia, of the GentUes is unreasonable, aXoyog, ch. i. 18—25, the 
confidence of the Jews is unreasonable, akoyog, ii. 3, but the 
Christian considers all things rightly, and collects [infers] his 
duty from the kindness of a merciful God. The epithet Xoymriv 
now corresponds to that verb, Xoyl^isSai, which is often used, ch. 
iii. 28, vi. 11, viii. 18. Koyixov ydXa, 1 Pet. ii. 2, is a periphrasis 
for the Word itself, — the Milk of the word; but here Xoynri, 
reasonable, is an epithet of XaTpha, service [worship]. Peter uses 
the word, "A^oXoii. The Wordis sincere, and the Service \worship'\ 
in accordance with [resulting fi'om] the word is sincere. 

2. M^ ffug^ri/iarH^Klh — dXXa /MTa/M>f/ipough) f/'op<prj, form, confor- 
mation, denotes something more inward and thoroughly finished, 
than g^tj/iiioi, fashion or external appearance [habitus]. — Comp, 
Phil. ii. 6, 8, iii. 21. The external appearance of the saints 
should not be inconsistent with the internal form [conformation]. 
— aluvi, to the world) which neglects the will of God, and is 
entirely devoted to selfish pursuits. — doxifi,d?leiv, to prove [approve 
by testing]) This also refers to that new f/.op<pnv, form. The 
antithesis is in ch. i. 28. [While a marHs mind continues in its 
original condition (the old man), how sagacious soever he may be, 
he cannot prove the will of God. He will endeavour to defend at 
one time this, and at another that (objectionable thing), thinking 
that God is such a one as himself. — V. g.] — ^xai r'sXim, and 
perfect) He, who presents [his body] an oblation, living, holy, 
acceptable, knows the will of God as good, requiring what is 
living and holy, acceptable, and, with the progress of believers 
[in course of time, as beUevers make progress] perfect. [They 

' To MJ^yifict, the will) For special reasons very many questions occasionally 
arise, whether it would be right to do this or that, or not. They can easily 
decide, who make the will of God their great concern and chief delight. 
But they require experience [to prove and test things] and intelligence. 
Eph. V. 17.— V. g. 

ROMANS XII. 3-6. 161 

hy unworthy means shun this perfect will, who are continually 
seeking after such things as they are at liberty 9iill to engage in 
without sin (as they think"). The conduct of such men as these 
resembles iluxt of the traveller, who takes a delight in walking, not 
in the safe path, but without necessity on the extreme vevge of the 
bank. — V. g.J 

3. Aiyca) Flacius explains ; I distinctly declare [edico]. This 
woi-d adds the meaning of an imperative, to the subsequent 
affectionate [moratse, i.e., having nkg. See Append.] exhorta- 
tion. — ya,p, for) He shows what the will of God intends. — 3/a 
rrig ■^apirog, through the grace) Paul himself affords an example, 
eoi<ppo<s{jvng, of the sobriety, which he commends; lest, by this 
form of expression, Xiyu, I distinctly declare [ordain^, which 
Christ alone could have used absolutely, he should seem rashly 
to prescribe things so difficult to others, comp. ver. 6. — hri) to 
each one, who is among you, of your rank, a believer. — h v/jbTn, 
among you) there were many reasons, why the Romans might 
think that they might exalt themselves, and they afterwards 
did so. — dii) oUght, according to truth and duty. — (ppotiTv) to 
think, and thence, to- act. — iig) the particle limits.' — ixderiji, to 
every man) No man ought to hold himself up as the only rule, 
according to which he tries others, and he ought not to think that 
others should be entirely such as he is, and should do the same 
things and in the same way as he does. — ug) as, and not more, 
ver. 5 ; but yet not less, ver. 6, 7 ; therefore di, but [and on the 
other hand : not then, as Engl. Vers.] is used, ver. 6. — i^irpov, 
measure) Both faith and the measure [proportion given] of faith 
is the gift of God. — irleTrng, of faith) from which the rest of the 
gifts flow (Cluverus) ; and that, too, those gifts that sanctify 
and do service [even sanctifying and administrative gifts flow 
from faith]. Faith is the source of them all, and the rule to 
regulate us in their very use. Of faith, which has been treated 
of ch. i., and following chap. [Love follows, ver. 9. — V. g.] 

5. 'O 3s xahlg) see Mark xiv. 19, note. — fMXrj, members, Eph. 
iv. 25. 

6. "Exovrig, having) This word also depends on e(f,u,iv [ver. 5] : 

1 2u(f>pous7i>, to use moderation) au(pp(iaiiin, an excellent virtue among those 
that are spiritual. — V. g. 

VOL. IH. ^ 


for there is an apodosis at the end of ver. 4 ; but sg/j,h denotes we 
are, and at the same time inclines to [borders on] a gentle exhor- 
tation [let us be, by implication], as Gal. iv. 28, note. Hence in 
the several parts of this enumeration, the imperative ought to 
be understood, comp. ver. 14 ; but it is Paul's characteristic 
^Sog, not to express the imperative often, after it has been once 
put at the beginning, as in ver. 3. — ^aplg/j-ara, gifts) these are 
of (liferent kinds, %a^'S, grace is one. — rrpoptiniav, prophecy) This 
stands first among the gifts. Acts ii. 17, 18, xi. 27, xiii. 1, xv. 
32, xix. 6, xxi. 9, 10 ; 1 Cor. xi. 4, etc., 12, etc. ; Eph. ii. 20, 
iii. 5, iv. 11; 1 Thess. v. 20; 1 Tim. i. 18, iv. 14; Rev. i. 3, 
etc. When these passages are compared together, it is evident, 
that prophecy is the gift, by which the heavenly mysteries, some- 
times also futiu-e events, are brought under the notice of men, 
especially believers, with an explanation of Scripture prophecies, 
which could not be elicited by the ordinary rules of interpreta- 
tion. But the other gifts, which we find in the first epistle to 
the Corinthians, are not added in this epistle, which is other- 
wise so copious. See ch. i. 11 ; 1 Cor. ix. 2, notes. — xara, accord- 
ing to) Repeat, ive having, viz., the gift, prophecy, and so in suc- 
cession. So just before, according to the grace, [as here, " ac- 
cording to the proportion of faith]. As it is given to a man, so 
ought a man to be of service to others. — rr\\> avaXoylav rrjg «'(mwf, 
the proportion [analogy of faithj) i.e., as God distributes (to 
every prophet) the measure of faith, ver. 3 : for there already 
Paul slightly touched upon this point, and he now returns to it, 
after some other topics had been introduced in the intervening 
verses. Prophecy and faith are closely connected, 1 Cor. xii. 9, 
] 0, xiii. 2. Peter treating of the same subject, first epistle iv. 
11, says, 'fls Xoyia Qiou, as the oracles of God. It is much the 
same as if Paul were to say, whether it be prophecy, [let it be 
restricted within the limits of, or] in prophecy ; with which 
compare what follows : let it not be carried outside of and be- 
yond the bounds of faith ; nor let any one prophesy from the 
promptings of his own heart, beyond what he has seen ; and 
again, on the other hand, let him not conceal or bury the truth ; 
let him only speak so far as he has seen, and knows, and believes,^ 

^ The construction is, whether it he prophecy, we are [i.e. we ought to be 
as Christians] persons who have it according to the proportion of faith. — Ed. 

ROMANS XII. 6. 163 

see Col. ii. 18 ; Eev. i. 2. Paul himself affords an ex- 
ample of such a proportion [analogy], 1 Cor. vii. 25. Eras- 
mus says, The phrase, according to the proportion, gives 
one to understand, that the gifts are the greater [are bestowed in 
the greater number], in proportion as one's faith shall have [hath] 
been the more perfect ; so also, Com. a Lapide, Piscator, Peter 
Martyr. Basihus M. on the Holy Spirit, He fills all things with 
Sis powerful working, and they, who are worths/, can alone receive 
Him, nor is He merely received in one, iJ'iTfui, measure, but, xara,'Koyiav rrig widTeug, according to the proportion of faith. He dis- 
tributes his operations, c. 9. Chrysostom : for although it is 
grace, yet it is not poured out uniformly, but taking the several 
measures [the yarious proportions in which it is poured out] from 
the [several states] of those who receive it, it flows in propor- 
tionally to what it has found the size of the vessel of faith pre- 
sented to it. Lichtscheid discusses this point at great length in 
Tr. Germ, vom ewigen evangelio (of the everlasting Gospel), 
p. 60, etc. As with Paul here, so with Mark the Hermit, the 
m£asure, liirfov, and the proportion, avaXoyla, are one and the same 
thing : see his book, 'jnpl ruv o'lo/ihuv l§ ipyav Six,aioi6rivai (concern- 
ing those who think that they are justified by works), a little past ' 
the middle. The knowledge of a maris affairs (business, conduct) 
depends on the proportion in which he puts in practice the pre- 
cepts of the law, but the knowledge of the truth (of the doctrine 
of salvation) depends on the measure of faith in Christ; and this 
same writer often uses the word, ava'koyiai, in this sense. In 
the writings of Paul, however, the word i/^irpov is used in the 
sense of limiting, in reference to moderation or the avoiding of 
excess ; whereas amXoyla has a fiiller meaning (if we compare 
it with what follows) in reference to the avoiding of deficiency 
[the full proportion]. In what theologians call the creed, all 
the heads agree together in an admirable analogy [completeness 
of proportion], and each article, respecting which a question 
occurs, should be decided according to the articles already 
certainly known, the interpretation of the rest should be ad- 
justed according to the declaration [the dictum] of Scripture 
clearly explained ; and this is the analogy of Scripture itself, 
and of the articles of faith, which form the creed. But every 
man does not know all things; and, of what he does know, he 

16* EOMANS XII. 7-9. 

doea not know all with equal certainty ; and yet he holds the 
things, which he certainly knows, by that very faith, by which 
the creed is formed ; wherefore both he himself, in prophesying, 
should determine all things according to the analogy of the 
faith by which he believes, and others, in hearing [also ought 
to determine all points] according to the analogy of the faith, 
whereby they believe [and form their creed [. 1 Cor. xiv. 29, 
37 ; Heb. xiii. 8, 9 ; 1 John ii. 20, and the following verses. 

7. E/Vf, or) This word is thrice repeated by the figure Ploce 
[See Append.] Do, what thou art doing, in earnest, in order 
that the reality may correspond to [keep] its own name [that 
what you do, may correspond to what you profess to do], Eccles. 
ix. 10. The principle of the subsequent sentiments is the 

8. Mirahi'&obg) ^'dovai signifies to give ; fiiTaSidovai to impart, [to 
give a share,] so that, he who gives, may not strip himself of all, 
that he has. — h avKorriTi) as God gives, James i. 5, ' liberally^ 
abundantly, 2 Cor. viii. 2, \neither prevented hy the desire of 
private advantage, nor by anxious deliberation, whether or not 
another may be worthy of the favour given, and whether proper 
moderation be observed in giving. — ^V. g.] — 6 irpo'iaTdfLivoi;') one who 
has the care of [rules, Engl. V.] others, and has them under his 
patronage. — sv c^ouSji, with diligence) The force of this word is 
very extensive ; ver. 11 ; 2 Cor. vii. 11, note. 

9. "H a/aT?), love) He treated of faith fi:om ver. 3 ; he is now 
to treat of love. Verses 9, 10, 11 have respect to ch. vii. ; 
ver. 12 to ch. viii.; ver. 13 to ch. ix. and the following 
chapters, concerning the communion of believers whether 
Jews or Greeks. The third clause of the sixteenth verse is 
repeated from ch. xi. 25. — amffruyovvTi; — xoXXufjuvoi, abhornng — 
cleaving) both in the mind and in the outward manifestation of 
it, even when at the risk of incurring danger and ill-will. The 
aniroKpiToc, the man without dissimulation, is shown in Prov. viii. 
7, Let my lips hate wickedness ; wickedness is an ABOMINATION 
to my lips. This is rightly connected with love, 1 Cor. xiii. 6. 
Very emphatic words. He, who is without hatred of evil, does 

' 'Ed rfi iiaxcu/ltf, on the minUtry) Let not the minister assume too much 
to himself and after all not fully discharge his duty V. g. 

BOMANS XII. 10-13. 165 

not really love good. From this passage, the discourse moves 
forward in pairs of sentences. [There are men 1) who patronise 
evil and assail good : 2) who love good, but do not abhor evil with 
that indignation which it deserves : 3) who disdain evil, but 
cherish good more coldly than is proper : 4) who so abhor evil 
and cleave to good, as that in their case no one can be ignorant 

10. ^iXoeropycj, kindly affectioned) eropyri, the spiritual love 
of brethren. — ff^ojyou/iEi/o/, [Engl. V. preferring'] anticipating, 
or leading the way in doing honour to one another) if not 
always in gesture and actions, at least always in the judgment 
of the mind. That will be so, if we rather consider the good 
qualities of others and our own faults. These are the social 
virtues of the saints [homileticse. Or perhaps, " their virtues are 
a kind of living sermon to the world."] The Talmudists say : 
whosoever knows, that his neighbour has been in the habit of 
saluting him, should anticipate him by saluting him first. 

11. Tji evovdrj — rf) •jmbfiari, in diligence [business, Engl. Vers.] — 
in spirit) The external or active, and the internal or contempla- 
tive life is thus set in due order. — rjD Kup/w douT^eLovreg, serving the 
Lord) We ought to serve Christ and God, ver. 1, ch. vii. 6, 
xiv. 18, xvi. 18 ; Acts xx. 19 ; Phil. ill. 3 : Ps. ii. 11, where 
serving and rejoicing are parallel, as in this passage. [See App. 
Crit. Ed. II. on this passage, which shows that the reading xaipa^ is 
quite unsupported and unworthy of the apostle. Not. crit.] 

12. 'EXmSi, in hope) So far respecting faith and love, now also 
concerning hope, comp. ch. v. and viii. Then concerning our 
duties to others, to the saints, ver. 13, to persecutors, ver. 14, to 
friends, strangers, enemies, ver. 15, etc. — ■xaipovrn, rejoicing) 
True joy is not only an emotion of the mind and a benefit [pri- 
vilege], but also a Christian duty, ver. 15. It is the highest 
complaisance in God. He wishes us to rejoice and to spend our 
spiritual life joyously. 

13. laTg %f£/a;j) rrt 6Xi-^(i, Phil. iv. 14. There was much 
occasion for this especially at Kome. It is particularly remark- 
able, that Paul, when he is expressly treating of duties arising 

» AB and prob. all Gr. MSS. of Jerome, Vulg. and most Versions read 
KvfiV. But D(A) corrected later, and Qfg read xa/jji. — Ed. 

166 ROMANS XII. 14-18. 

from the communion of saints, nowhere gives any charge con- 
cerning the dead. — diuxovng, following after) so that you not 
only are to receive to your house strangers, but are to seek 
them out. 

14. AiiixovTag, persecuting) for the sake of Christ. — xal //,7\ 
xarapaeh, curse not) not even in thought. 

15. X.a,ipiiv, rejoice) the infinitive for the imperative, a thing 
not unfrequent among the Greeks, and here a gentle mode of 
expression \moratus, indicative of ri6og, a feeling, viz. here the 
avoidance of the authoritative Imperative]. T exhort is under- 
stood, taken from ver. 1. Laughter is properly opposed to 
weeping, but in this passage as in 1 Cor. vii. 30, joy is used, not 
laughter, which is less suitable to Christians in the world. 

16. ToTg Tuitimtg, to lowly things [Engl. V. " to men of low 
estate"]) Neuter, for the phrase high things precedes. — ewaror- 
yofiivei, being [suffering yourselves to be] carried along with) the 
verb has the force of the middle voice, by which voluntary evy- 
xard^adig, condescension, is denoted. The proud think, that he, 
who is himible, is led away, but it is a good thing to be led 
away in this manner ; so it was with David. — firi yineh (ppovifiti 
Tap' eavToTg) Prov. iii. 7, LXX, f/^ri "eh fpovifiog '!rapoi eiavT^ [comp. 
Rom. xi. 25.] 

17. Ilpovoov/iBVOi xaXa evumov •savrui)/ avSptti-Troiiv) Providing things 
honest in the sight of all men. Prov. iii. 4, LXX., irpomoZ xaXA 
ivumov Kuplou xal a.vSpu'jruv. — xaXA, becoming) A precious stone 
should not merely be a precious stone, but it should also be 
properly set in a ring, so that its splendour may meet [attract] 
the eye. — vavrm, of all) For many are suspicious and unjust. 
See the following verse. 

18. 'El, if) if possible. He makes it conditional, and this 
clause may be construed with the 17th verse, inasmuch as good 
actions, especially if circumspection be wanting, may often 
appear to some not so good as they really are. — to £| v/j,uv, so far 
as it lieth in you) This is a limitation, for it is not always pos- 
sible owing to others. — fiirii vwirm avipdirui, with all men) of 
whom there was a very great conflux at Eome. No man is so 
savage, as not to have the feelings of humanity towards some 
individuals, but we ought to be peaceful, gentle, meek towards 
all, Phil. iv. 5 ; 2 Tim. ii. 24 ; Tit. iii. 2. \_Once and again at 

ROMANS XII. 19, 20. 167 

some time or other in the whole course of our life, we have to 
transact business with some individual, and according as we behave 
to him, so he ever after forms his estimate of our character and 
general conduct. — V. g.] — Biprttuvovng, being at peace) xiv. 17, 19. 

19. 'Ayairrirol, beloved) By this appellation he soothes those 
who might feel angry ; and he often uses it in the exhortations, 
that flow from a sense of the Divine grace which had been 
exercised towards the exhorter and those to be exhorted : comp. 
ver. 1. — Bon riirov, give place) He who avenges himself, flies upon 
[seizes unwarrantably] aU that appertains to the wrath of God. — 
rj) hfyr!) that wrath, of which so many things are said in Scrip- 
ture ; that is : the wrath of God, which alone is just and alone 
deserves to be called wrath [Not as Engl. V. seems to imply, 
Yield to the wrath of your enemy]. This is an ellipsis, due to a 
feeling of religious reverence, 2 Chron. xxiv. 18. — i/tto/, to me) 
supply, let it be [left to Me, as My Divine prerogative], Deut. 
xxxii. 35, ri/Jtipc^ txdixrieecijg avra'jrohdieu, I will repay in the day of 
vengeance. — Ix&lxrieji, vengeance) Hence Paul mferred — not aveng- 
ing yourselves, sx5ixi~v, to exact by law, to prosecute a law-suit to 
the utmost. — lyci/ avru-jroSusoi, I will repay) i.e. leave this to me. 
[77ws consideration easily suppresses all desire of vengeance. 
Suppose, that your adversary is not better, and that you are not 
worse than you think of yourself and him : he will either obtain 
at length the Divine grace, or he will not. If he shall obtain it, 
he will also acknowledge no doubt the injury, which he did to you, 
even though you should not be alive ; and in this case you will not 
desire, I hope, in consequence of any grudge of yours, to debar 
him from access to GoD, but rather would feel delight in as- 
sisting him in every way with your prayers. If he shall not 
obtain it, G0T> at least in His own behoof as supreme Judge, will 
by no means fail to punish him severely for the fault, for which 
you have granted him pardon. — Y. g.] — Xsyii Kupiog, saith the 
Lord) A form of expression used by the prophets, which the 
apostles did not use, but when they quoted the prophets ; be- 
cause, the prophets had one mode [ratio] of inspiration and the 
apostles another. 

20. Ea,v oh miv^ — ■^ti/j.ili — ahrou) LXX. Prov. XXV. 21, 22, i^\i 
irtiv^ — Tpi(pi [^ii>/j,iZ,i in LXX. ed. by Holmes and Bos] avrov, 6 d'e 
Kupiog ANTAnOAnsEI 6oi aya6d. If he hunger, feed him [his 

168 ROMANS XII. 21. XIII. 1. 

head], and the Lord will repay thy good deeds. The apostles applied 
the phrase, it is written more to doctrines, than to morals. — ix^pog, 
an enemy) This especially holds good of a bitter and violent enemy. 
— -vpw.a/^E, feed) with thy hand. So LXX., 2 Sam. xiii. 5. Thus 
will even thy iron-hearted enemy be softened. — avSpaxai •jrvphg, 
coals of fire) The end of all vengeance is that an enemy may be 
brought to repent, and that an enemy may deliver himself into the 
hands of the avenger. A man will very easily attain both objects, 
if he treat his enemy with kindness. Both are described in this 
remarkable phrase ; for it is such a repentance as that, which in 
the greatest degree hums ; 4 Esd. xvi. 53, and an enemy be- 
comes v/illingly the property of his avenger ; you will then have 
him entirely in your power [ready at your nod to obey]. — ii:] rfiv 
■x.£(paXriv a'jroij, upon his head) i.e. upon himself, upon him wholly, 
in that part too where he W"ill feel it most. 

21. M)] vixu, be not overcome) vixZ in the middle voice. They, 
whom the world consider to be conquerors, are in reaHty con- 
quered. — xaxoH) by the evil, of your enemy, and of your own 
nature. — vlxa, overcome) He is a brave man, who can endure. — 
h Tu a.ya6a rh xcfAov, evil with good) So also ch. xiii. 3, 4, with 
which there is a charming connection. 


1. naga, every) The apostle writes at very great length to the 
Romans, whose city was the seat of empire, on the subject of 
the magistracy, and this circumstance has all the force of a public 
apology for the Christian religion. This, too, may have been 
the reason why Paul, in this long epistle, used only once, and 
that too not until after this apology, the phrase, the kingdom of 
God, on other occasions so customary with him ; xiv. 1 7, for, 
instead of the kingdom, he calls it tJie glory; comp., however, 
Acts xxviii. 31, note. Every individual should be under the 
authority of the magistrate, and be liable to suifer punishment, 
if he has done evil, ver. 4. — -^vxfi, soul) He had said that their 
bodies ought to be presented to God, ch. xii. 1, presupposing 

ROMANS XIII. 2, 3. 1C9 

that the souls would be ; now he wishes souls to be subject to 
the magistrate. It is the soul, which does either good or evil, 
oh. ii. 9, and those in authority are a terror to the evil work, i.e. 
to the evil doer. — ^A man's high rank does not exempt, him from 
obedience. — i^ovglaig ivspi^oigaig) e^o-jdla, from iifj,l, birifi-yra from 
tX"'y being is before having: 'Mifi-xphsaig contains the aetiology [See 
Append. Be subject to the powers because they are vrrips'^ovsai : 
the cause or reason], 1 Pet. ii. 13, Fr. Souverain, Sovereign. — 
h'jrorass'isioi) The antithesis to this is avriraoeoiawz, ver. 2. The 
Conjugates are nrayiihoi, diccrayr,. Let him be subject, an ad- 
monition especially necessary to the Jews. — s^ougla, power) s^ouala, 
denotes the office of the magistrate in the abstract ; al Si i^ouaiai, 
ver. 2, those in authority in the concrete, therefore 8i is interposed, 
Intirarmov [forming an Epitasis, i.e. an emphatic addition to ex- 
plain or augment the force of the previous enunciation. — Appen.J. 
The former is more readily acknowledged to be from God than 
the latter. The apostle makes an affirmation respecting both. 
All are from God, who has instituted all powers in general, and 
has constituted each in particular, by His providence, — il /^^ airo) 
See App. crit. Ed. ii. ad h. v.^ 

2. A/arayjj, the ordinance') the abstract, in which the concrete 
is implied. So 1 Pet. ii. 13, xr/V/s, creature, in the abstract [but 
Engl. Vers, the ordinance] ; it at the same time includes, for 
example, the king, in the concrete. — avSigrriJiiv) The Preterite, i.e. 
by that very act resists. — xplfi^a) Divine judgment, through the 
magistrate. — "kfi-^ovrai, they shall bring on themselves) While they 
take to themselves another's power, they shall by their own spon- 
taneous act take [bring] on themselves, receive judgment. We 
have here the figure ^Mimesis [an allusion to the words of 
another with a view to refute him]. 

3. °"Oux — ayaduv) not — of good works. This is immediately 

' G Orig. D corrected later, read a^ro. But AB read i/«. Vulg.^and 
Iren. have the transl. Lat. a. — Ed. 

Jerome omits from al Se to liaiv. But ABD(A)G Vulg. Memph. fg 
Versions, Iren. 280, 321, retain the clause, omitting, however, liovaiat : 
which word is retained by Orig. and hoth the Syr. Versions and Eec 
Text.— Ed. 

2 See Appendix. 

3 The margin of the 2d Ed. prefers the reading, tu iiy»6f "'PVi'i «''?"» t^ 

170 ROMANS XIII. 4, S. 

discussed, Wilt thou — as to good. — Kaxm, of evil) This is treated 
of at ver. 4, if [thou do that which is evil] — upon him that doeth 
[evil]. They especially do evil who are also rebellious. For 
at the beginning of the verse thus retains its own proper force. 
— iiXiii, wilt thou) AU in some degree will, but they do not in 
an equal degree so act. — /ii\ ipo^iTtSai, not be afraid) One kind of 
fear precedes bad actions, and deters men from committing them ; 
this fear continues, ver. 7 : another kind follows bad actions, and 
from this fear, they are free, who do well. — 'i'Traivov, praise) 1 Pet. 
ii. 14, along with a reward ; comp. 1 Cor. iv. 5. 

4. &£o\J y&p, for of God) There is here an Anaphora or re- 
petition of the same word at the beginning of different clauses. 
There is a trace of Divine providence in this, that even wicked 
men, appointed to the magistracy, give their support to what is 
good, and visit evil with punishment.-" — eoi, to thee) This to thee 
is used with great elegance respecting him, that doeth well, but 
rSi is used indefinitely respecting the evil-doer. — ilg) so far as 
concerns what is good, what is for your advantage. — rJ xaxJv, 
evil) Good is marked as in direct antithesis to this evil in 
ver. 3, not in ver. 4. — popiT, wieldeth [bearethj), not merely psfs/, 
carries : [c/estat, not gerit; wields'] according to Divine appoint- 

5. 'Avayxji) Baumgarten remarks that this word is wanting in 
some MSS. It is only wanting in the Graecb-Latin, which are 
imworthy of the name of MSS. where they have no Greek 
copies agreeing with them (as also happens, ch. i. 19). I do 
not mention this for the sake of contention, but because I am 
well assured of the advantage conferred on the Greek New 
Testament by him, who lessens the authority of the bilingual 
copies in any passage. — bidi, riiv hpytiv, for [on account of, through 
fear of] wrath) which hangs over the evil-doer, ver. 4. Hence 
we have another manifest connection of this with the preceding 
chapter, in which see ver. 19, [give place] unto wrath. — bi^ njn 

xaxti. So also the German version. — E. B. So the oldest authorities 
ABD corr. later, G, Vulg-. fg Iren. Memph. But both Syr. Versions have 
ruu a-yat&Zy ipyuv — Kaiccjs/. — Ed. 

' AiecKouos karm. He is the minister) Paul uses the same words concern- 
ing the magistracy, as he uses to express on other occasions the ministry of 
the Gospel. So also ver. 6. — V. g. 

ROMANS XIII. 6-9. 171 

(tuvilirigiv, for vonscience' sake) whicli expects the praise of a good 
action from the minister of God, ver. 3. 

6. Aeirovpyol, ministers) The ministry and the magistracy are 
adorned with the same titles. So ver, 4, diaxovog, comp. Is. 
xliv. 28 ; Jer. xxv. 9. — ^poexaprspouvm, [attending continually] 
persevering) O that all men would do so rightly. 

7. '0<piiX&s), debts. — tOj, an abbreviated mode of expression,^ 
as in 2 Cor. viii. 15, note. — (p6pov, rsXos) with respect to the 
thing itself; ^opos is the genus, tsXos the species. — <p6j3ov, Ti/ifiv, 
fear, honour) with the mind, and words and gestures. po/3oj, 
respect, a higher degree of honour. 

8. MjjStn/, to no man) From our duties to magistrates, he pro- 
ceeds to general duties, such as we owe to one another. — ops/Xsre, 
owe) a new part of the exhortation begins here. — aya-x^v, to hve) 
a never-ending debt. Song of Sol. viii. 7, at end of ver. If 
you wUl continue to love, you will owe nothing, for love is the 
fulfilling of the law. To love is liberty. 

9. Oh fioi^eugsig, thou shalt not commit adultery) Paul goes 
over the commandments without binding himself down to their 
order. — oh ■^evdofiapnp^aiig, thou shalt not bear false witness) 
I did not think that this came from Paul's pen, but Baumgarten 
thinks so, as he writes, that Whitby should be consulted. See 
App. crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.^ — s'l ng iripa, if there be any 
other) for example, honour thy father. — hroXfi) hrokri, a command- 
ment, a part ; ro/ios, the law, the whole. — Xdyw, in the saying) a 
short, easy one. — avaxupa'AaioHrai) it is briefly comprehended, so 
that although particular precepts may not be thought of, yet no 
offence can be committed against any one of them by the man, 
who is endued with love ; comp. is fulfilled [in one word] Gal. 
V. 14, likewise, hang [all the law and the prophets] Matt. xxii. 
40. — iig eiaurov) So Seidelianus along with some ; others read ug 
iauTov, which Baumgarten approves. I was of opinion that one 
sigma had been written instead of two, and those, who are 

' See Appendix. Concisa Locutio. 

" The German Version has the clause, rather, I should think, from a slip 
of memory, than from change of opinion. — E. B. 

ABD(A)Gi;^ Origen, the best MSS. of Vulg. omit oi ■^tvhofiit^v^'h'nis- Rec. 
Text keep the words, with which a few MSS. of the Memph. Vers, agree. 

173 ROMANS XIII. 10, 11. 

acquainted with the habits of the transcribers, willVeadily agi-ee 
with me. Examples will be found in App. crit., p. 383.^ 

10. Ka,-/.bv oiix, no evil) Moreover, most duties are of a negative 
character ; or at least, where there is no one injured, positive 
duties are pleasantly and spontaneously performed. Where there 
is true love, there a man is not guilty of adultery, theft, lying, 
covetousness, ver. 9.^ 

11. Ka! rouro, and this) supply do, those things, which are 
laid down from ch. xii. 1, 2, and especially from xiii. 8. — xaipov) 
the time [opportunity, season] abounding in grace, ch. v. 6., iii. 
26 ; 2 Cor. vi. 2. — w>a, the hour) viz. it is. This word marks 
a short period of time. We take account of the hour for [with 
a view to] rising. — Ijdij, already) without delay ; presently after 
there occurs vZv, at the present time [now]. — l^ Zmou, out of sleep) 
The morning dawns, when man receives faith, and then sleep is 
shaken off. He must therefore rise, walk and do his work, lest 
sleep should again steal over him. The exhortations of the 
Gospel always aim at higher and higher degrees of perfec- 
tion, [something farther beyond], and presuppose the oldness of 
the condition in which we now are, compared with those newer 
things, which ought to follow, and which correspond to the 
nearness of salvation. — fjiJ,Siv) construed with kyyui, which is in- 
cluded in iy/vTipov, rather than with ecarnpla ; for in other pas- 
sages it is always called either the salvation of God, or salvation 
absolutely, not our salvation, [which Engl. Vers, wrongly gives] ; 
comp. on this nearness of salvation, Gal. iii, 3, v. 7. In both 
places the apostle supposes, that the course of the Christian, 
once begun, thereupon proceeds onward continually, and comes 
nearer and nearer to the goal. Paul had long ago written both 
his epistles to the Thessalonians ; therefore when he wrote of 
the nearness of salvation, he wrote considerately [for he here, 
after having had such a time meanwhile to consider, repeats his 
statement], comp. 1 Thess. iv. 15, note. Observe also : he says 
elsewhere, that we are near to salvation, Heb. vi. 9 : but here, 

^ ABD(A) Vulg. Orig. have aiecvriii. But Grand Rec. Text suvtou. — Ed. 

' Ov!/, then) Love is not extinguished of itself; for well-doing, unless it 
meets with some obstruction from some evil, goes on without interruption ; 
hence it is that from the avoiding of evil the fulfilment of the law, which also 
includes good, is derived [is made to flow]. — V. g. 

HOMANS Xni, 12, 13. 173 

that salvation, as if it were a day, is near to us. He wlio has 
begun well ought not to flag, when he is near the goal, but to 
make progress [deficere, proficere : not to recede, but proceecC]. 
— 71 giurrjpia) Salvation to be consummated at the coming of 
Christ, which is the goal of hope, ch. viii. 24, and the end of 
faith, i. Pet. i, 9. The making mention of salvation is repeated 
from ch. V. and viii. [Moreover from that whole discussion, this 
exhortation is deduced, which is the shorter, in proportion as that 
was the longer. — ^V. g.] — ii on imaTevgo(.fji,sv) than at the time, when 
we began to believe at the first, and entered upon the path 
described, ch. i. — iv. ; so, mgrsusiv, to take up faith, [to accept it, 
to become believers] Acts iv. 4, 32, and in many other places. 
[ITe, who has once begun well, from time to time approaches either 
nearer to salvation, or salvation, as it is said here, comes nearer 
to Mm. He has no heed to feel great anxiety, excepting the 
eagerness of expectation. — V. g.] 

12. 'H vii^) the night of this dark life, •^poexo'^iv, has come to its 
height ; the day of complete salvation has drawn nigh, — the day 
of Christ, the last day, Heb. x. 25, the dawn of which is this 
whole time, which intervenes between the first and second coming 
of our Lord. Paul speaks as if to persons awaking out of 
sleep, who do not immediately comprehend that it is bordering 
between night and day. He who has been long awake, knows 
the hour ; but he, to whom it needs now at last to be said, it is 
no longer night, the day has drawn near, is understood to be 
regarded as one, who is now, and not till now, fully awake. — 
'ipya, the works) which they, whilst even still lying [and not yet 
awake] perform : comp. Gal. v. 1 9, note ; works, which are 
unworthy of the name of arms. Farther, worhs come from 
internal feehngs : arms are supplied from a different quarter ; 
during the night men are without even their clothes ; during 
the day, they have also arms. — feXa, arms) this word is repeated 
from ch. vi. [13, Neither yield your members as instruments of 
unrighteousness] : such arms as became those, who are light- 
armed [ready for action], as the breastplate and the helmet, 
1 Thess. V. 8. 

13.' Eiiff;^))/i^vws) with good clothing (Jionestly, Engl. Vers., in 

^' Cl(h Tifit^cf, as in the day) See that you bear yourself so now, as you 
would desire to be seen to be at the last day. — ^V. g. 

174 ROMANS XIII. 14. XIV. 1. 

the archaic sense, = hecomingly ; in becoming attire). — xiifioif 
xal //,i6ai;, not in riotings and drunkenness) as to ourselves, xufio;, 
^easting, a lascivious banquet, -vvith dancing and various dis- 
orderly acts. — Wisd. xiv. 23 ; 2 Mace. vi. 4. — xolraig xal &ei\- 
yiiaii, in chamherings and wantonness') accompanied with others. 
— 'ipiii xal ^fjXui, in strife and envying) directed against others. 
In ver. 13, 14, there is a chiasmus :^ «.. not in rioting — ^. not in 
strife and envying : y. hut put on, in love [opposed to strife, and 
inseparable from Christ], the Lord Jesus Christ — b. and — not — 
for the lusts. j8 and / correspond, a and i5. 

14. Th) Here is summarily contained all the light and power 
of the New Testament, as it is the whole of salvation [everything 
that is wrong being excluded. — ^V. g.J 1 Cor. vi. 11. — 'ln<soZv 
Xpiirh, Jesus Christ) ch. vi. 3, 4. — eapxhg, of the flesh) This has 
respect to ch. vii. and viii. — rrpovoiav, care) The care of the flesh 
is neither forbidden in this passage as bad, nor praised as good, 
but it is reduced to order and fortified against the dangers to 
which it is liable, as something of a middle character [between 
bad and good], and yet in some respects the object of suspicion. 
Tlpivoia, previous [anticipatory] care of the flesh is opposed to 
holy hope. — eviSufilag, lusts) of pleasure and passion : with this 
comp. ver. 13 [and ch. vi. 7.] 


1. 'AeSmtJvTu) The participle is milder than the adjective 
aahvti, weak. — msm, in faith) Even still the apostle refers all 
things to faith. — '7rpogXa/ji,l3dvigk, receive ye) We have the same 
word, ver. 3, ch. xi. 15, xv. 7 ; Philem. ver. 17. [Salvation has 
come to both Jews and Gentiles by faith ; therefore neither party 
should impede the other, but both shoidd afford mutual assistance. 
— ^V. g.] — P'n e!g, not into) He who urges another to do, what 
he himself is doing, appears to receive him, but then he receives 
him so, that his thoughts, 5;aXoy;<r/io/, are driven into [to enter- 

1 See Appendix. 

ROMANS XIV. 2-6. 175 

tain] doubts, haKpim?, so that he cannot in his own feehng on 
the particular point, be borne along with full satisfaction, irkripo- 
(popsT(f6ai [be fully persuaded, ver. 5], the word adiaipopiTv is the 
antithesis to the word diaxphiiv. He calls them doubts in the 
thoughts, for those in doubt think more than they speak. 

2. TiiBTtki, believes) This word has a more direct sense in the 
predicate ; the participle agkmv conceals, as it were, the weak- 
ness of him who eats herbs. — xdxava,, herbs) vegetable food (in 
preference to meats, ver. 21), which we have the most undoubted 
liberty to eat. Gen. ix. 3. 

3. ahrhv, him) who eats in faith. — ■rpoei^d^iro, hath received) 
ftaken to Himself] for example, from among the Gentiles. 

4. St)) thou, O weak man. — rig it) who art thou, who takest 
so much upon thyself. — aXXorpm ohirnv, another man's servant) 
He calls him in another respect thy brother, as it suits his 
pm^pose, ver. 10. — Ku/j/w, [Master] Lord) Christ, ver. 6, 7, 9, 
10, 14, 15, 18. — ernxii, he stands) although thou, O weak man, 
dost not think so. — graS^gira,! d'e, yea, and he shall be holden up) 
if he shall fall ; he will be upheld by sure knowledge. — imarhg 
yap, for He is able) In the works of Divine grace, the conclusion 
is often valid, when drawn from what is possible (posse) to 
what actually is (esse) : against those especially, who judge other 
wise ; and in behalf of those who are weak. 

5. Haeav fj/aspav) ■TTcigav ri/jLipav %pini fi/Lepa)i, another judges every 
day a day. He judges that he should equally do good at all 
times. — idiijj vot, in his own mind) his own, not another's, voug 
does not signify the opinion of the mind, but the mind itself. — 
'jrXripoipopeleSai, to be borne along with full satisfaction [lit. course^) 
i.e., let each one act, and let another permit him to act (this is the 
force of the Imperative, as at ver. 16) according to his own judg- 
ment, without anxious disputation, and with cheerftd obedience, 
comp. V. 6. He is not speaking positively [precisely] of the 
understanding; for these two things are contradictory: you 
may eat, you may not eat, and therefore cannot at the same time 
be true ; and yet a man, who has determined either on the one 
or the other, may be fully persuaded (lit. be carried, full course) 
in his own mind, as a boat may hold on its course uninjured 
either in a narrow canal or in a spacious lake. 

6. Bv^apierii' y&p — xat i'jy^cx,pieT£T, for he gives thanks — and 

173 ROMANS XIV. 7-9. 

gives thanks) Thanksgiving sanctifies all actions, however out- 
wardly difierent, which do not weaken it, 1 Cor. x. 30 ; Col. 
li. 7, iii. 17 ; 1 Tim. iv. 4. The, For, however, has greater 
force than and, as thanksgiving is more connected with eating, 
than with abstinence from eating ; and in him, who eats, there 
are both the fruits and the criterion, and in some respects the 
ground of faith, even of that faith, of which we have an account 
at ver. 22, and of an assured conscience ; with respect to him 
who does not eat, that faith, of which we read at ver. 22, is no 
doubt defective as to its fruits, criterion, and the ground on 
which it rests, but yet the man retains all the three as regards 
a conscience void of offence [not violated]. — xal ili^apitrsT, and 
gives thanks) for herbs, ver. 2. 

7. 'H/iSiv, of us) believers; for all others live and die to them- 
selves. — iavTui, to himself) Wellerus says : No man ought to 
live to himself, neither formally [formaliter], so that, as one at his 
own disposal, he should regulate his life according to his own 
desires ; nor materially [materialiter], because, satisfied with him- 
self, he may wish to give way to self-indulgence ; nor [finaliter] 
with this end in view, that he may make the scope of his life the 
enjoyment of pleasures. — Zri, amhriaxsi, lives, dies) the art of dying 
is the same as that of living. 

8. Tp Kugitji, to the Lord) implying the Divine majesty and 
power of Christ. — eV/isv) we are, not merely we begin to be. 

9. K.a} a'jrUavt xal s^rjgiv, both died and revived) This agrees 
with what goes before and with what follows. Bavimgarten 
reads xa! anSTrt, and alleges the probability of omission on the 
part of the transcribers, but gives no reason for this probability. 
I think the addition pi;obably is due to this, that the transcribers 
very easily laid hold of a very well-knovm expression concerning 
Christ, aitiSan na! anarn, 1 Thess. iv. 14 ; and when this was 
done, some omitted xal it^ijuiv, others, however, also retained it, 
and moreover placed it either first, as in Iren. 1. iii. c. 20 ; or in 
the middle, as in the Syriac version ; or third in order, as in 
Chrysostom, who, however, in his exposition, passes over the 
xa! avierti. Whitby, who, according to Baumgaxten, ought to be 
consulted, refutes himself; for he says, that airiiaviv and vtx^uv, 
'i^risiv and Ziiwm correspond to each other (as also Origen observes, 
c. Cels., p. 103, ed. Hoesch.) aviarii finds nothing to which it 

KOMANS XIV. 9. 177 

corresponds. I have cleared away the objection from the testi- 
monies of the fathers, adduced by him, in the Apparatus. The 
reading 'i^ngiv is well supported ; Mi^yisev rests on much weaker 
authority.' — [isx^Zv, of the dead) The dying and the dead rejoice 
in the Lord Jesus, who has died and abolished death and van- 
quished the devil, Heb. ii. 14. — l^mruv, of the living) The 
living and those, who are made alive again, trimnph with their 
living Eedeemer, their Kinsman (Heb. Goel.) The living God 
is the God of the living. Matt. xxii. 32. Christ, who lives 
again, is Lord of those who are brought to life again. Paul 
places here, ver. 7, 8, this life before death, and, in ver. 9, by 
gradation, after death, that life, as ch. viii. 38, with which comp. 
ver. 34. Christ, says he, died, that he might have dominion over 
the dying, Christ revived, that He might have dominion over the 
living. Christ has died, therefore death (the act or rather the passive 
suffering of dying and the state of death) will not separate us 
from Him. Christ has risen again, therefore ths life (of the world to 
come) will not separate us from Him ; hence the notion of ^ the 
inseriMbility of the soul during the whole night, whilst the body is 
in the grave, is set aside by the dominion of Christ over the dead ; 
and against this doctrine soKd arguments are derived from the 
appearance of Moses and EUas, Matt. xvii. 3, as also from the 
resurrection of the saints. Matt, xxvii. 52, 53 ; and from the hope 
of Paul, etc., Phil. i. 23 ; 2 Cor. v. 8 ; Heb. xii. 23. To these 
we may add " the fifth seal," Eev. vi. 9, note, and the oyXoi, 
multitudes of the blessed, Eev. vii. and xiv., etc. The apostles 
themselves decUned, 1 Cor. v. 12, to judge " those that are with- 
out." The state of deserving [the state in which men are capable 
of deserts] (taking the word in a large sense on both sides [in a 
good and a bad sense]) is doubtless not extended beyond this 
present life. The condition of man for all eternity depends on 
[his state at] the moment of death, although without man's 
co-operation, different degrees may exist. Comp. Luke xvi. 9, 
22, 25 ; John ix. 4 (comp. Ecc. ix. 10) ; Gal. vi. 10 ; 2 Tim. 

1 ABC Memph. Syr. later, read airiSccuii) I^yihiu. But Off, Vulg. and 
Origen, airiiamu x«i dviaTri ; for which last Fulgentius and the Fuld. MS. 
of Vulg. corrected by Victor, have a^i^nffs^. T){A)f Iren. have i^mf xal 
d'ureiiii.i/ii) x.»i ecviarri. Rea Text, d'lrei. *. ajiiarri, x «>i^«<r£». — Ed. 


17iS EOMANS XIV. 10-15. 

iv. 6, 8; Tit. ii. 12 ; Heb. iii. 13, vi. 11, ix. 27 ; Kev. ii. 10; 
Rom. viii. 23, etc. 

10. 2u di, But thou) thou, who art the weaker ; it was with 
him the apostle has hitherto been deaUng : he now addresses the 
stronger, or [dost] thou also. — x^lviig, judgest) He, who judges, 
demands, that the knees should be in fact bent to Him."^— 
s^ouSevlig, dost thou set at nought f) in thy mind and by thy conduct. 

11. TsypaTrcti, it is written) Christ is God ; for He is called 
Lord and God : It is He Himself to whom we live and die. He 
swears by Himself. — ^w iyi, Xsyn Kupios' Sti — xal -naaa yXZteea, 
i^o/jioXoyrjeirai tu> ©sw) Is. xlv. 22, 23, LXX., lyii e'l/ii 6 Qeig xal 
o!ix 'idTiv aXKoi — or/ — xai ofiiiTa,! Taea yXuiKga rhv Qihv.^ I am 
God and there is none else, and every tongue shall swear hy God. 

12.^ AoiSii, shall give) A gentle exhortation : let no man fly 
upon [seize] the office of a judge. 

13. KplmTi, judge ye) A beautiful Mimesis^ in relation to that 
which precedes, [K we are to judge, be this our judgment^ let us 
no longer judge. [This matter requires diligent attention. — ^V. g.] 
— TpoeTiofjiiJia,, a stumbling-block) if a brother be compelled by one 
to do the same thing [as one's self], ver. 20. — axavdaXov, an 
offence) if he, the same, abhors you, for what you have done. 

14. 'E\i KvpiS) Irieov, in the Lord Jesus) All cases are best and 
most certainly resolved in the face of Christ ; / know and am per- 
suaded, a rare conjunction of words, but adapted to this place 
for confirmation against ignorance and doubt. 

15. Af, but) An antithesis. Not only faith, ver. 14, but also 
love ought to be present. — Sia ^pSi/j,a) /j^ilugig, [less is said than 
is intended] : comp. Heb. ix. 10 : xii. 16 : xiii. 9. — XvireTrai, is 
grieved) The antithesis to this is the joy in ver. 17. — oix m, now 
no longer) He places before his mind some one who stands sted- 
fast in love, and intimates that he ought never lose sight of love. 
Love and joy, not love and grief, are connected together. — xarci, 
aydirnv, according to love, charitably) Hence the connection of 

^ ToS XfWToii, of Christ) God will judge by Christ, ch. ii. 16. — V. g. 

^ 'E5o|MoXoy^(r£T«;, shall confess) seriously. The oa'th of believers cor. 
responds to the oath of God, Is. xlv. 23 V. g. 

' Ileji e«uTo5, concerning himself) not any other. — V. g. 

* See Appendix. An allusion to some word or thing previous which bad 
been the subject of refutation ; as here, judging. 

KOMAJJS XIV. 16-18. 179 

the first verse with the preceding chapter, ver. 8, is manifest. — 
rp ^ filacer! eou, with thy food \meat^ Do not value thy food more 
than Christ valued His life. — i/^n d-roXXuE, do not destroy) 1 Cor. 
viii. 11. Even the true brother may perish, for whom Christ 
most lovingly died. 

16. M)j, not) Liberty is the good of [peculiar to] believers, 1 
Cor. X. 29, 30, flowing from the privileges of the kingdom of 
God. Generous service in ver. 18, is opposed [antithetic] to the 
abuse of this liberty. In the writings of the fathers the Lord's 
Supper also is usually denominated to ayaShv, the good, as Suicer 
shows, Observ. Sacr., p. 85, which is indeed not inconsistent 
with this very passage of Paul, who, writing on the same sub- 
ject, 1 Cor. X. 16, takes his argument from the Lord's Supper. 
It is comprehended under the good of believers. But he speaks 
of Th ayaShv, the good, to show the unworthiness of evil-speaking, 
of which either the weak, who consider the Uberty of the stronger, 
licentiousness, or even others might be guilty. 

17. 'H jSagiXiicc rou Qeou, the kingdom of God) The kingdom of 
God is, when a man is under the power [influence] of God, so 
1 Cor. iv. 20. — ^f£igig xal 'ttochs, eating and drinking [not meat 
and drink, which would be ^ptii//.a, etc.]) It does not consist in 
the bold and careless use of liberty, for example in relation to 
meat and drink. — bixaioslvri, righteousness) in respect of God. 
The three points of this definition relate to the sum of the whole 
epistle in their order. The one peculiar characteristic of faith 
and Hfe [in the Christian], independently of the article of the 
sinner's justification [through faith] is righteousness. — I'lpm, 
peace) in respect of our neighbour; comp. ch. xv. 13. — x"^"> 
joy) in respect of ourselves : comp. ch. xV. 13. 

18. 'Ek TouToig, in these things) whether he eats or not ; the 
Alex, and others, Lat. [Yulg.] have h rourui : rour^ in the sin- 
gular has no antecedent, to which it can be made to refer. It 
may have arisen from its aUiteration with rffi, which follows.^ — 
iiidpigrog — Soxi/ios, acceptable — approved) He does that, by which 
he pleases God and approves himself to, and ought to be ap- 

1 ABCD corrected later, Gfff Memph. Theb. Versions, Origen, have h 
roiiTu. Rec. Text is supported by the two Syr. Versions alone of ancient 
authorities in reading h Toirois. — Ed. 

180 ROMANS XIV. 19-22. 

proved by, men : he is even approved by- those, whom he has nc 
desire to please. 

19. Eip^vti;, oixoSo/j^TJi, of peace, of edification) These two things 
are very closely connected. Theology is in itself a peace-maker 
and is designed for edification. Controversy is not so directly 
useful for edification, although it should sometimes be added.— - 
Comp. Nehem. iv. 17. 

20. M)] x.ardXMi, do not destroy) The effects of even one sin 
may be distressing and important moreover, ver. 15. — 'ivixiv 
BfufidTog, on account of meat) a very small matter. — ri ipyov rou 
@£ou, the work of God) a very great matter : the work, which 
God accomplishes within in the soul, by edification, and in the 
church by harmony [Faith is principally intended, John vi. 29. — 
V. g.] — xaxhv, evil) the word to eat [is evil], is to be supplied 
fi-om what follows : He does not say x-axa, evils. — dia rrponxS/L 
fiaTog, with offence) so that another may be offended by his 

21. M)j5e, £v S) neither, viz. to eat, drink, do anything, in 
which, etc. — -Ttpoex.oimi) stumbleth, and is wounded, induced 
rashly to imitate thee, with the loss of righteousness. As there 
is a difference between righteousness and joy, so there is a differ- 
ence between the loss of each. — e-^atbaXiZirai, is offended) is en- 
snared and impeded, feeling a repugnance to thy action [in 
eating, and yet doing it in imitation of thee], accompanied with 
the loss of peace. — aeknf) is made weak, or at least remains 
so, 1 Cor. viii. 9, 10 ; defective in mental strength, and hesitat- 
ing between imitation and horror, with the loss of joy : comp. 
ver. 17. ^B'a, Lxx., aehvin. 

22. Ulenv, faith) concerning the cleanness of meat [all meats 
alike]. — (ftaurfi', — ©sou, thyself — of God) a double antithesis, in 
relation to our neighbour; as in ch. xv. 3. — £%£, have) The 
foundation of real prudence and judicious concealment [of our 
views on non-essentials, for the sake of our neighbour]. — /iaxa/>/os, 
happy) These words down to the end of the chapter, contain 
the antithesis to ch. xv. 1, hut. — xphtav, judging [condemning'^ 
\_Condemning'] judging and approving are the words in anti- 
thesis : by combining the two, the doubting conscience is ex- 
quisitely described, when a man approves a thing, and yet 
[condemns] judges his own action. 

ROMANS XIV. 23. XV. 1-3. 181 

23. 'O Se) The reason, why the stronger ought not to induce 
the weak to eat. — lAv ipoiyri, if he eat) This must he understood 
both of a single act and much more of frequent eating. — zara- 
xsxpiTai, is condemned) Comp. Gal. ii. 11, note. — ex xlgnug, or 
faith) of which ver. 2, 5 at the end, 14 at the beginning, 22. 
Therefore it is faith itself that is indicated, by which men are 
reckoned to be believers, informing and confirming, as it does, 
the conscience, and constituting partly the foundation and 
partly the standard of upright conduct. — a/iaprla, sin) and there- 
fore obnoxious to condemnation. 


1. 'Af, [on the other hand] but) [This is in antithesis to 
Happy — Sin, last ch. ver. 22, 23]. There is great danger, and 
we are only kept guarded by the power of God ; but we ought 
[owe that debt to others] to watch over [pay attention to] one 
another. — n/nTg) we. He counts himself also in common with 
others a debtor, as an apostle, and as an apostle of the Gentiles. 
— 01 buvaroi, the strong) comp. Gal. vi. 1, note. — ^aerdt^uv, to 
bear) It is indeed a burden. — ap'sexnv) 'Apiexu, I am anxious to 
please. He who is anxious to please himself, is indifferent about 
pleasing another, and pays little respect to his conscience. This 
is a Metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent [See 

2. E/'s rj ayadhv, -jrpoi olxoSo/iriv, for good, to edification) ilg, unto, 
denotes the internal end, in respect of God ; 'jrphg, to, the exter- 
nal end, in respect of our neighbour. Good, the genus ; ediflca 
tion, the species. 

3. ' O Xpierhg, Christ) who alone was truly dumrhg, strong, comp. 
ver. 1 with ch. v. and vi.: Suva^o! strong, ashviTg weak. — oi;^; tauru, 
not Himself) Admirable e^iyxara^asig, condescension ! Not Him- 
self but us, ver. 7, 8 ; Ps. Ixix. 32 : Christ procured apiexe'iav, 
what is well-pleasing to God for those, who see and are glad 

• ' 0(J)ii\ofiiii, we ought) for Christ's sake, ver. 3. — V. g. 

182 ROMANS XV. 4. 

[Referring to Ps. Ixix. 32, which see]. — aXXa) but, viz., He took 
that upon Himself, which is written. — yiypairrai, it is written) 
Ps. Ixix. 10, with which comp. ver. 11, 12, in the latter hemi- 
stich of either, it matters not which. — o'l — Ifii) So the LXX. — l-rri- 
nem, fell on) Bj right Christ might have borne Himself as God, 
and have enjoyed Divine honours, but He did not use His right, 
for our sakeSjPhil. ii. 6. He indeed thoroughly felt the reproaches, 
which wicked men cast upon God, with that sorrow, which they 
ought to have felt, who gave utterance to them ; and He Him- 
self bore and expiated those reproaches as patiently, as if He 
Himself had been the guilty person. His whole sufferings are 
here intended ; He at that time performed the office of a minister 
[a servant], Matt. xx. 28. \_At that time, He did not please Him- 
self, but He interposed Himself, in order that in respect to [in the 
case of] all who had dishonoured GoD, GoD might receive what 
was well-pleasing [" caperet beneplacitum." Or rather, that God 
might by the atonement, be enabled to exercise goodr-will consist- 
ently with justice]. It behoved Him to endure many things with 
patience, ver. 1, 4. — ^V. g.] 

4. T&p, for) This assigns the reason for the quotation just 
made. — ■Trpoiypdpri) were written before the time of the New Tes- 
tament ; as was that, which is quoted, ver. 3, as having been 
written concerning Christ. — rifizTipav) our, or of us believers in 
the New Testament, ch. iv. 24; 1 Cor. x. 11. — tm/iovrig, patience) 
of which Christ afforded an exaxn-ple, not pleasing Himself . — xat) 
a hendiadys [See Append.], the comfort [paraclesis] of the Scrip- 
tures leads us to patience. A summary of the ends [the main 
aim] of sacred Scripture. — •'kriSBug, comfort) which holds the 
middle place between patience and hope ; ch. v. 4. There is 
comfort \_paraclesis, consolation], when the soul re-echoes the 
sentiment, thou art S6xi//,o5 [Comp. the Gr. James i. 3, 12] ap- 
proved. 2 Cor. i. 6. — Tuv ypapSiv, of the Scriptures) It is in the 
plural, and corresponds with whatsoever. [The Scriptures testify 
of Christ, and teach us by His example, what we should do or 
what we should leave undone. — V. g.] — rriv tX-iriba, the hope) The 
article must not be overlooked, comp. on patience and hope, 
ch. V. 4, on hope, ver. 12, 1 3. For from this mention ot patience 
and comfort the fifth verse is deduced, and from the mentioning 
of hope the thirteenth verse. — 'ix'^l^^h ^'^I/ have) The former part 

ROMANS XV. 5-8. 183 

of this verse treats of the use of the whole Scripture, the latter 
principally of the use of the Saying quoted at ver, 3. Hence 
comes the twofold prayer, ver. 5, 13, suitahle to the approaching 

5. ®ihg Tiji Inroi/iovrii xal -ffapaxXrisniis, The God of patience and 
consolation) So, the God of hope, ver. 13, the God of peace, ver. 
33. Titles from the thing, which is treated of. Elsewhere, the 
God of glory, the God of order, the God of the living, the God of 
heaven. — rrn vapaxXriaias — rh aurh (ppouTv — xarii) So plainly, Phil, 
ii. 1, 2. 

6.^ ' O/ioSv/iaShv, with one mind) with one believing mind. — 
gTof^an, with the mouth) confessing. — bo^aZrin, ye may glorify) 
Ye Jews and Gentiles, ver. 7, 9. — rh @ih xal varipa roD Kuplou 
rifi,m 'ineoZ XpiSTou, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ) 
a frequent appellation, 2 Cor. i, 3, xi. 31 ; Eph. i. 3 ; Col. i. 3 ; 
1 Pet. i. 3. It is to be resolved in this manner : The God of 
our Lord, etc., Eph. i. 17, and the Father of our Lord, etc., in- 
stead of what men of old said, God the^ Creator and the Lord of 
heaven and earth, Ps. cxxiv. 8, and the God of Abraham and 
Isaac and Jacob, thereby subscribing [signifying their assent] to 
the faith of these believers. So elsewhere God and our Father, 
Gral. i.4. Christ has a double relationship to God and the Father, 
as compared with us ; we also have a double relationship, through 
Christ, John xx. 17. 

7. i/iSs, you^ ) who were formerly weak, Jews and Greeks 
without distinction. — e/'s ho^av @iou, to the glory of God) It is con- 
strued with received, comp. ver. 6, 8, 9. 

8. Asyw di. Now I say) By this verse the preceding clause 
concerning Christ is explained. — Xpierhv Irieouv.) Others say, 
Iridouv Xpidrh.^ Those, who have omitted the name Jesus in this 
passage, seem to have had respect to ver. 3 and 7. Thenomen- 

^ To airo (p^ovuv, to think alike) Patience and comfort promote harmony. 
He who disagrees with himself shows himself very morose to others. Har- 
mony is founded in Christ Jesus, as full hope is subsequently founded in the 
Holy Spirit, ver. 13. — V. g. 

" ACD corrected later, G^ Vulg. read ifiAs- Kec. Text reads iifia; with 
BD early corrected,/. — Ed. 

3 ABC read XjwtoV only. But D(A)G/£r and both Syr. Versions and 
Rec. Text ' Introvu 'X.^iarou. — Ed. 

184 ROMANS XV. 9. 

clature, Jesus Christ, and Christ Jesus, ought not to be con- 
sidered as promiscuously used. Jesus is the name, Christ the 
surname. The former was first made known to the Jews, the 
latter to the Gentiles. Therefore he is called Jesus Christ ac- 
cording to the natural and common order of the words ; but 
when He is called Christ Jesus, by inverting the order of the 
words, peculiar reference is made to the office of Christ, with 
somewhat of a more solemn design. And this is especially suit- 
able to the present passage. Sometimes in one place, both 
arrangements of the words prevail, ver. 5, 6 ; Gal. ii. 16, note; 
1 Tim. i. 15, 16, vi. 13, 14 ; 2 Tim. i. 9, 10. See also 1 Cor. 
iii. 11 ; with which comp. 1 Tim. ii. 5. — biaxovov, a minister) a 
suitable appellation ; comp. ver. 3 ; Matt. xx. 28. [Bemarkable 
humiliation ! Here indeed there was need of patience, ver. 4, 5. — 
V. g.J — ^Moreover, Jesus Christ became the minister of the 
Father for the salvation of the circumcision. Christ was sub- 
servient to the will of the Father : the Father devoted Him 
for the salvation of many, whence the Genitive, of circumcision, 
has the same meaning as in Gal. ii. 7, 8. Presently after, reign- 
ing is ascribed to this minister, ver. 12. But this appellation 
(minister) is not repeated in the next verse, for the calling of the 
Gentiles coheres with His state of exaltation ; — it is accordingly 
said there, that they might glorify, for greater thanksgiving is 
rendered by the Gentiles,^ than by the circumcision. — vipiTo/Mric, 
of the circumcision) that is, of Israel. — -irar'spuv, of the fathers) 
The Genitive here contains the emphasis of the sentence, Matt. 
XV. 26. 

9. A;a — ihidi — -^aXSi) Ps. xviii. 50, LXX., Sia — %higi, Kxipii — 
■^aXSi. — e^o/ioXoyrieofijai, I will confess) Paul says that the Gentiles 
do that, which Christ declares in the Psalm, that He will do ; in 
fact, Christ is doing this among [or rather, in the person of] the 
Gentiles, Heb. ii. 12, where Paul quotes Ps. xxii., as here Ps. 
xviii. is quoted. In Ps. xxii. Christ announces the name of the 
Lord to His brethren ; in Ps. xviii. He confesses to the Lord 
among [or in the person o/] the Gentiles, and the Gentiles con- 
fess to Him in [the person of] Christ. Afterwards in Ps. cxvii. 

' Naturally so : Because they have received grace extraordinarily, they 
being but as the mid olive graffed in on the elect stock, Israel. — Ed. 

ROMANS XV. 10-12. 185 

the Jews invite all tribes and all nations ; nt6 signifies a multi- 
tude, and QJ? a political community. — •v)/aXS, I will sing) The 
Gentiles sing and praise, because they have obtained mercy, 
Heb. motK, using the organ. 

10. Asysi) viz., \iyoiv, — iu<ppd«6riTe 'ihrj fj^ira, roD Xaou aJrou) So 
the Lxx., Deut. xxxii. 43. Comp. Ps. Ixvii. 5, the nations in the 
earth. The Imperative, put by apostrophe,' i? equivalent to a 
categorical indicative, for the promise was not made to the 
Gentiles. — hzto., with) The Gentiles were not His people ; — this 
is mercy [ver. 9], because they are admitted notwithstanding. 

11. Amtrt — Tiai liram<sa,Ti) Ps. cxvii. 1, LXX., ainTn — tiraiM- 

12} 'Hdaias, Isaiah) Three sayings had been quoted without the 
name of Moses and David ; he now mentions the name of Isaiah, 
of whose book the Haphtara (The portion publicly read in the 
synagogue) with this Saying, is read on the eighth day of the 
Passover, at that time of the year, at which this epistle seems to 
have been written. — 'igrai jj — 6 — iV a0rij3 — ) Is. xi. 10, LXX. 
xa! iBTai Iv rjj fif/-spcf, ixihrj rj — o — sV avTh. — ^ ^'^"j the root) Christ 
is elsewhere called the root of David, Rev. xxii. 16 ; but, if we 
compare this passage taken from the passage in Isaiah quoted 
above with ver. 1, He is called the root of Jesse. The descent 
of kings and of the Messiah from His house was divinely ap- 
pointed to Jesse in His own name, before it was so in the name 
of David, and that descent might have been expected even from 
another son of Jesse, 1 Sam. xvi. 7. But David was king, not 
Jesse ; and the kingdom of Christ was in some measure heredi- 
tary from David, Luke i. 32, in respect of the Jews, but not in 
respect of the Gentiles. He is therefore called here, not the 
root of David, but, that which was next to it, the root of Jesse. 
The Messiah, who was to descend from Jesse, had been promised 
neither entirely to him, nor to the Gentiles : and yet He was 
bestowed on both. Those things, however, which immediately 
precede, where He is called the root of Jesse, and the passage, 
1 Sam. xvi. 7, where it is said of the first-bom son of Jesse, / 

^ See Appendix. When the discourse is suddenly turned from what it 
began with and directed to some other person, present or absent. 

* A.'tv7ne, praise ye) on account of grace and truth. For these things 
follow in the Psalm, where Israel cries aloud to the Gentiles. — Y. g. 

186 KOMANS XV. lS-15. 

have refused him, testify that the Messiah was divinely appointed 
to Jesse. — aMrd/isvos) So the Lxx. interpreted the word oi 
Isaiah, DJ, a banner : There is a pleasant antithesis : the root is in 
the lowest place ; the banner rises on high [to the greatest 
height], so as to he seen even by the remotest nations. — iXmougiv, 
shall hope, [trust]) Divine worship is implied here as due to 
Christ even in His human nature. The Gentiles formerly had 
no 'hope,' Eph. ii. 12. 

13. 'EX'TT/'Soj, of hope] Comp. they shall hope, in the preceding 
verse and immediately after, in hope. The God of hope, a name 
glorious to God ; a name heretofore unknown to the Gentiles. 
For Hope had been one of their false divinities, whose temple, 
Livy mentions in the 21st book of his history, was struck with 
lightning, and, again in the 24th book, was burnt with fire. — 
Xapoic xal ilpms, with joy and peace) We may look back to 
eh. xiv. 17. Concerning joy comp. ver. 10, Rejoice ye; con- 
cerning peace, ibid, with [His people]. — h duva/iei) construed 
with 'jripieeeueiv. 

14. 'AbiXfoi (iov, my brethren) As one street often conducts 
men going out of a large city through several gates, so the con- 
clusion of this epistle is manifold. The first begins with this 
verse ; the second with ch. xvi. 1 ; the third with xvi. 17 ; the 
fourth with xvi. 21 ; and the fifth with xvi. 25. — xal aMg lycb, 
I myself also) not merely others, hold this opinion of you, 
ch. i. 8. — xal avTol, you yourselves also) even without any admo- 
nition of mine. — Sum/^sm, who are able) By this very declaration 
he exhorts them to exercise that ability. — xal aXXfiXovg, also one 
another) not merely that every one should be his own monitor ; 
comp. 2 Tim. ii. 2. — vouhrsii, to admonish) Tie points to this 
ability, [viz. such as consists in this] that a man may be /ji,s<!Thg, 
full of goodness, full from the new creation itself; filled (•ysa-Xji- 
pu/iivog) with all knowledge, filled, viz. by daily exercise ; in the 
understanding and the wUl. So, goodness and knowledge are 
joined, 1 Pet. iii. 6, 7, and the former is especially recom- 
mended to women, the latter to men. Tvumg, is properly know- 
ledge ; and such knowledge, as shows respect to the weaker 
vessel, obtains the name of moderation, yet it is in reality know- 

15. ToX/iTipoTipov, more boldly) That is, I have acted somewhat 

ROMANS XV. 16-19. 187 

Doldly in writing to you, who are unknown to me, wlien I should 
rather have gone to you in person. He says, that the degree of 
boldness on his part consisted in the very fact of writing at all, 
not in the manner of writing. A/A, because of, depends on, / 
have written. — acrJ /j^spoug, in pari) [in some sort, Engl. V.] He 
uses this phrase from modesty, and does not assume to himself 
the whole office of teaching, but only one part of it, that of 
admonition, and that not entirely ; for he subjoins I'jrumfn/x.vrigxm 
with iig, as, before it ; he does not say simply, ava/iifivrjgxiav, 
putting you in mind, but ivav, 

16. AeiToupyiv, hpotjp'youvTa, irpog(pop&') This is allegorical. Jesus 
is the priest ; Paul the servant of the priest ; the Gentiles them- 
selves are the oblation : ch. xii. 1 ; Is. Ix. 7, Ixvi. 20 : and that 
oblation is very acceptable, because it is sanctified (John xvii. 19), 
along with [as well as] its gifts [i.e.. their contribution to the 
saints at Jerusalem is also acceptable, ver. 26], ver. 31. — Iv vvsli- 
ILoLTi ayliji, in the Holy Spirit) whom the Gentiles receive by the 
Gospel of God. 

17. KaiixnDi'j glorying) Paul had a large heart ; so he says at 
ver. 15, more boldly, and ver. 20, " I have strived ambitiously," 
ipi\oTi//,ovfieiiov. — £v XpitrSj 'Irjgov, in Christ Jesus) This is explained 
in the following verse. My glorying with respect to those 
things, which pertain to God, has been made to rest [rests] 
in Christ Jesus. — ra vphg &ih, in those things, which pertain to 
God) Paul makes this limitation ; otherwise he was poor and 
an outcast in the world, 1 Cor. iv. 9, etc. 

18. Ou yap roKjjjiiem, for I will not dare) That is, my mind 
shrinks [from speaking of the things wrought by me] when 
unaccompanied with [except when accompanied with] Divine 
influence. — XaXeTv n, to speaTt anything) to mention anything, 
that I have accompHshed, or rather, to preach the doctrine of 
the Gospel, for the expression is abbreviated, in this manner ; I 
will not dare to speah any (or do any) of those things which 
Christ (would not speak, or) do by me ; for, by word and deed, 
follows. The Inspiration [TheopneustiaJ of Paul is here 
marked : 2 Cor. xiii. 3. 

19. 'El/ Svvd/ii' <!r}/J,il!»v xal Tipdruv, [Engl. V. through mighty'] 
in the power of signs and wonders) This expression should be 
referred to, by deed. — h Swdfui T^si^aros @iov, [by"] in the power 

188 ROMANS XV. 20-24. 

of the Spirit of God) This should be referred to, by word. We 
have here a gradation, [ascending climax] : for he attributes 
more to the Spirit of God, than to the signs. — a^J — ^^£%f'j from — 
unto) A large tract of country. — 'iXkupmov, lUyricum) of which 
Dalmatia is a part ; 2 Tim. iv. 10. — rh luayyiXiov, the Gospel) the 
office of preaching the Gospel. 

20. Ae, moreover \_yea, Engl. V.]) He gives the reason for 
taking those regions imder his own care. — piXon/iovfiivoi) The 
Accusative absolute, in the neuter gender,^ the same as ap^d- 
/ji,i\iov, Luke xxiv. 47.^ — ou^ Smv, not where) This is more em- 
phatic, than if he had said, where not ; for he intimates, that he 
had as it were avoided those places, where Christ had been 
already known. So Col. ii. 1 ; Gal. i. 22. Paul is said to have 
been ' unknown' to those, who had previously received the 
faith. — aXkorpm, another man's) Paul here does not term Christ 
Himself the foundation, but the work of others in preaching the 
Gospel of Christ. 

21. OT; — evv^eougi) Is. lii. 15. So plainly the LXX. 

22. Tlpo; b/jb&g, to you) as persons, to whom the name of 
Christ was now no longer unknown. 

23. KXi/iaai, regions) This term is applied in contradistinction 
to the political divisions of the world ; for the Gospel does not 
usually foUow such divisions ; even the fruit of the Reformation 
at a very early period had an existence beyond Germany. — 
ivmSiav s^wi/) This signifies something more than im-jroiuv.^ 

24. 'CIS ^av) 'fis is the principal particle; iav, soever,* -Trapskxu, 
is redundant, in whatsoever manner, at wJiatsoever time, and by 
whatsoever route. — elg rriv "i-ffaviav, into Spain) where the Gospel 
was not yet preached. — dia'7ropsu6/j,ivo;, passing through on my 
journey) because the foundation of the faith was already laid at 
Home. — ■!rpo'7iifi,<p6riva,i, to be brought on my way) The passive 
voice with a reciprocal signification, that is, to leave or commit 
himself to their care to be escorted by them on his journey ; he 

1 It being the direct of my ambition. But Engl. V. takes it mascul., I have 
airived. — Ed. 

2 But the oldest authorities read «j|a^£i/o/ Ed. 

' The former implies a lasting state of mind : the latter, a feeling for the 
time being. — Ed. 
* But the oldest MSS. have an, viz. ABOD(A)G.— Ed. 

ROMANS XV. 25-28. ISS 

■\mtes familiarly to the brethren whom he had not yet seen, as 
though by virtue of right [as if his claim on them were matter 
of right]. — ■i/twi', yov) He speaks modestly. The Eomans were 
rather likely to have reason to be filled (to be fully grati- 
fied) with Paul's company. — a^o lupoug, in some measure) He 
intimates to them, that he would not however be so long at 
Eome, as he wished ; or else, that it is Christ, and not 
believers, with whom believers should be perfectly tilled. 

25. Aiaxomv, ministering) after the example of Christ, ver. 8. — 
ToTi ayioig, to the saints) See note at Acts xx. 32. 

26. MaxeSowa xa/ 'A%a?a, Macedonia and Achaia) From this 
expression the time, at which the epistle was written, may be 
gathered. Acts xix. 21. — Koivuvlav, an act of communion, or conv- 
munication [a contribution]) A term of description [applied to 
their gift of brotherly love] honourable and exceedingly just. — 
rwi' ayiaiv, of the saints) He does not say, poor saints (Gr. the 
poor among the saints). Therefore not all the saints were poor. 
Therefore the community of goods had now ceased at Jerusalem, 
after the death of Ananias and Sapphira, and after the persecu- 
tion. Acts viii. 1. 

27. EuSoxrisav y&p, for they have been pleased) supply, / say, 
comp. the beginning of the preceding verse. Pleased, and debt, 
are twice mentioned. — xai, and) Liberty and necessity in good 
works are one and the same [found together]. — ii yap, for if) 
This mode of reasoning applies also to the Romans ; he there- 
fore mildly invites and admonishes them, in this epilogue of the 
epistle, to contribute : comp. ch. xii. 13. — ipuXovgi, they owe it) 
by virtue of the debt of brotherly kindness, 2 Cor. ix. 7. — 
"kuTovpyriSai, to minister) The inferior ministers to the superior. 

28. ''EmriXisag etppayisajhimq) Words nearly related to 
each other, 2 Kings xxii. 4, fiDsriTiK Dn^^l, lxx., jca/ e<pp6.yieot rh 
apybfiov, and seal the silver. Paul finished this first ; nothing 
interrupted him, how eager soever he might be as to other 
objects, Acts xix. 21. e<ppayisai/jivoi, as soon as I shall have 
sealed, not only that they might perceive the good faith of him, 
who delivered it, but that they might also be confirmed in 
spiritual communion. amXiUoiJ^ai, I will go away) even though 
I may never be about to return from Spain. This is the force 
of the compound verb. — STawai/, Spain) Paul does not seem to 

190 ROMANS XV. 29, 30. 

have reached Spain. A holy purpose often exists in the minds 
of godly men, which, although it is not fulfilled, is nevertheless 
predous [in God's eyes], 2 Sam. vii. 2, 4. 

29. nX'/)fw/iar/, in the fulness) comp. yer. 19. There is a 
real parallelism in the fulness of the Gospel, both intensive and 
extensive.-^ — suXoyiag, of the blessing) which is conspicuous [such 
fulness of blessing as it is conspicuously seen to possess] both at 
Jerusalem and Rome. — rod svayyeXlo-S) Some have omitted this 
word : The cause of the omission is easy to be perceived, viz. 
from the recurrence of roZ.' 

30. Kupiou, Lord) He exhorts them by the name of the Lord ; 
comp. by [for] the love, immediately after. — ayaitrn, love) The 
love of the Spirit is most widely extended ; it brings home [it 
makes a matter of interest] to thee, even what might seem to 
belong to another. — a\jva,yoinli6&a.i //.oi, to strive with me) He him- 
self must pray, who wishes others to pray with him. Acts viii. 
24, 22. Prayer is a striving, or contest, especially when men 
resist. Paul is the only one of the apostles, who asks for him- 
self the prayers of believers. He does this moreover generally 
at the conclusion of his epistles, but not indiscriminately so in 
all. For he does not so write to those, whom he treats as sons, 
with the dignity of a father, or even with severity, for example, 
Timothy, Titus, the Corinthians, the Galatians, as he does to 
those, whom he treats as his equals with the deferential regard 
of a brother, for example, the Thessalonians, Ephesians, Colos- 
sians (with whom he had not been), and therefore so also the 
Romans and likewise the Hebrews. It [the request for their 

' That is, the internal fulness, and the expansive capabilities of the Gospel 
externally, have a real correspondence. — Ed. 

' Either S. E. D. Foertschius in Progr. to this passage, or S. R. D. 
Ernesti in his review of the Program, affirms, that Bengel was satisfied with 
the omission of this word, see Bibl. th. T. V. p. 474, but this is a mistake. 
The margin of both editions (where the sign S had marked an omission 
instead of a reading less certain) may be compared, s. pi., also the German 

Version which expresses the words des Evangeln without a parenthesis 

(E. B.) 

The rov alluded to by Beng. as recurring refers to Rec. Text to5 eiayye- 
'hiov mi, which reading is supported by both Syr. Versions and Vulg. (kter 
MSS.) But ABOD(A)G Cod. Amiat. (the oldest MS.) of Vulg. Mem^h.fg 
Versions omit the three words. — Ed. 

ROMANS XV. 31-33. XVI. 1, 2. 191 

prayers] is introduced with great elegance at 2 Cor, i 11 ; Phil, 
i. 19 ; Philem. ver. 22. 

31. Kal ha, and thai) This is also an important matter. — 
luvpoedixTos, accepted) that the Jews and Gentiles may be united 
in the closest bonds of love. The liberality of the Gentiles, 
which was shown for the sake of the name of Jesus, afforded 
to the Jews an argument for the truth and efficacy of the 
Christian faith, and for lawful communion with the Gentiles, 
2 Cor. ix. 13. 

32. 'Ev x^P^ 'iXScii, that I may come to you with joy) I may 
com£, has respect to the former part of ver. 31, and, with joy, to 
the latter. 

33. 'o ©soff rris eiprivrig, the God of peace) A gradation in 
reference to ver. 5, 13 : The God of patience, hope; so, the God 
of love and peace, 2 Cor. xiii. 11, The God of peace, ch. xvi. 20 ; 
1 Cor. xiv. 33 ; PhU. iv. 9 ; 1 Thess. v. 23 ; Heb. xiii. 20.' 


1. *o/j8)jv, Phoebe) The Christians retained the names bor- 
rowed from the heathen gods, as a memorial of the heathenism, 
which they had abandoned. — oZeav diaxovov, who is a [servanti 
minister) without the office of teaching. She might have been 
considered as a minister in respect of this very errand, on which 
she was sent. — Kiy^P^aTc, at Cenchrea) near Corinth. 

2. 'Ev Kvpiu, in the Lord) There is very frequent mention of 
the Lord, Christ, in this chapter : In the Lord : at the present 
day we say, in a Christian manner [as Christtans\. The phrase 
is peculiar to Paul, but often used. — xa/ yap, for even) a strong 
argument, 1 Cor. xvi. 15, 16; Phil. ii. 29. There is an 
all-embracing [comprehensive] relationship among believers : 

* 'Aftviu, the Greek transcribers loved to add the final Amen from its very 
frequent use, not to say, in doxologies only, which have Amen in Ps. jdi. 14, 
Ixxii. 19, etc., but in prayers and at the conclusions of books. — Not. crit. 

A-Og omit dfiiiii. B (judging from its silence), CD(A)/Vulg. have it. 
Tischend. therefore supports it. Lachm. brackets it. — ^Ed. 

IC-2 ROMANS XVI. 3, 4. 

Phoebe is recommended to the Romans for acts of kindness, 
which she had done far from Home. — irpodTdng, a succouref) 
We may beheve, that Phoebe was wealthy, but she did not 
shrink by subterfuges from the duty of ministering, in the case 
of strangers, the needy, etc. ; nor did she regard in the case of [on 
the part of] her fellow-citizens, who were wholly intent on self 
interest, the opinion entertained of her bad economy. — mXXav, 
of many) Believers ought to return a favour not only to him, 
who has been of service to themselves, but also to him, who has 
been of service to others. 

3. ' Aevaeaek, salute) We should observe the politeness of the 
apostle in writing the salutations ; the friendly feeling of be- 
hevers in joining theirs with his, ver. 21, 22 ; again, the humi- 
lity of the former in attending to them, and the love of the 
latter in the frequent use of them. — iLplgxav, Prisca) strong 
testimony sufficiently confirms this reading ; Baumgarten prefers 
rtf/ffx/XXav, Priscilla} A holy woman in Italy seems to have 
borne the Latin name Priscilla, which is a diminutive. Acts 
xviii. 2, but in the Church the name, Prisca, is more dignified. 
The name of the wife is put here before that of the husband, 
because she was the more distinguished of the two in the 
Church; Acts xviii. 18 : or even because in this passage there had 
gone before the mention of a woman, Phoebe. — 'AxiiXav, Aquila) 
The proper names of behevers, Roman, Hebrew and Greek, 
set down promiscuously, show the riches of Grace in the New 
Testament exceeding all expectation [Eph. iii. 20]. — evvipyoijc, 
fellow-workers) in teaching, or else, protecting : See the follow- 
ing verse. 

4. OiTing, who) They are individually distinguished by their 
own respective graces, or duties ; but Scripture never praises 
any one so as to give him any ground for extolling himself, but 
for praising God and rejoicing in Him. — i'jrUrjxav) The force of 
the verb is not unsuitably explained by the noun itvoS^xri, a stake 
laid down. — a'l ixxXriaiai, the churches) even the Church at Rome, 
for the preservation of Paul, and we still are bound in some 
measure to give thanks to Aquila and Priscilla, or we shall do 
so hereafter. 

^ ABCD(A)G Vulg./^' support IljiVxai' against nj/(r*(AX«K, of the Rec 
Text.— Ed. 

ROMANS XVI. 5-7. 193 

5. Kar ohov, in the house) When any Christian was the pos- 
sessor of a spacious mansion, he gave it as a place for meeting 
together. Hitherto the behevers at Eome had neither bishops 
nor ministers. Therefore they had nothing at that time re- 
sembhng the papacy. It does not appear that there were 
more of these house-churches then at Eome ; otherwise Paul 
would have mentioned them also [as he does those in this ch.] 
Aquila therefore was at Rome, what Gaius was at Corinth, 
ch. xvi. 23 ; although the persecution had particularly pressed 
upon him. Acts xviii. 2. — 'ETa/vsrov, Epaenetus) Paul had not 
hitherto been at Pome, and yet he had many intimate acquaint- 
ances there from Asia, or even from Greece, Palestine, Cilicia, 
Syria. There is no mention here of Linus or Clement, whence 
we may conclude, that they came to Rome afterwards. — a.'iraf'/ri, 
first fruits) This is evidently a title of approbation, 1 Cor. xvi. 
15. — ' A-)(atag) others have ' Aela;,^ and Grotius, along with the 
British writers quoted by Wolfius approves of it, with whom 
he says, how far he is correct I know not, that Whitby 
agrees. D. Hauherus in particular supports 'A%a?as, and some- 
what too liberally ascribes to the transcribers the same skill 
in reasoning, for which he himself is remarkable. Bibl. 
Betracht., Part 3, page 93. See App. crit. Ed. ii., on this 

7. "S.xiyyiviTi, kinsmen) So ver. 11, 21. They were Jews, 
ch. ix. 3. — dmdToXoig, among the apostles) They had seen the 
Lord, 1 Cor. xv. 6 ; hence they axe called apostles, using the 
word in a wider meaning, although some of them perhaps after 
the ascension of the Lord turned to the faith by means of the 
first sermons of Peter. Others might be veterans, and I acknow- 
ledge as such the brethren, who numbered more than five hun- 
dred. The passage quoted from 1 Cor. implies, that there was 
a multitude of those, who had seen Christ and were from that 
fact capable of giving the apostolic testimony. — •jrpo l/j-ot, before 
me) Age makes men venerable, especially in Christ. Among 
the men of old, it was a mark of veneration to have the prece- 

1 'A7i'«f is the reading of ABCD (corrected later) G Vulg. Memph. fg. 
Versions. Axcti»i is only supported by th? two Syr. Versions, of very 
fcncient authorities. — Ed. 


194 KOMAJJiTS XVI. 8-16. 

dence by four years? — ys/^wfti/ h Xf;tfr,w,) they began to be in 

8. 'El/ K.vpitf>, in theLorS) Construed with beloved; tor greet ot 
salute at ver. 6 and throughout the chapter is employed abso- 
hitely [and it is not therefore to be connected with h Ku^/w]. 

9.'lifi,uv,ofus. Comp. ver. 21.^ 

10. Th doxi/jiov, approved) an incomparable epithet [ TAis man 
was of tried excellence. — ^V. g.J — rous ex ruv) Perhaps Aristobulus 
was dead, and Narcissus too, ver. 11, and aU in their respective 
families had not been converted. Some of them seem not, to 
have been known by face to Paul, but by the report of their 
piety. Faith does not make men peevish, but affable. Not 
even the dignity of the apostoUc office was any hindrance to 

11. ovraff, who are) Therefore a part of that family were 

12. Tas ■/.omiiea;, who laboured) although they have their 
name [Tpu^aim, T^ upwtfa] from rpiKp^, a luxurious life ; as Naomi 
(agreeable). It is probable that these two were sisters according 
to the flesh. 

13. 'ExXsxtJi', chosen) a remarkable title, 2 John, ver. 1, 13 ; 
1 Tim. V. 21. 

14. ' AguyxpiTov, x.r.X., Asyncritus, etc.) Paul joins those to- 
gether, among whom there was a peculiar tie of relationship, 
neighbourhood, etc. The salutation offered by name to the 
more humble, who were perhaps not aware that they were so 
much as known to the apostle, could not but greatly cheer their 

16. ' Ag'jragaek aXX^Xoug, salute ye one another) supply : in my 
name. — Iv (piXfi/j^uTi aylu), with a holy hiss) This was the flower of 
faith and love. The kiss of love, 1 Pet. v. 14. This was the 
practice after prayers. Paul mentions the holy kiss at the con- 
clusion of the first epistle to the Thessalonians, of both his 
epistles to the Corinthians, and of this to the Eomans. Paul 
wrote these epistles at the earliest period. Afterwards purity of 

' A quotation from Juvenal Sat. xiii. 58 — 

" Tam venerabile erat prsecedere quatuor annis." — Ed. 
2 Where we find "my work-fellow:" but here "our helper," or M)or/> 
fellow. — Ed. 


love was in some cases extinct or abuses arose, for in writing to 
the Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians, when he was in 
prison, he gave no charge concerning this kiss. The difference 
has regard to the time, not to the place, for the Philippians 
were in Macedonia, as well as the Thessalonians. I do not say 
however that the difference of time was altogether the only 
reason, why the holy kiss was commanded or not commanded. 
In the second Epistle to the Thessalonians there was no need to 
give directions about it so soon after the first had been received. 
The condition of the Galatians at that time rendered such 
directions unsuitable. — al hxXr}ffiai^) the churches) with whom I 
have been, ch. xv. 26. He had made known to them, that he 
was writing to Eome. 

17. 'AdeXfol, brethren) While he is embracing in his mind, in 
ver. 16, the churches of Christ, exhortation suggests itself inci- 
dentally ; for when it is concluded in the form of a parenthesis, 
they, who send salutations, are added to those, who receive them : 
ver, 21. — roug rSig) There were therefore such men at Rome. 
The second epistle to the Thessalohians, which was written 
before this to the Romans, may be compared, ch. ii. — rd? Si^oera- 
elctg, divisions) by which [what is even] good is not well de- 
fended. — TO gxdvhaXa, offences) by which [what is positively] evil 
gains admittance. — l/iAhn, ye have learned) To have once for 
all learned constitutes an obligation, 1 Cor. xv. 1 ; 2 Cor. xi. 4 ; 
Gal. i. 9 ; Phil. iv. 9 ; 2 Tim. iii. 14. — UnXhaTi) comp. ar'eX- 
Aee6ai, 2 Thess. iii. 6 ; -ffapairov, Tit. iii 10 ; comp. 1 Cor. v. 11 ; 
2 John ver. 10. There was not yet the form of a church at 
Rome. The admonition therefore is rather framed so as to 
apply to individuals, than to the whole body of believers. There 
is however a testimony regarding the future in this epistle to the 
Romans, as the Song of Moses was a rule to be followed by 

18. 0/ nioZroi) such as these. The substance with its quality 
is denoted. — xoiXlcf, the belly) Phil. iii. 19. — x^jjifroXo/zas) as 

1 The Germ. Ver; has restored the reading of wAirai, although it was de- 
clared on the margin of both Ed. as not quite so certain.— E. B. 

DQfff omit dff'n-a^. ifi. ai ixx.%. nsivcti T. Xpiarov, but add these words at 
the end of ver. 21. ABC Vulg. have all the words, including Ta(7«i, 
which Rec. Text omits without any good aulhoritj'. — Ei>. 

196 ROMANS XVI. 19, 20. 

concerns themselves by promising. — siiXoylag) as concerns you, 
by praising and flattering. — tuv axdxm) TlS, a word of a middle 
signification, //^eaov, for the sake of euphemy (See Append.) , 
which the LXX. translate axaxog, and which occurs more than once 
in Proverbs. They are called axaxo!, who are merely free from 
badness, whereas they should also be strong in prudence, and 
be on their guard against the xaxlav, the badness of others. 

19 'Tvaxori, obedience) which belongs to o'l axdxoi, the simple. 
Their obedience itself, not merely its report, reached all, since 
by frequent intercourse believers from among the Romans came 
also to other places, and their obedience itself was observed 
face to face. It thus happens, that, as contagion is bad in the 
case of bad men, so it is good among the good, in a good sense. — 
irairas, all) you, or others also. — a<pixiTo) Hesychius explains 
a,<p!xiro by vapiyhtTo. — Th s(p i/j,iv, as far as you are concerned) in 
opposition to those turbulent persons, who occasion him anxiety, 
not joy. — SiXoi Si, hut I wish) an antithesis : you are evidently 
not wanting in obedience and axaxla, simplicity ; but you 
should add to them discretion. — go<povg, wise) contrary to those, 
of whom Jeremiah speaks, iv. 22, eo(po! I'lei roZ xaxovoirigai, rh fis 
xaXas -TToiTjBai oiix e'jrsyvoisot.v, they are wise to do evil, but to do good 
they have no knowledge. — dxepalovi) say, if any evil presents 
itself: I consider this a thing, which is alien to me; axipawg is 
taken here in a passive sense.^ 

20. As, but) [not and, as Engl. Ver. has it)] The power of 
God, not your prudence, will bring it to pass. — t-^j iipmi, of 

peace) an antithesis to seditious, ver. 17, see 1 Cor. xiv. 33. 

awTpi'^ii) the future, shall bruise Satan, when he shall bruise His 

apostles [viz. those breeders of divisions, ver. 17, 18.1 rhv 

Sarai/av, Satan) the sower of strifes. Once in the course of this 
whole epistle he names the enemy, and nine times altogether in 
all his epistles, he calls him Satan ; six times, the devil. Scrip- 
ture indeed treats of God and Christ directly ; of Satan and 
Antichrist indirectly. — i/m roOs woSug, under your feet) Eph. vi. 
15. Every victory achieved by faith is the cause of new grief 
to Satan. — h rdxn) speedily, which refers to the beginnings of 
bruising [Satan, viz.] in the case of sudden danger [a sudden 

' Unaffected by evil. — ^Ed. 

ROMANS XVI. 21-25. IM 

assault by him.j — ujifiv) The transcribers very often added this 
word to prayers, although here almost all the copies are without 
it. Baumgarten however defends it.^ 

21. itivipyoi, fellow-labourer) Pie is placed here before the 
kinsmen. His name however is not found in ch. i. 1, because 
he had not been at Rome. 

22. ' Ag'7rdt,o/iai, I iolute) Tertius either by the advice or good- 
natured permission of Paul put in this salutation. Paul dic- 
tated, from which it is evident, how ready the apostles were in 
producing their books, without the trouble of premeditation. — 
Tiprioi, Tertius) a Roman name. An amanuensis no doubt well 
known to the Romans. — h, in) construed with I who wrote ; an 
implied confession of faith.' 

23. Ta/os, Gaius) a Corinthian, 1 Cor. i. 14. — oX»iff, of the 
whole) For very many used to resort to Paul.^ — ohovifiog, the 
chamberlain) The faith of a man so very high in station could not 
but be a matter of joy to the Romans. — rfn iroXioi;, of the city) 
doubtless of Corinth. 

24. 'H x"'f^ — rjfiuv) The Alexandrians were without this 
reading.' — a/iijv, we have lately spoken of this particle. 

25. TO de, now to Him) As a doxology concludes the disquisi- 
tion, ch. xi. 36, so it now concludes the whole epistle. So 
2 Pet. iii. 18 ; Jude, ver. 25. The last words of this epistle 
plainly correspond to the first, ch. i. 1—5 ; especially in regard 
to " the Power of God," the ' Gospel,' * Jesus Christ,' the 
' Scriptures, the " obedience of faith," " all nations." — dvmft^ivw, 
that is of power — xarii rJ sla.'yysXiov /jiou, according to my Gospel) 
The power of God is certain, i. 16 ; Acts xx. 32, note. — i/iSs, 
you) Jews and Gentiles. — eTripi^ai) we have the same word, 
i. 11. — amxaXu-^iv) This same word is found at i. 17. — xara 
avoaaXu-^iv must be construed with evayyi'kiov /iov, — /iusrrjpiov, of 
the mystery) concerning the Gentiles being made of the same 
body, Eph. iii. 3, 6. — xf^voig aiuvloig, since the world begari\ 

1 Rec. Text has it in opposition to ABCD(A)Gr Vulg. and almost all ver- 
sions. — Ed. 

2 Whom, as well as Paul, Gaius entertained. — Ed. 

' ABO Vulg. (Amiat. MS.) Memph. Versions omit it, whom Lachm. fol- 
lows. But 'D{A)Qfg have the words (except that G^ omit 'Imov Xpurrov) 
and Tischcnd. accordingly reads them ; a^ also the dfciv. — Ed. 

198 ROMANS XVI. 26, 27. 

[during the elernal ages], from the time, when not only men, 
but even angels, were created, to both of whom the mystery 
had been at first unknown, Eph. iii. 9, 10. The times are de- 
noted, which with their first commencement as it were touch 
upon the previous eternity, and are, so to speak, mixed with it ; 
jiot eternity itself, of which times are only the streams ; for the 
phrase, Befoee eternal ages (Engl. Ver. before the world began) 
is used at 2 Tim. i. 9 ; Ps. Ixxvii. (Ixxvi.) 6, riix,ioa,i ap-xaiag xal 
iTrj aiuvia. — gidiyti/iivov, kept secret) The Old Testament is like a 
clock in its silent course : the New Testament like the sound of 
brass, that is struck [viz. brazen cymbals, or drums]. In the 
Scriptm-es of the prophets, the calHng of the Gentiles had been 
foretold ; but the Jews did not understand it. 

26. ^avspudivTog, made manifest) Col. i. 26 ; 2 Tim. i. 10 ; 
Tit. i. 3. — Imrciyfiv, commandment) The foundation of his apostle- 
ship, 1 Tim. i. 1 ; Tit. i. 3. — roD alavlov ©eoD, of the eternal God) 
a very proper epithet, comp. the preceding verse, during the 
eternal ages, so Tit. i. 2. The silence on the part of God pre- 
supposes eternal knowledge. Acts xv. 18. The new Economy 
implies no change in God Himself; His own work is well 
known to Him from eternity. Comp. presently after, to Him 
who is the only wise, — 'ihri, nations) not merely that they may 
know, but also that they may enjoy [the blessing so known]. 

27. Sopffi) to the wise) The wisdom of God is glorified by 
means of the Gospel in the Church, Eph. iii. 10 ; who is of 
power [able] ver. 25, and to the wise [both predicated of God], 
are joined together in this passage, as 1 Cor. i. 24, where Christ 
is said to be the power of God and the wisdom of God. — o5, to 
whom) is put for airp, to Him. So wk, ch. iii. 14 ; comp. 2 Tim. 
iii. 11 ; Acts xxvi. 7 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6, note, lxx., Is. v. 28. There 
would be a hiatus in the sentence without a pronoun.^ — 'A/jjtiv, 
amen) and let every believing reader say. Amen. 

^ ACD(A) Hilary and Vulg. read S. B the oldest MS. omits it.i Lachm. 
suggests we should adopt this omission and read with the Vulg. no n be- 
tween iid and ypa(puii and yvupiaHuTi, ' cognito,' for yi/apiahi/ro;. " To the 
only-wise God who is made knovm tlirough Jesus Christ" Else he conjectures 
that if we retain te, J, and ■yuapiaUurc;, we must read x<^P's after ®i$, " To 
the only-wise God be thanks through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory," etc. 




1. llaDXos, Paul. The epistle consists — 

I. Of the Insceiption, ch. i. 1-3. 

n. Of the Discussion ; in which we have — 

I. An exhortation to concord, depressing the elated judg- 
ments of the flesh, ver. 4, iv. 21. 

II. A reproof, — 

1) For not putting away the wicked person, v. 1—13. 

2) For perverse lawsuits, vi^ 1-11. 

III. An exhortation to avoid fornication, vi. 12—20. 

IV. His answer to them in regard to marriage, vii. 1, 10, 

25, 36, 39. 
V. On things offered to idols, viii. 1, 2, 13 — ^ix. 27 — x. 1, 

— xi. 1. 
VI. On a woman being veiled, xi. 2. 
VTi. On the Lord's Supper, xi. 17. 
VIII. On spiritual gifts, xii. xiii. xiv. 
IX. On the resurrection of the dead, xv. 1, 12, 29, 35. 
X- On the collection : on his own coming, and that of 
Timothy and Apollos ; on the sum and suhstance 
of the whole subject, xvi. 1, 5, 10, 12, 13, 14. 

20O 1 COKINTHIANS 1. 2, 

ni. Of the Conclusion, xvi. 15, 17, 19, 20. 

— a'ffotfroKos 'Irjiou Xpigroij, an apostle of Jesus Christ) ver. 17. — 
dia hXrjfiaro; Qioij, by the will of God) SO 2 Cor. i. 1 ; Eph. i. 1 ; 
Col. i. 1 J 2 Tim. i. 1. His apostleship is said to be " by the 
commandment of God," in 1 Tim. i. 1. This was the principle 
on which rested the apostolic authority in regard to the 
churches : and the principle of the zealous and humble mind 
which characterized Paul himself; comp. Eom. i. 1, note. For 
by the mention of God, human claim to wages (auctoramentum) 
is excluded, Gal. i. 1 ; by the mention of the will of God, merit 
on the part of Paul is excluded, ch. xv. 8, etc. : whence this 
apostle is in proportion the more grateful and zealous, 2 Cor. 
viii. 5, at the end of the verse. Had Paul been left to his own 
will, he would never have become an apostle.^ — 'SueSivrjg, Sos- 
thenes) a companion of Paul, a Corinthian. ApoUos is not 
mentioned here, nor Aquila ; for they do not appear to have 
been at that time with Paul, although they were in the same 
city, ch. xvi. 12, 19. In the second epistle, he joins Timothy to 

2. t5) huXijelcf 5-oD Qeod, To the Church of God) Paul, writing 
somewhat familiarly to the Thessalonians, Corinthians, and 
Galatians, uses the term. Church ; to the others he employs a 
more solemn periphrasis. The Church of God in Corinth: a 
great and joyful paradox.^ — rjj ovgri, which is), [at Corinth- and 
moreover] flourishing [there], ver. 5, 6. So, [the Church] which 
was [at Antioch], Acts xiii. 1. — iiyiaefisvotg, to them, that are 
sanctified) them, who have been claimed for God [by being set 
apart as holy to Him]. Making a prelude already to the dis- 
cussion, he reminds the Corinthians of their own dignity, lest 
they should suffer themselves to be enslaved by men. [Then in 
the Introduction also, ver. 4—9, he highly praises the same per- 
sons, how near soever they may have come to undue elation of 
mind. The praise which is derived from Divine grace rather 

' It is of the greatest advantage to have the will of God for our guide. 
To attempt anything under the guidance of a man's own will is an under- 
taking full of hazard, under however specious a name it may be capable of 
being commended. In the world it readily produces embarrassments, 
troublesome and very difficult to be got rid of. — V. g. 

' Religion and Corinth, a city notorious for debauchery, might have 
seemed terms utterly incapable of combination. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS I. 5-7. 201 

cherishes humility, besides being subsei'vient to awakening. — 
V. g.] The force of the participle is immediately explained, 
called to be saints, [said of the Gentiles, who are saints by 
calling, whilst the Israelites are so by descent'] ; comp. Eom. i. 7, 
note. — eiiv irSc;, with all) To be connected with, sanctified, and, 
saints, not with, to the Church ; compare ours, at the end of the 
verse. Consequently the epistle refers also to the other be- 
lievers in Achaia, 2 Cor. i. 1. The universal Church however 
is not shut up within the neighbourhood of Corinth, As Paul 
was thinking of the localities of the Corinthians and Ephesians, 
the whole Church came into his mind. The consideration of 
the Church universal sets the mind free from party bias, and 
turns it to obedience. It is therefore set forthwith before the 
Corinthians ; comp. ch. iv. 17, vii. 17, xi. 16, xiv. 33, 36. — , 
roTg imKaXovf/^ivoig) that call upon, so that they turn their eyes to 
Him in worship, and call themselves by His name ; comp. ver. 
10, on the authority of the name of Christ. [This passage 
certainly prepares the way for that exhortation, which follows the 
verse now quoted (ver. 10). — V. g.] — auruv [theirs^, of them) near 
Corinth. — jj/iwn [owrs], of us) where Paul and Sosthenes were 
then staying. 

5. Ao'yu) — ymgii, in word (utterance) — in knowledge) The word 
(utterance) follows knowledge, in point of fact : and it is by the 
former that the latter is made known. He shows, that the 
Corinthians ought to be such in attainments, that it should be 
unnecessary to write to them. Moreover they were admirers 
of spiritual gifts ; therefore by mentioning their gifts, he gains 
over to himself their affections, and makes a way for reproof. 

6. Ka^£<)5, even as) That the Corinthians wanted nothing, he 
declares from this, that the testimony of Christ was confirmed in 
them. The particle is here demonstrative. — roD Xpigrov, of Christ) 
Christ is not only the object, but the author of this testimony, 
Acts xviii. 8, note. — IBiBaiiiin, was confirmed) by Himself, and 
by the gifts and miracles, which accompanied it, xii. 3 ; 2 Cor. 
i. 21, 22 ; Gal. iii. 2, 5 ; Eph. iv. 7, 8 ; Heb. ii. 4. 

7. "floTs u/iSs /All vgTipiTeiai, So that ye are not behind) This 
clause depends on ye are enriched by antithesis. — a.-jriKbiypiLivoMiy 
expecting, [waiting for]) The character of the true or false Chris- 
tian is either to eipect or dread the revelation of Christ. [Leaving 

203 1 CORINTHIANS I. 8-11. 

to Others their Memento Moei, do thou urge this joyful expecta- 
tion. — Y. g.]. 

8. 'Os, who) God,yer.4: {not Jesus Christ, ver. 7] : comp. ver. 
9. — ews riXotig, even to the end) an antithesis to the beginning im- 
phed in the phrase, which was given, ver. 4. This end is imme- 
diately described in this verse, comp. ch. xv. 24. — h rri ti/^spci, in 
the day) construed with unhlamed {blameless^, 1 Thess. v. 23. 
After that day, there is no danger, Eph. iv. 30 ; Phil. i. 6. Now, 
there are our own days, in which we work, as also the days of 
our enemies, by whom we are tried ; then there wiU be the day 
of Christ and of His glory in the saints. 

9. Xligrhg, faithful) God is said to be faithful, because He per- 
forms, what He has promised, and what believers promise to 
themselves irom His goodness. — ixXriSriTi, ye were called) Calling 
is a pledge of other benefits, [to which the end, ver. 8, will corres- 
pond.— V. g.]— Eom. viii. 30 ; [1 Thess. v. 24] ; 1 Pet. v. 10. 

10.' As, Now) The connection of the introduction and discus- 
sion : You have [already sure] the end and your hope, maintain 
also love. Brethren, is a title or address suitable to the discus- 
sion, on which he is now entering. — di^) by. This is equivalent 
to an adjuration. — roD Kupiou, of the Lord) Paul wishes that Christ 
alone should be all things to the Corinthians ; and it is on this 
accorunt, that he so often names Him in this chapter. — rb aM 
Xiyvire, ye may speak the same thing) In speaking they differed 
from one another ; ver. 12. — g^iff/LcnTa, divisions) antithetic to 
xuTriprig/xhoi, joined together: comp. Matt. iv. 21. Schism, a 
' division' of minds [sentiments] : John vii. 43, is.. 16. — vot, in 
the mind) within, as to things to be beheved. — yvti/iri, judgment) 
displayed, in things to be done. This corresponds to the words 
above, that ye [all] speak [the same thing]. 

11. ''ESrjXuiiri, it hath been declared) an example of justifiable 
giving of information against others, — such information as ought 
not to be concealed without a reason, ch. xi. 18. — M tZv XXone, 
hy those, who are of the house of Chloe) These men seem to have 
obtained the special approbation both of Paul and of the 
Corinthians ; as also the matron Chloe [sc. seems to have had , 

^ n«j«)e«Xa, / exhort) Though they required reproof, he employs a 
word, that takes the form of exhortation. — ^V. g. 

1 COmNTHIANS I. 12-U. 203 

their approbation], whose sons the Corinthians sent with letters 
to Paul, ch. vii. 1. They had sent Stephanas, Fortunatus and 
Achaicus, ch. xvi. 17, of whom the one or the other might even 
be a son of Chloe's, by Stephanas as the father, ver. 16, xvi. 15. 
— "pi3s;, contentions) He calls the thing by its own [right] name. 

12. Asyu, says) in a boasting manner ; ver. 31, ch. iii. 21, 22. — 
naOXov, of Paul) a gradation [ascending climax], in which Paul 
puts himself in the lowest place. Kephas, Paul and Apollos 
were genuine ministers and teachers of the truth, to boast of one 
of whom above the rest was in a greater degree unlawful, than 
if a behever of Corinth had said that he was a Christian belong- 
ing to Paul, with a view to distinguish himself from the followers 
of the false apostles. — Kjjpa, of Kephas) Peter does not seem to 
have been at Corinth, ch. iv. 6, and yet he was held there in 
high esteem, and that too justly ; but some, however, abused it 
[this esteem for Peter into a party cry], and the apostle Paul 
detests this Petrism, which afterwards sprang up so much more 
rankly at Kome, just as inuch as he did Paulism. How much 
less should a man say, or boast, / am of the Pope. — i/A — XpiHToij, 
I — of Christ) These spoke more correctly than the others, ver. 2, 
iii. 23, unless they despised their ministers, under this pretext, 
ch. iv. 8. 

13. Msfi^epigTai, has [Christ] been divided ?) Are then aU the 
members not now any longer under one Head ? And yet, since 
He alone was crucified for you, is it not in the name of Him alone 
that ye have been baptized ? The glory of Christ is not to be 
divided with His servants ; nor is the unity of His body to be 
cut into pieces, as if Christ were to cease to be one. — /aij) Lat. 
num:^ it is often put in the second clause of an interrogation ; 
ch. X. 22 ; 2 Cor. iii. 1. — ieraupuSri — ejSwTrTleSrjre, was crucified — 
ye were baptized) The cross and baptism claim us for Christ. 
The correlatives are, redemption, and self-dedication. 

14. Eb^apidTu, I give thanks) The Providence of God reigns 
often in events, of which the reason is afterwards discovered. 
This is the language of a godly man, indicating the importance 

1 It expects a negative answer. " Was it Paul (surely you will not saT/ 
so) that was crucified for you." This illustrates the sdbjective ioice oi ft^ 
(i.e. referring to something in the mind of the stibject) ; whilst oux. is objec- 
tive Ed. 

204 1 CORINTHIANS I. 15-lT. 

of the subject, instead of the common phrase, / rejoice. — Kplamf 
■/.at Taiov, Ctispus and Gaius) He brings forward his witnesses. 
Paul baptized with his own hand, the most respectable persons, 
not many others : and not from ambition, but because they were 
among the first, who believed. The just estimation of his office 
is not pride, ch. xvi. 4. The administration of baptism was not 
so much the duty of the apostles, as of the deacons, Acts x. 48 ; 
nor did that circumstance diminish the dignity of this ordinance. 

15. "iva ij.n, lest) Paul obviates [guards beforehand against] the 
calumnies, which might otherwise have arisen, however unjust ; 
and takes them out of the way ; 2 Cor. viii. 20. — e/Mv, my own) 
as if I were collecting a company [of followers] for myself. 

16.^ A.oivh, for the rest [as to what remains]) He is very 
anxious to be accurate in recording the facts as they occurred. — 
oxjx oTda, I do not know) It does not occur to my memory without 
an effort. — i" ma, if any) i.e.J. have baptized no one else, or scarce 
any other ; comp. the following verse. He left it to the memory 
of the individuals [themselves to say], by whom they were bap- 

17. ' A.'^TigTiiXt, sent) A man should attend wholly to that, for 
which he is sent. — ^a'TrriZin, to baptize) [even] in His own name, 
much less in mine. The labour of baptism, frequently under- 
taken, would have been a hinderance to the preaching of the 
Gospel ; on other occasions [where not a hinderance to preach- 
ing] the apostles baptized ; Matt, xxviii. 19 ; especially [they 
administered that sacrament to] the first disciples. — ihayyiXiZie^ai, 
to preach the Gospel) This word, in respect of what goes before, 
is an accessory statement :^ in respect of what follows, a Propo- 
sition. Paul uses this very [word as a] mode of transition, which 
is such that I know not, whether the rules of Corinthian elo- 
quence would be in accordance with it. [^Therefore the Apostle 

' Kai TOK 2tc<P«i/« oIkov, the house of Stephanas also) viz. the first fruits of 
Acliaia, xvi. 15. The rest of the believers at Corinth may have been bap- 
tized by Silvanus, Timotheus, Crispus, Gaius, or at least by the members of 
the family of Stephanas. — ^V. g. 

^ The Latin, or rather the Greek word, is st/ncategorema. In logic cate- 
gorematic words are those capable of being employed by themselves as the 
terms of a proposition. Syncategorematic words are merely kccessory to the 
terms, such as adverbs, prepositions, nouns not in the nominative case, etc. 
—See Whateiey's Logic, B. II., Ch. i. g 3.— T. 

1 CORINTHIANS I. 18-20. 205 

in this very passage furnishes a specimen, so to speak, of apostolic 
tolly ; and yet there has been no want of the greatest wisdom 
throughout his whole arrangement. — V. g.]' — (So<pla XSyou, wisdom 
of words) \0n account of which some individuals of you make me 
of greater or less importance than they do the rest. — V. g.] — The 
nouns wisdom and power are frequently used here. In the opinion 
of the world, a discourse is considered wise, which treats of every 
topic rather than the cross ; whereas a discourse on the cross 
admits of nothing heterogeneous being mixed up with it. — 6 STav^hg 
Tou XpiSTov, the cross of Christ) ver. 24. Ignorance of the mystery 
of the cross is the foundation, for example, of the whole Koran. 
[TAe sum and substance of the Gospel, as to its commencements, 
is implied, ver. 18, 23, ii. 2. He, who rejects the cross, con- 
tinues in ignorance also of the rest of revealed truth ; he, who re- 
ceives it, becomes afterwards acquainted with its power (or, virtue, 
2 Pet. i. 5) and glorj'.— V. g.] 

18. Miiipla, folly) and offence. See, immediately after, its an- 
■ tithesis, power. There are two steps in salvation, Wisdom and 

Power. In the case of them that perish, when the first step is 
taken away, the second [also] is taken away ; in the case of the 
blessed, the second presupposes the first. — eca^o/iivoig, to them, that 
are being saved) The Present tense is used, as in the phrase, to 
them that perish. He, who has begun to hear the Gospel is con- 
sidered neither as lost, nor as saved, but is at the point, where 
the two roads meet, and now he either is perishing, or is being 
saved. — &-jm//,ig, the power) and wisdom, so also, ch. ii. 5. 

19. 'AvoXSi — ahrrigw) Isa. xxix. 14, LXX. xai avoXu — xpd'^oi ; 
the intermediate words of them (lxx.) and of Paul are the same. 
— arnXSi, I will destroy) hence to bring to nought, ver. 28, ch. 
ii. 6. 

20. rioD tfopos, TOU ypafi/jLarsig ; irov e\iZ,inTrirrig roij alaiiog rourou) 
Isa. xxxiii. 18, LXX., tou ilei ypa/i/icinxoi ; •ffoD elsiv o'l eu/i^ouXi-J- 
oiiTig ; ToD «jT;v o api6/^Sit roxig dugrpeipofisvoiig. Hebr. iTN "IBD n^S 
D'-^jan-riN ISD rr^a bpe>. The first half of the verse proposes two 
questions, of which the former is cleared up in the second half, 
and the latter in the verse following (We have also a similar 
figure in Isa. xxv. 6) : WJiere is the scribe ? where is the weigher 
(or, receiver) ? where is the scribe with the towers ? where is the 
weigher (or, receiver) with a strong people, on whom thou canst not 

20'5 1 CORINTHIANS I. 21. 

hear to look ? For the expression appears to be proverbial, which 
the particle riN, with, usually accompanies, and in this mode of 
speaking denotes universality, Deut. xxix. 18. That some charge 
of the towers was in the hands of the scribes, may be gathered 
from Ps. xlviii. 12, 13. The term, weighers (or receivers) is 
readily appUcable to commanders of forces. Comp. Heinr. 
Scharbau Parerg. Phil. Theol. P. iv. p. 109, who has collected 
many facts with great erudition, and has famished us with the 
handle for [the suggestion which originated] these reflections of 
ours. Paul brings forward both the passages in Isaiah against 
the Jews ; but the second has the words so changed, as to apply 
more to recent times, and at the same time to the Gentiles, ver. 
22. Some think that the three classes of learned men among 
the Jews, b''B'"n D''"iaD n''03n, are intended. We certainly find the 
first and second in Matt, xxiii. 34. There is moreover a three- 
fold antithesis, and that too a very remarkable one, in Isa. xxxiii. 
22, where the glorying of the saints in the Lord is represented. 
But this is what the apostle means to say : The wise men of the' ' 
world not only do not approve and promote the Gospel, but they 
oppose it, and that too in vain. — roD alZvog nurov) of this world, 
which is quite beyond the sphere of the " preaching of the cross" 
[6 Xoyog o rou gTavgov, ver. 18]. — ii^dipanv, made foolish) so that 
the world cannot understand the ground of the Divine counsel 
and good pleasure [su^oxjjtfEv], ver. 21. — njv cop/av, the wisdom) 
The wisdom of this world [ver. 20], and in the wisdom of God 
[ver. 21], are antithetic. — ■A.6(tiL0M^) of the world, in which are the 
Jews and the Greeks. 

21. 'Ev rji eocpicf,, in the wisdom) since ['because'] the wisdom 
of God is so great, ver. 25. — om 'iyvu, knew not) Before the 
preaching of the cross, although the creature proclaimed the 
Creator, although the most eloquent prophets had come, still 
the world knew not God. Those, who heard the prophets, 
despised them ; those, who did not hear them, were of such a 
spirit, that they would have despised them. — di& rrj; eoflag, by 

' The margin of both editions defends ,the pronoun rovTov as the reading 
in this verse, although it is omitted in the Germ. Ver. — E. B. 

ABC corrected later, and D corr. later, Orig. 3, 175e, omit toutov. But 
Ggf Vulg. Orig. 3, 318e ; Cypr. 324 : Hilary 811, 822, have toi^tow. 

1 CORINTHIANS I. 22-24. 207 

wisdom) viz., by the wisdom of preaching,^ as is evident from 
the antithesis, by the foolishness of preaching. — Ahoxrieiv ©sJf) it 
pleased God, in mercy and grace to us. Paul seems evidently 
to have imitated the words of the Lord, Luke x. 21. — hid. tth 
fj-uipiag, hy the foolishness) God deals with perverse man by con- 
traries, so that man may deny himself, and render glory to 
God, through belief in the cross. — xripuy/ia.roi, of preaching) inas- 
much as it is concerning the cross, 

22. ^ A/roDff;, require) from the apostles, as formerly from 
Christ. — gofpinv, wisdom) [The Greeks require in] Christ the 
sublinie philosopher, proceeding by demonstrative proofs.^ 

23. 'H|U.£/s, we) Paul, ApoUos. — xtipUgo/itv, we preach) rather 
historically, than philosophically. — Xpidrhv seraMpu/ihov, Christ 
crucified) without the article. The cross is not mentioned in 
the following verse. The discourse begins with the cross of 
Christ, ii. 2 ; those who thus receive it are made acquainted 
with all connected with Christ and His glory, those who do 
not receive it, fall short of the whole. Act xxv. 19, xvii. 32. — 
exavSoiXov, a stumbling-block) As folly and wisdom, so a stumbling- 
block and a sign are opposed to each other, for a sign is an at- 
tractive work of Omnipotence, as a sign and power are often 
synonymous, but a stumbling-bloch, properly applied to a snare 
or trap, is a very weak thing. [So things extremely 'Worthless in 
the present day come under the name of trifles. Germ. Schwach- 
herten. — V.- g.] To such a degree do the Jews and Greeks ^ 
dread the cross of Christ, that along with it they reject even 
a sign and wisdom. 

24. AuToTg) to them, construe with, Jews, and Greeks. — xXnToTi, 

' Not, "the world by its wisdom:" but, notwithstanding the preaching 
of true wisdom 6y creation and hy prophets of Ood, the world knew not 

^ lyifciict, signs) powerful acts. "We do not find any sign given by Paul 
at Corinth, Acts xviii. — V. g. 

8 They are not satisfied because Christ, instead of giving philosophic and 
demonstrative proofs, demands man's belief, on the ground oi His word, and 
a reasonable amount of evidence. — ^Ed. 

* The Germ. Ver. prefers the reading of Uuiai, equal, according to the 
margin of both editions, to ""EM^mi, which is doubtless more passable with 
German readers. — E. B. 

ABC corrected later, D corr. 1. Gfg Vulg. Orig. Cypr. Hilary have 
"hiixiv. Rec. Text, with Orig. 1, 331e, reads "ETvXijir/.— Ed. 

208 1 CORINTHIANS I, 25-27. 

who are called) Refer the calling, ver. 26, to this word. — X^/oriv, 
Christ) with His cross, death, life, and kingdom. [The sur- 
name Crucified is not added in this passage. When the offence of 
the cross is overcome, the whole mystery of Christ is laid open. — 
V. g.J — Sum/iiv — eoipiav, power — wisdom) Power is first expe- 
rienced, then wisdom. 

25. ToD 0£oO, of God) in Christ. — aofiuripov — isy^vforspov, wiser 
— stronger) ver. 30. — rSiv avSpu-raiv, than men) The phraseology 
is abbreviated ;^ it means, wiser than the wisdom of men, 
stronger than the strength of men, although they may appear 
to themselves both wise and powerful, and may wish to define 
what it is to be wise and powerful. 

26. EXsTsrs) ye see. For shows it to be the indicative mood. 
— rfiv yXrieiv ufiSiv, your calling) the state, in which the heavenly 
calling proves an offence to you ; so, calling, vii. 20. — ov voWol, 
not many) Therefore, however, some supply, have been called. 
As a comparison has been made with the preachers, so also with 
the hearers of the Gospel. The ellipse contains a euphemism 
[see Append.^] — zara edpxa, according to the flesK) a phrase 
nearly related to the expression, of the world, which presently 
after occurs in ver. 27. The world judges according to the 
flesh. — ilyinTg, nolle) who are generally also wise and powerful. 

\_Can it he believed, that this is the distinctive characteristic of the 
society of those, who, in our vernacular tongue (German) are styled 
Freymaurer, Freemasons. — V. g.J 

27. To) The article has this force : those things in particular 
and especially, which are foolish, etc. — s^iXi^an, hath chosen 
[viz., in great numbersj) Acts xviii. 10 — V. g.] (" I have much 
people in this city," i.e., Corinth). This word is put thrice ; 
election [choosing'\ and calling, ver. 26, are joined in one ; Ez. xx. 
5. The latter is a proof of the former. Electionis the judgment of 
Divine grace exempting in Christ from the common destruction 
of men, those who accept their calling by faith. Every one who 
is called, is elected from the first moment of his faith ; and so 
long as he continues in his calling and faith, he continues to be 
elected; if at any time he loses calHng and faith, he ceases to be 

' See App., under the title, Concisa Locutio. 

' Soipo!, wise) Hence such a small number of men were gained at Athens, 
which was the seat of Grecian wisdom. — V. g. 

1 CORINTHIANS I. 28-30. 209 

elected ; when he brings forth fruit in faith, he confirms that 
calling and election in his own case : if he returns to faith, and 
beheving falls asleep, he returns to his state of election, and as 
one elected falls asleep. And these xar i^o^riv, pre-eminently, 
are the men who are elected and foreknown. Election relates 
either to peoples or individuals. The question here and in 
Ez. XX. 5 : also Acts xviii. 10 ; 1 Thess. i. 4 : is concerning the 
election of a people ; and this species of election in a greater de- 
gree falls under the distinct perceptions of men that are believers, 
than the election of individuals ; for some individuals of the people 
may fall away, and yet the breadth of calling and election [i.e. the 
calling viewed in its comprehension of the whole people as such] 
may be equally preserved. The election of some outside of the 
church is a Thing Reserved for God Himself, and must not be 
tried by the rule of the preaching of, the Gospel.^ — roij eoipovg, 
the wise) In the masculine to express a very beautiful idea -^ the 
rest are neuter, as all standing in opposition to roDs eofois, yea 
even foolish things. — xaraisx^vri, might put to shame [confound]) 
This word is twice repeated ; we have afterwards, might bring to 
nought [ver. 28]. By both of these words glorying [ver. 29, 31] 
is taken away, whether the subject of boasting be more or less 

28. T<i /iri ovra, the things that are not) A genus, under which 
are included things base and despised, as also things foolish and 
weak. There is therefore an apposition, to the whole of which 
is opposed this one phrase, which are.- — riSt, hra) which are some- 

29. "OvMS /ifl, that not) The antithesis to, that, ver. 31. — mea 
ecip^, all flesh) a suitable appellation ; flesh is beautiful and yet 
frail. Is. xl. 6. — bumov, before) We may not glory before Hun, 
but in Him. 

30. "Eg auroD, of Him) Ye are of God, not now any longer of 
the world, Eom. xi. 36 ; Eph. ii. 8. — u/iiT;, ye) An antithesis to 
many, ver. 26. Those persons themselves, whom the apostle 
addresses, ye, were not the many wise men according to the flesh, 
etc. — itfn h XpigrSi 'itiaoij, ye are in Christ Jesus) ye are Chris- 

* Which restricts salvation to them that believe.— Ed. 
2 Viz., That even thinffs (and, those too, foolish things) are chosen by 
God to confound /lersons (and, those too, persons who are wise). — Ed. 

210 1 CORINTHIANS I. 31. II. 1, 2. 

tians, etc. Tlie antithesis is between, things which are not 
[ver. 28], and, 7/e are [ver. 30] ; likewise /e«/i [ver. 26, 29], and 
Christ [ver. 30]. — iyev^Srj ni^7i, is made to us) More is implied in 
these words, than if he had said ; we have become wise, etc.. He 
is made to us wisdom, etc., in respect of our knowledge, and, 
before that was attained, by Himself in His cross, death, resur- 
rection. To us the dative of advantage. — go<pia, wisdom) whereas 
we were formerly fools. The variety of the Divine goodness 
in Christ presupposes that our misery is from ourselves. — 
dixaioeivri, righteousness) Whereas we were formerly weak (with- 
out strength) [Rom. v. 6], comp. Is. xlv. 24. Jehovah, our righte- 
ousness, Jer. xxiii. 6, where (comp. ver. 5) he is speaking of the 
Son : for the Father is not called our righteousness. — ayiag/ihs, 
sanctification) whereas we were formerly base. — unXvTpasii) re- 
demption, even to the utmost ; whereas we were formerly des- 
pised, s^ov6ivr)/ihoi [ver. 28]. 

31. "Iva, that) viz. it mxiy he. — 6 xau^w/iemg, he who glories) It 
is not the privilege of aU to glory. — h Kvpttfj, in the Lord) not in 
himself, not in the flesh, not in the world. 


1. K^yw, and I) The apostle shows, that he was a suitable 
instrument in carrying out the counsel and election of God. — 
ov) This word is not construed with nkhv, but with the words 
that follow. — Xiyov 7\ (ft(plag, of speech or of wisdom) Speech fol- 
lows wisdom, a sublime discourse [follows] a sublime subject. — 
xa.To.yysXXuv vfj,r» rj jMaprhpm, declaring [announcing] unto you 
the testimony) Holy men do not so much testify, as declare the 
testimony, which God gives. — rh /^aprdpiov nu Siou, the testimony 
of God) in itself most wise and powerful. The correlative is, 
faith, ver. 5. 

2. Ou.yap hpiva, for I determined not) Although I knew many 
other things, yet I so acted, as if I did not know them. If a 
minister of the Gospel however abstains from the things, in 
which he excels, in order that he may simply preach Christ, he 

1 CORINTHIANS II. 3, 4. 211 

derives the highest benefit from them. The Christian doctrine 
ought not, for the sake of scoflfers and sceptics, and those who 
admire them, to be sprinkled and seasoned. with philosophical 
investigations, as if in sooth it were possible to convince them 
more easily by means of natural theology. They, who obsti- 
nately reject revelation, wUl not be gained by any reasonings 
from the light of nature, which only serves the purpose of in- 
structing in the first rudiments of (theological) education. — 
ixpiva) This word with its compounds is ofi;en used by Paul in 
this epistle to the Corinthians, ver. 13, etc., iv. 3, etc., xi. 29, 31, 
32, 34. — 'irjdouv Xpierhv, Jesus Christ) Paul well knew, how little 
the world esteemed this name.^ 

3. Kal iyii, and 1) The antithesis is, my speech, ver. 4 ; and, 
to know, ver. 2. For he describes the subject [ver. 2, to know 
Christ crucified], the preacher [ver. 3, and T\, the mode of speak- 
ing [ver. 4, my speech — not with enticing words].— aeSivtlcf, in 
weakness) It is opposed to, power [ver. 4]. We must not sup- 
pose that the apostle's state of mind was always pleasant and 
quite free from all perturbations, 2 Cor. vii. 5, xi. 30 ; Gal.iv. 
13. — xal h (pi^iji xal sv rpo/itji voXXSj, and in fear and in mitch 
trembling) This is a proverbial saying, and denotes the fear, 
which abounds to such a degree as even to fall upon the body 
and its gestures and movements, Mark v. 33 ; Eph. vi. 5 ; Phil, 
ii. 12 ; LXX., Deut. xi. 25. So Is. xix. 16, Lxx., igovrai Iv (pS^ui 
xoil b rpSfiui, " They shall be in fear and trembling."^ The world 
admires any thing but this [the very contrary to all this]. — 
lymfiriv,) I began to be, with you, towards you. 

4. Aoyo;, speech) in private. — x^puy/ia, preaching) in public. — 
■jriihfg) enticing, a very appropriate term, to which the antithesis 
is in demonstration. Didymus quotes this passage. Lib. 2 de 
Spir. S. Jerome translates •riihi; Xoyoig, with persuasions,^ so 
that there should be an apposition, iruhTg Xoyoig [priikTs being 
regarded as a noun]. It comes in this view from 'Trudij, to which 
irii^n is a kindred form. Hesychius has veiSti, •jrue/j-ovri, vians. — 
goiplocg, of wisdom) He explains in the following verses, what the 

' Earuvpufihop, crucified) An antithesis to "sublime wisdom," ver. 1. — V. g. 
2 An antithesis to " excellency of speech," ver. 1. — V. g. 
8 Cod. Amiat. of Vulg. reads " persuasione verbi." Other old MSS. 
** persuasibilibus verbis." — Ed. 

ai2 ] CORINTHIANS II. 5-7. 

wisdom is, of which the speeches and arguments are to be set 

5. Sop/fj!, in the wisdom) and power. — dwd/jbn, in the power) 
and wisdom. 

6. Sop/ac ds Xa'Kou/j.iv, but we speak wisdom) He returns, as it 
were after a parenthesis, to what he had shghtly mentioned at 
i. 23—25 : we speak, contains by impHcation an epanalepsis^ of 
the words, we preach [ch. i. 23] ; but we speak refers to some- 
thing secret, as appears from comparing ver. 7, 13 ; we preach, 
to something pubUc ; for wisdom here denotes not the whole of 
the Christian doctrine, but its sublime and secret leading prin- 
ciples. There is also an antithesis of the past tense, ver. 1, etc. 
[came — determined, etc.], and of the present in this passage [we 
speak']. — £1/ roTs Tikikig) in the case of ["penes perfectos ;" as far 
as concerns] them that are perfect, at Corinth or elsewhere. 
Construe with, we speak. The knowiedge of God and Christ is 
the highest knowledge. Comp. Ix, xiv. 11 [o XaXwn b i/iot fSdp- 
l3a,po;, — a barbarian, unto me] Phil. i. 30.^ Not only worldly and 
natural men are opposed to the perfect, even to the end of the 
chapter, but also carnal men and babes, ch. iii. at the beginning ; 
Heb. V. 14, 13. — oO — ovdi, not — nor) God is opposed to the 
world, ver. 7 ; the apostles, to the princes of the world, ver. 8, 
etc. — ap^ovTuv, of the princes) i. 20. Paul uses a word of wide 
signification, in which he comprehends men of rank both among 
the Jews and Greeks. — tuv xaTapyoufihuv, who come to nought) 
i. 19, 28. This epithet applies to the princes of the world, and 
to the world itself; whence it is evident, that the wisdom of the 
world is not true, because it does not lead men to immortality. 

7. 'Ev fiudrripitfi, rriv a.m-/.expu/j,/j!,£vriv, in a mystery, [even] the 
hidden [wisdom]) It is concealed before it is brought forward, 
and when it is brought forward, it still remains hidden to many, 
namely to those that are imperfect.— r/>ow/>/ff£v, ordained before) 
The allusion is to hath prepared, ver. 9. — ■Ttph, before) therefore it 
does not come to nought, ver. 6. This wisdom very far surpasses 

^ See App. Where the same word or words are in the beginning of a 
preceding member, and in the end of a following member ; thus marking a 
parenthesis ; as here, from c. i. 23-25, to c. ii. 6. 

" " The same conflict which ye saw in me, and now hear to be in mej" 
in ifioi. So here, " we speak in the case o/the perfect." Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS II. 8-11. 213 

worldly wisdom in antiquity. — alumv, the ages [of the world]) 
in the plural. The antithesis to it is, of this world, ver. 6. — il<;, 
unto) that it may be our glory ; comp. the following verse, and 
glorying, i. 31. — U^av) glory, from the Lord of glory; ver. 8, 
afterwards to be revealed, at the time when the princes of the 
world shall come to nought. It is an antithesis to, mystery. 

8. "Hv, which) a reference to wisdom. — ohbilg rSiv afyiwai — 
eyvcaxev, none of the princes — knew) none, almost none, nay, none 
at all, as [c[u&] a prince. The antithesis to this predicate is in 
the but ver. 9 ; to the subject, in the but ver. 10. — rbv Kvpiov, 
the Lord) who surpasses all princes. — israipiagav) The cross, the 
punishment of slaves. It was with this the Lord of glory was 

9. 'axx&, but) viz. it has happened, comp. Rom. xv. 3, 21, and 
1 Cor. i. 31. — xoi6ug, as) He shows that the princes of the world 
knew not wisdom. — a op^aX/iJs) Isa. Ixiv. 4, in the Lxx., avi row 
alSivog' otix ^xouda/Jifv, ouds ol 6(pSa,X/j,ol fj/jiuiv ilSov &ihv 'aXriv <fou, xai rd 
epya aou, & voirtaus roTg i/%ofiivovsiv iXiog. " Since the beginning we 
have not heard, nor have our eyes seen any god besides Thee 
and Thy works, which Thou wilt do to them that wait for 
mercy." — a, which) what eye hath not seen are those things, which 
God hath prepared. — ofiaXi^lg, oZg, the eye, the ear) of man. — ovx 
dv£/3>i) neither have ascended [entered], that is, have not come into 
the mind. — rirol/j!,aeiv, prepared) Hebr, HB'y'', he will do ; what was 
future in the time of Isaiah, had been actually accomplished in 
the time of Paul. Hence the one was speaking to them that 
were waiting for Him [Isa. Ixiv. 4], the other to men that love 
[Him, who has appeared, 1 John iv. 19] : comp. things that are 
freely given, ver. 12, by the grace of the New Testament, the 
fruits of which are perfected in eternity. — [Kom. viii. 28 ; James 
ii. 5.] 

10. 'Hi/m) to us, apostles. — airixaKn-^t, hath revealed) an an- 
tithesis to, hidden \wisdom, ver. 7]. Comp. Isa. xlv. 19, 15 ; 
Ps. h. 8, and again Luke x. 21. — iravTa, all things) ver. 9. — ra. 
j3ddn, the deep tfdngs) very much hidden, Ps. xcii. 6 ; not merely 
those things, which believers search out, ver. 9 [10] and 12, in 
both at the end. The deep things of God, even of His divine 
nature, as well as of His kingdom. 

11. Tig yAp o73sv Mpii^rav ra, n\j avSpiimu; For who among men 

214 1 CORINTHIANS II. 12, 13. 

hnoweth the things of a man ?) The Alexandrian MS. and it alone 
omits 'AvSpuirm, and yet Artem. Part I. cap. 47 desires it to be 
marked with a stroke as spurious.'- But this variety of cases, 
viz. among, or of m^n, of man, of a man, is extremely appropriate 
to the purpose of the apostle here ; for he notices the similarity 
of nature, which appears to give men the mutual knowledge of 
each other's feelings as men, and yet does not give it ; how much 
less win any one know God without the Spirit of God ? — t&, toZ 
a>Sp<L':rov, the things of a man), the things that are within him. — 
rh imxiiLa rotj avSpiirrou, the spirit of that man). The Article rJ 
evidently denotes the spirit , peculiar to man, not that entering 
into him from any other quarter. — rh h ahrSi, iphich is in him) 
The criterion of truth, the conscious nature in man (conscience). 
— ovSilg) not one, of all outside of [excepting] God. Not even 
his feUow-man knows a man ; God is One alone, [having no 
fellow] and known to Himself alone. — to 'jrviu/M, the Spirit) The 
Godhead cannot be separated from the Spirit of God, as man- 
hood cannot be separated from the spirit of man. 

12. TJ msuf/.a ro\J z6i!/j-ou, the spirit of the world) Eph. ii. 2. — 
iXajSofiev) The spirit of the world is not received; but they are 
always under its influence, who are of the world. We have re- 
ceived the Spirit of God. — ix., from [God]) an antithesis to in 
IJiim, man], ver. 11. 

13. Ka/, also) Thus the phrases, we might know and we speak 
are joined. — didaxroTg, taught) consisting of doctrine and instruc- 
tion. The word tfop/as with Xoyoig is not to be resolved into an 
epithet ; wisdom is the gushing fountain of words, — aXX' h, but 
in) an immediate antithesis ; nor can it be said, that the apostles 
compared merely the natural power of speech, as distinguished 
on the one hand from art, and on the other, from the Spirit. — 
didaxToTi) dida'/yi'' by the teaching, which the Holy Spirit' ftir- 

'• BCD (A) Gfy Vulg. Orig. 1, 197cs; S2ia ; 3, 5715; Hilary, read dtSpa- 
irm. A and Orig. 2, 644c, omit it. — Ed. 

2 The Germ. Ver. agrees to this reading, although the Greek editions 
have left the matter undecided. — E. B. 

3 The Germ. Vers., with the margin of Ed. 2, approves of the omission of 
the adjective, dyiov, more distinctly than the margin of the older edition. 
— E. B. 

AilxxToli is the reading of ABCD(A)G Orig. (B, according to Bartolocci, 

1 CORINTHIANS II. 14, 15. 215 

nishes through us seems to be a better reading. That doctrine 
comprehends both wisdom and words. — •w£upar;xo?s ■jrviv/jt^arma, 
spiritual things to \y3ith ; Engl. Vers, and Vulg. J spiritual) We 
interpret [But Engl. Vers, and Vulg. comparing) spiritual things 
and spiritual words in a manner suitable to spiritual men, ver. 6, 
15, so that they may be willing and able to receive them; 
guyKphu, euyxpifjija, tsvyxpisig, are frequently used by the Lxx. for 
example, in respect to the interpretation of dreams, Gen xl. and 
xli. ; Dan. ii. iv. v, vii. 

14. Tu;jj/xi5, tJie natural [animal] man) whatsoever and how 
great soever he may be, who is without the Spirit of God. 
Ephraim Syrus well remarks : " The apostle called men, who 
lived according to nature, natural, ■v)/ii;^j/xoi)5 ; those who lived 
contrary to nature, carnal, eapumous ; but those are spiritual, 
mev/Marixol, who even change their nature into the spirit, i.e. con- 
form their natural disposition to what is spiritual," [/j^i&ap/^ot^o/juim 
rriiipugn iig rh 'fftiiu/La'], f. 92. So flesh and blood. Matt. xvi. 17,note. 
— oi ds^iTai, does not receive) although they be offered, yet he 
does not wish to avail himself of the offer ; comp. di^ash, receive. 
Here presently after there follows the corresponding phrase, 
he cannot. Comp. Eom. viii. 7. The reason is added to each 
[aetiology, see Appen.], by the words, for, and because. [Each 
forms an antithesis to the mind of Paul expressed at 1 Tim. i. 15, 
faithful and worthy/ of all ACCEPTATION, «(rris xal rrdgris avoSoxKS 

a^iog. — ^V. g.J — rA rov meu/iaTog,^ the things of the Spirit) In 
like manner, the things of God, ver. 11.— /iw^/a, folly) Whereas 
he seeks wisdom, i. 22. — oh dlivarai, he cannot) he has not the 
spirit and the power. — yvavai, to know) the things of the Spirit of 
God. — wiu/jLaTixui) only spiritually. , 

15. 'o) There is great beauty here in the addition of the 
article [the spiritual man] ; -^vxi^h \a natural man] is without 

reads hlamif). B^itfg, Vulg. Syr. read hla.x,yi. / ' kyiov is placed before or 
after ■xDivpi.mTOi in the later Syr. and Ree. Text. But ABCD corrected 
later, G, Origen 1, 1975, Vulg. omit ayiov (Vulg. corrected by Victor has 
Sancti). — ^Ed. 

^ The Germ. Vers, does not conceal that rev 0eo5 is added, although the 
omission on the margin of both editions is considered to be better established. 
— E. B. 

ABCD(A)G/^ Vulg. Orig. Hilary 64, read rov StoS. But Syr. Version, 
Iren. and Hilary, 344, omit the words. — Ed. 

216 1 CORINTHIANS II. 16. III. 1-3. 

the article. — mama, all things) The neuter plural, as ver. 9-14, 
all things of all men, and therefore also [Tie judges] all men. 
The Masc. is comprehended in the Neut. as Matt. xi. 27. — ahrhc) 
he himself. — hi^ ou&ivhe, hy no) natural man. 

16. Tig, who) no one who is a mere man ; comp. Jer. xxiii. 
18 ; Isa. xl. 1 3 ; the LXX., rig 'iym voCv Kup/ou — 0? giiii^i^aSii a\iTo\i. 
— OS, who) This is not the interrogative, but the relative, by 
which the force of the question, which is in the rig, is extended 
[continued to the latter clause, os eu//,^iB. aurov], it means, and 
therefore. — vouv XpiSTou, the mind of Christ) The Spirit of the 
Father and of the Son is the same. — £'%o/*£v, we have) That is 
both more and less than to know : he who has the mind of Christ, 
judges [judicially decides upon] all things, and is judged by no 


1. Kal iyii, and 1) He spoke, ii. 1, of his first ' coming' among 
them : he now speaks of his progress. — wj eapxixoTs, as to carnal) 
This is a more gentle expression, than natural, especially with 
the additional mitigation, as babes in Christ, in regard to the 
degree of attainment, which immediately followed. 

2. Td\a, milk) He speaks in this way to bring the Corinthians 
to humility. — ov, not) supply, / have fed, or any other word, akin 
to, I have given you drink. An instructor does not necessarily 
teach what he himself knows, but what is suitable to his hearers. 
Scripture is perfect ; for, as an example, to the Corinthians milk 
is supplied; to the Hebrews, solid food. 

3. 'Otou) where. — ^^Xo;, envying) This refers to the state of 
feeling. — 'ipig, strife) to the words. — hyoSTaeiai, divisions) to the 
actions. The style of writing increases in strength ; he had used 
the word contentions, i. 11; he now multiplies the words; in 
like manner he uses the word glorying, iii. 21 ; afterwards, a 
severer expression, to be puffed up, iv. 6. — xara avSpuirov, accord- 
ing to the ways of men) not according to the ways of God; after 
the manner of men. 

1 CORINTHIANS III. 4-9. 217 

4. OO;^;,' are ye not) For the Spirit does not endure party- 
spirit among men. 

5. T/j ; who ?) He returns to what he hegan with. — didxom, 
ministers) a lowly expression and on that account appropriate 
here. — 3/' wi/, by whom), not in whom. Pelagius correctly ob- 
serves on this passage, If we, whom He himself has constituted 
ministers, are nothing, how much more those, who glory in carnal 
things ? — ixdsT<jj, to every man) i.e. every man as well as they. — 
6 Kvpiog, the Lord) The correlative is, diuxomi, ministers. — 'iduxtv, 
has given) in various ways and degrees ; see the following verse. 

6. 'Epursuffa — IwV/ffsi/, I planted — he watered) Acts xviii. 1, 
xix. 1. Afterwards with the same view, he speaks of the founda- 
tion and what is reared upon it ; of a father, and instructors [ch. 
iv. 15]. — rii^am, gave the increase) ver. 10, at the beginning; Acts 
xviii. 27, at the end. 

7. "O (pvTivtav, iroTiZciiv) he that planteth, he that watereth, as 
such ; or the very act o{ planting and watering. — o au^dvuv, [God] 
who gives the increase) viz. : ierh is rl, something ; and therefore, 
because He alone is some thing, He is all things [all in all]. 
Without this increase, the grain from the first moment of sowing 
would be like a pebble ; from the increase, when given, belief 
instantly springs up, ver. 5. 

8. "Ev) one ; neither of them is so much as anything. As one 
star in the heavens shines high above another ; but the un- 
scientific man does not perceive the difference in the height ; 
so the Apostle Paid shone far above Apollos ; but the Corin- 
thians did not understand this, and Paul in this passage does 
not instruct them much on that point ; he merely asserts the 
eminent superiority of Christ. — "Smv — 'Idiov, his own — his own) 
an appropriate repetition, and an antithesis to one. — /j,i(i6l>v, re- 
ward) something beyond salvation, ver. 14, 15. The faithful 
steward will receive praise, the diligent workman a reward. — 
jtoVoK, labour) not merely according to the work [done, but accord- 
ing to each man's labour^. 

9. @io\J, of God) This word is solemnly repeated immediately 
after," and is emphatically put at the beginning thrice ; as in 

1 "Ot»ii yap, for when) See how important a matter may be, which 

seems to be of no consequence V. g. 

' By the figure anaphora, i.e., the frequent repetition of words in the 

218 1 CORINTHIANS in. 10-12. 

ver. 10, grace; and in ver. 11, foundation. — aunpyol, labourers to- 
gether with) We are God's labourers, and in turn labourers to- 
gether with Him. — ytiipyiov, husbandry) This constitutes .the sum 
of what goes before ; yidpyiov, a word of wide and comprehensive 
meaning, comprising the field, the garden, and the vineyard. — 
oixoda/ifi, building) This constitutes the sum of what follows. 

10. Xdpiv, grace) By this word he takes anticipatory precau- 
tion [vpoStpavelav], not to appear arrogantly to pronounce him- 
self wise. — doSiTgav, given) it was therefore a something habitual 
in Paul.^ — so(p)>g) [wise] skilful. The knowledge of Jesus Christ 
makes men so. — h/iiXiot, foundation) The foundation is the first 
beginning. — aXkog) another, whoever he is. He elegantly avoids 
mentioning the proper name. The predecessor does not see his 
successor, and Paul has regard to the dignity of ApoUos ; so 
immediately after, every man; for there were also others, iv. 15. 
— ^Xsv'iToi, let him see [take heed]) I, says Paul, have done my 
part ; let them see to theirs, who follow me in this work. — ■b-^s) 
how, how far wisely, how far in builder-like style. 

11. V&p, for) The reason, why he says so deliberately, builds 
thereon. — ovSiig, no man) not even Apollos. — hnai, lay) at 
Corinth, and wherever Christ was made known. — 'lri<soug Xpierht, 
Jesus Christ) each name here is properly placed. 

12. E;) whether [But Engl. Ver. if]. Comp. of what sort, ver. 
13. There is an indirect question, which does not require 
the mark of interrogation. In ver. 13, there is the apodosis, 
whether il be taken as an interrogative, or means if. — %puirov, 
gold) He enumerates three kinds of things, which bear fire ; as 
many, which are consumed by it ; the former denote men that 
are true believers ; the latter, hypocrites : Moreover, the abstract 
is included in the concrete, so that on the one hand true and 
solid doctrines, or, on the other hand, false and worthless doc- 
trines are denoted together ; in both cases, doctrines either of 
greater or less importance. Even a grain of gold is gold : even 
the lightest straw feeds the fire. — Xlhvg rifLiouc, precious stones) 
This does not apply to small gems, but to noble stones, as marble, 
etc. — giiXa, wood) In the world, many buildings are fitly con- 
beginnings of Sections, or in adorning and amplifying weighty arguments. 
— Append. — T. 

^ Which is the force of the article, tiji/ -zapo tvid '^ohlaa.v Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS III. 13-15. 219 

structed of wood; but not so in the building of God, comp. 
Rev. xxi. 18, 19. — KaXAfiriv) stubble. 

13. ''Epyov) the work, which any one has erected. — fj ^fz-spcc, 
the day) of the Lord. So Heb. x. 25, comp. presently ch. iv. 
3, 5, where, after an interval, as usual, he speaks more clearly. 
Previous days, which vividly realize to us the fire, for instance, 
in adversity and at death, are not altogether excluded. — driXdJssi, 
shall declare} to all. — [Many things are also revealed sooner, at 
least to some, but Paul lays down the last and most certain day of 
fiery trial. — V. g.J — h irupl a-jroxaXyvrsTcci) is revealed in fire, 
viz., the Lord, whose day that is ; or, the work [so Engl. Vers.] ; 
2 Thess. i. 7, 8, is revealed,^ as present, because it is certain 
and near, Eev. xxii. 20. — rh iriip, the fire) a metaphor, as through- 
out this whole discourse. The fire of the last day and of the 
Divine judgment is intended, as is evident fi-om the subsequent 
language, which peculiarly applies to the last judgment, iv. 5 ; 
2 Cor. V. 10 [2 Thess. i. 8] ; to which the visible fire on that 
day will correspond. — Soxifidgn) shall try, not shall purge. This 
passage not only does not support [add ftiel to] the fire of pur- 
gatory, but entirely extinguishes it ; for it is at the last day, and 
not till then, that the fire shall finally try every man's work ; 
therefore the fire of purgatory does not precede it. Nor on 
that very day, shall the work be purged; but it shall be tried, 
of what sort it previously was on either side [good or bad], when 
it shall either remain or be burnt up. 

14. E/' Tivog, if any man's) Hence Paul is accustomed to 
promise glory to himself fi-om the constancy of his brethren 
[hence also to derive exhortations'], 2 Cor. i. 14 ; Phil. ii. 16 ; 
1 Thess. ii. 19. 

15. Zri/iiui6rigerai, he shall suffer loss) He shall fail in obtaining 
the reward, not in obtaining salvation. — aM;) he himself. — 
eca6rigsrai, shall be saved) because he does not forsake this founda- 
tion, ver. 12. — iig, as) a particle of explanation and limitation ; 
as one who should be obliged to go through fire. — diA, through) 
So diSi, through [= iBithl, Rom. ii. 27 : not without fire, comp. 
ver. 13. As the shipwrecked merchant, though he has lost his 
merchandise and his gain, is saved through the waves.^ 

» Is saved, though having to pass through the waves.— Ed. 

220 1 CORINTHIANS III. 16-19. 

16. iJalg, the temple) The most noble kind of building. — iere, 
ye are) the whole of you together. — rh wiii/ia; the Spirit) The 
indwelUng of the Holy Spirit, and that of God, are held in the 
same estimation [are eqviivalent] : therefore the high honour 
due to the Holy Spirit is the same as that due to God, vi. 19. 

17. ^klpsi, destroys] by schisms according to the wisdom of 
the world. — (phpiT, shall destroy) by a most righteous retaliation 
in Idnd [p^Bps?" answering to <p6iif>ii]. There are many, punish- 
ments, which do not flow from sin by physical connection. — 
ay/05, holy) divine, inviolable. 

18. Aoxif) This word is frequently used, as well as Xoy/^o/ta/, 
in the epistles to the Corinthians ; but doxu more in the first ; 
the other, with a milder signification in the second. The mean- 
ing here is, if any man be wise, and think that he is so. For 
often, in this epistle especially, 8oxu has such a force as that the 
fact of the thing itself is not denied, but there is denoted along 
with the fact, the estimation, which the man, who has that thing 
[that subject of his self-esteem], entertains concerning himself, 
whether [that estimation] be just or inflated [exaggerated] vii. 
40, viii. 2, X. 12, xi. 16, xiv. 37. — gotpig, wise) Hereby he entirely 
cuts off all wisdom, whether of this world or divine. [It is 
indeed wretched wisdom to deceive one^s own self. — V. g.] For 
in whatever species of wisdom every man wishes to be distin- 
guished, in the same kind of wisdom he ought first of all to deem 
himself a fool, that he may become wise. 

19. 'O Spaeao/ieyos roiig gofoug h rfj -Trat/ovpyia aOrwi') Eliphaz in 
Job V. 13, in the LXX., says, o xaTaXa/i^dvuv go^oug iv r^ (ppovfjgn. 
The apostles seem to have kept very much by the words of the 
LXX. Interpreters in passages very well known to the Hellenists 
[the Greek-speaking Jews], for example in the Parschijoth^ and 
Haphtaroth, and likewise in the Psa:lms; but they have re- 
course to the Hebrew, in passages less generally used, such as 
this passage of Job. Paul has also in another place referred to 
Job. See Phil. i. 19, note. — h, in) not only whilst they think 
that they are acting wisely, but in such a way, that their very 
wisdom is a snare to them. 

''■ Parscliijoth, sections of the Pentateuch ; Haphtaroth, sections of the 
Prophets, read publicly. — T. 

1 CORINTHIANS HI. 20-23. 221 

20. Sopwv, of the wise) lxx. have avSpuivuv, of men. The 
word, thoughts, not in itself, but with this addition, of the wise, 
corresponds to the Hebrew word niacTiD, Ps. xciv. 11, lxx. — 
tlei, are) men, namely with their thoughts ; see Ps. now quoted 
in the Hebrew. 

21. 'Ek avSptifoig, in men) This appertains to [has the effect of] 
extenuation.^ — o-avra, all things) not only all m^n. — v/i,Zv, yours) 
Those things are yours ; not you theirs, i. 12 ; 2 Cor. iv. 5. 

22. riaCXos, Paul) Paul, as if a stranger to himself, comes 
forward in the third person and shows how it was the duty of 
the Corinthians to speak of him, and he places himself, as if he 
were lowest in rank,^ first in the enumeration. — KJjpas, Cephas) 
They were wont to glory also in Peter, which also was wrong. 
See note on i. 12. — xoV/ios, the world) He by a sudden bound 
extends his remarks from Peter to the whole world, as if he 
were in some degree impatient of enuiiierating all the other 
things. Peter and every one else in the whole world, how dis- 
tinguished soever he may be by his talents, gifts, or office 
whether ecclesiastical or political, aU are yours ; they are instru- 
mental in promoting your interests, even though unwittingly : 
comp. respecting, the world, ver. 19, iv. 9, vi. 2, vii. 31 ; Rom. 
iv. 13 ; Gal. iv. 3. — eJVi ^wij, e/Ve Savaro;, whether life or death) 
and so therefore the living and the dead. Comp. Rom. xiv. 8 ; 
Phil. i. 21. — hidTuTa, things present) on the earth. — /iiXMura,, 
things to come) in heaven. 

23. "T/ieTg di Xpisrov, and ye are Chrisis) Immediately; not 
by the intervention of Peter. — X^/otoD — ©sou, of Christ — of God) 
To this iv. 1 has respect. — Xpiarhg de, &iou, and Christ is God's) 
XV. 28 ; Luke ix. 20. 

' See App., under the tit. Litotes. Using a weaker expression, when a 
strong one is meant. — T. 

" In Greek and Latin, a person speaking of himself along with another, 
puts himself first, in modern languages last. Christ says, more than once, 
/ atid the Father : so here, Paul is first as being of least importance. — T. 

g2a 1 CORINTHIANS IV. 1-3. 


1. Ourwff, so) is determinative, and resumes the subject from 
what precedes. — Xoy/^Etf^w, account) without glorying, iii. 21. — 
av6ptam;, a man) &^i<, any man, one like ourselves, iii. 21. — 
\i'!rnpiras, ministers) Luke i. 2. — XpiSTou, of Christ) in His office 

, [as the only Great Mediator] ; not [ministers] of were. — oixov6/io\is 
fiuerriplaiv ©loD, stewards of the mysteries of God) Paul, where 
he describes the mmisters of the Gospel in the humblest 
language, still acknowledges them to be stewards : see Tit. i. 7, 
note ; comp. of Christ, and, of God, with iii. 23. [Mysteries are 
heavenly doctrines, of which men are ignorant without the revela- 
tion of God. — V. g.] 

2. "O di) Furthermore what God requires, and men too, in 
their stewards, is, that a man be found faithful. Ver. 3 corre- 
sponds to this paraphrase. ■ — t,riTi?Ta,i, is inquired after [is re- 
quired]) by investigation, wnen the time comes. The correlative 
is, may be found. — merhg, faithful) The Corinthians were not 
content with that. — ivpiiri, mny be found) Every man in the 
mean time wishes to be thought faithful. 

3. 'E/io/) to me, for my part. — Se) but, although I be capable 
of being found faithful. — th, unto) a particle of mitigation. I 
do not despise your judgment in itself; but when I think of 
the judgment of God, then yours comes almost to nothing. — 
sXd;j/i(STov, a very little thing) The judgment of God alone should 
be held of great account. — h<p hfLuv, by you) privately. An 
antithesis to by human or marCs day of judgment, publicly. \He 
limits what had been said at iii. 21, " All things are yours." — 
V. g.] — avaxpi6Si, I should be judged) whether I am faithful, or 
not. The Corinthians certainly appeared not to be contented 
with faithfulness alone, but the apostle cuts the matter short 
[agit aTToro/iws]. — avSptatchrii, human) This word has the effect of 
diminishing. \_All days previous to the day of the Lord are 
man's days. — V. g.].-^i}/j,ipas, day) So he calls it as an anti- 
thesis to the day of the Lord : v/^'^pcx,, the day appointed for the 
trial. It is here the abstract for the concrete ; compare, hy you : 

1 CORINTHIANS IV. 4, 5. 223 

it is likewise a hypothetical phrase ; for none of the believers 
was likely to appoint a day for the trial of the apostle. — arnKflvu, 

1 decide in judgment on) for we ought not to decide in our own 
case, but to form a judgment of it. Amxplgii, is the decision in 
judgment [dijudicatio] upon [of] one, in respect of others ; — 
Hpidi;, simple judgment. Here we have set forth the happy for- 
getfulness of all that is good in one's self. So the decision in 
'udgm£nt of the Corinthians respecting Paul is forcibly refuted. 

4. Oidh) nothing, unfaithful : comp. faithful, ver. 2. So the 
LXX. ou y&i slwha, J/iaiiriu araita, -jrpd^ag, Job xxvii. 6. He, whom 
conscience accuses, is held as deciding in judgment on himself. — 
o\ix. Iv ToiiTCfi BiSixalufjiai) I am not justified in this, if I decide in 
my own case. For the judgment remains. It is the Lord who 
will pronounce me justified, ver. 5. Paul may be regarded 
either as a judge, or a witness, in his own case. As a witness, 
he knows, that he is unconscious of any crime. As a judge, he 
dares not on that account decide in his own case, or pronounce 
himself to be justified. — amn^lmv /j,i) He who decides in my case, 
whose decision I do not decline, at His coming, ver. 5, and who 
declares me justified.''- 

5. KpivaTs, judge) He does not say avaxphaTt, decide ; he more 
closely alludes to the judgment, which the Lord wiU give. — 
Kvpios, the Lord) Jesus whom we serve, ver. 1. — xai) also : 
He will not only judge, but will bring forth to light His judg- 
ment. — ipoiTigii) (puTiZiiv is to throw light upon any object, for 
example, (piaritiiv rfiv [/uxra,, to throw light upon the night, Ex. xiv. 
20, on the margin of the ed. Wech. : or to bring a thing to light, 

2 Tim. i. 10. Both of these will be done at that time— rd 
xpuvT^, the hidden things) The Jieart of man is truly a hidden 
cavern [crypt]. — roD exonus, of the darkness) into which no 
human eye penetrates. — pavipdodei, will make manifest) so that 
you win then at length clearly know us. — ras ^ovXag, the 
counsels) showing, who hath been faithful or not. — tuv xapbiuv, 
of the hearts) according to the state of the heart, so the conduct 
is just \_jusiified, ver. 4] and praiseworthy or the reverse. — t6ti, 
then) Therefore wait. — ivamg, praise) The world praises its 

' Kuj/of idTiu, is the Lord) Jesus Christ, v. 5. He is mentioned along 
with God, as in ver. 1, — V. g. 


princes, warlike leaders, ambassadors, wise men, artists : God 
will hereafter praise His ministers.— ixderu) to every one, who 
is a praiseworthy, faithful steward; you only praise one, for 
example, Paul. So every one, iii. 8. Concerning praise from 
God, see Matt. xxv. 21. Those too, who are not faithful, ex- 
pect praise, but their praise will be reproach. Therefore the 
contrary is also included by implication in the word praise, 
which is a euphemism [the opposite of praise being not ex- 
pressed, though implied] ; so the euphemism in, shall try or 
prove, etc., c. iii. 13, viii. 8, 10, notes. So blessing also com- 
prehends cursing. Gen. xlix. 28, 7. There is a similar passage, 
1 Sam. xxvi. 23 (24). 

6. Ta3ra) these things, which are found from c. i. 10 and 
onward. — iitrie-^rniaTiea, I have transferred) Gomp. 2 Sam. xiv. 
20. The figure [Schema] consists in this, that Paul wrote 
those things with a vievr^ to admonish the Corinthians, not only 
in the second, but chiefly in the first person, ver. 3, 4 : so that 
the reasons for moderate sentiments [ippoviiij, by which Paul and 
ApoUos were actuated, might also actuate the Corinthians, 
ver. 16, and the Corinthians might think of Paul, as Paul 
thought of himself. — /^dSrirs, ye might learn) By this word Paul 
calms the pufied-up Corinthians. — yiypaTrai,^ is written) Comp. 
ain33, 2 Chron. xxx. 5. Written, i.e. in the whole of Scripture, 
from which some quotations, iii. 19, 20, have just been made : 
for we ought not to entertain any sentiment (ippovsTi) beside [i.e. in 
disagreement with] it, and beyond it, Eom. xii. 3, xv. 4. This is 
our rule in respect to all spiritual sentiments, and we are not 
allowed to depart from this rule, 2 Cor. x. 13. In Scripture, 
the archetype of which is in heaven, the general principle in 
relation to all believers is described, by which the Lord will 
judge each man, and by which every man ought to look up to 
Christ alone, and by which each ought to estimate himself, 
rather than by those gifts, wherein he excels, or thinks he 

' The author has omitted in the Germ. Vers, the verb <p^ous7i> after 
yey^xTTrai, everywhere met with, but left as it were undecided by the 
margin of both editions. — E. B. 

ABD corrected later, Gfff Vulg. omit <p^oi/uii. Rec. Text reads it, in 
which it has the support only of (as is probable, though not certain) of 
ancient authorities. — Ed. 


excels, others (Luke x. 20.) [Add, that Scripture ascribes 
glory to God alone ; to man no glory whatever, i. 31 : and there- 
fore human glorying is contrary to Scripture and its universal 
feeling (sentiments), Luke xvi. 15-18, 29 ; Is. Ixvi. 2. — V. g.] 
Li accordance with this is the expression presently after, one 
[puffed up] for one. In this manner all good and bad men 
(Jude, ver. 4) have long ago been respectively distinguished in 
Scripture. — e/'s ivip roS ivbg, one for the one) The definition of a 
sect, where individuals admire and follow individuals. The 
article roD adds emphasis. A single minister is not the only 
one. — <p\ieiinj(s6() The subjunctive, for ^-jaiuih, as ^^XoCrs for 
t^rjXSiTi, Gal. iv. 1-7. But that is an irregular form of the sub- 
junctive, which some call the indicative. The mode of contraction 
is singular. For it is not credible, that, in these verbs only, the 
indicative is put for the subjunctive. — irEgou, another) for 
example against ApoUos. 

7. Tig) who ? not thou, not another man ; but even suppos- 
ing thou hast some excellent gift, it is God alone [who maketh 
thee to differ]. — ai, thee) This word may be referred both to some 
one at Corinth and, by changing the fgure of speech [_i!^ri/ia 
referring to /jurig^rif^dTiea], to Paul : ee, thee, thyself, how great 
soever thou art : in antithesis to the gifts, which thou mayest or 
mayest not have received. — Siaxphsi, makes to differ) or, pecu- 
liarly distinguishes by some difference. — r/ de '^x^ig, o oux 'iXa^ig, 
but what hast thou, which thou hast not received f) The meaning 
is : whatever thou hast, thou hast received it, not from thyself, but 
from God : or, there are many things, which thou hast not received, 
and therefore thou hast them not and canst not boast of them : either 
thou hast, or hast not received; if thou hast not received, thou 
hast tJiem not : if thou hast received, thou hast nothing but wliat 
has been received, without any cause for glorying. He, whom Paul 
here addresses, is a man ; for example, Paul, whose way of 
thinking the Corinthians ought to take as a pattern. The latter 
sense renders the meaning of the xa/, even, which immediately 
follows, more express, and shows the antanaclasis"^ in thou hast 
not received : [as if] not receiving. — its /in >ia/3wi', as if thou hadst 
not received it) as if thou hast it from thyself. 

* See App. The same word in the same context twice, but in a different 



8. "HStj, now), in comparison with us. The words without us, 
which immediately after occur, agree with this. — xsxopsgfihoi, 
full) A gradation [ascending climax] : full, rich, kings. Its 
opposite is, we hunger, etc., ver. 11, 12. As the two epistles to 
the Corinthians exhibit great variety in mental feeling [nki. 
Append.], incomparable urbanity [asteismus, Append.], and 
abimdant and playful acuteness, so the passage before us is to 
such a degree remarkable for these qualities, that it should be 
understood, in respect either of the Corinthians or of the 
apostles, concerning their internal or external condition, con- 
cerning the facts themselves or concerning the puffed-up opinion 
of the Corinthians. The spiritual condition of the Corinthians 
was truly flourishing — flourishing also was that of the apostles. 
This was right : but troubles [the cross] from without galled 
the apostles and prevented them from pleasing themselves on 
that account : the Corinthians, inasmuch as being in a flourish- 
ing state even in things external, were pleased with and were 
applauding themselves, which was wrong. Therefore, the Co- 
rinthians were imitating the conduct of sons, who, after they 
have become illustrious, care little for their humble parents : in 
consequence of fiilness, they were fastidious ; of opulence, they 
were insolent ; of kingly power, they were proud. — xw^/s tulSiv, 
without us) A new and apt ambiguity ; you have not us as your 
partners ; consequently you have not had us as your assistants ; 
you have forgotten us, as the saying expresses it, " many pupils 
become superior to their teachers," roXKo) i/.a6nT0i.i xpelrTovii 
Sidatxd'kav. — IjSaeiXsvgaTi, ye have reigned) ye have come to your 
kingdom. In this is implied the majesty of Christians. — xa; 
opEXo'i/ ys, and I wish) i.e. I do not envy you, my only desire is, 
that it may really promote your best interests, 2 Cor. xii. 14, 
15. — ha, xal ii/ieTg, that we also) When you shall be perfected, 
the apostles will enjoy ease, and reach the end of all their 
troubles. — eu/i^agi'Ksdectifiiv, we might reign together) This is 
modestly said : with you; comp. ix. 23, iii. 22. 

9. Aoxw, / think) A feeling of humility ; a gentle mimesis.^ 
The Corinthians thought [or, seemed to themselves, SoxiT, c. iii. 

1 See Appendix. A delicate allusion to the words of another whom we 
wish to set right : as the apostle's SoxS here refers to the Corinthians' 
Zoxtt, chap. iii. 18. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS IV. 10-12. 227 

18] that they excelled. — roCj amgrSXoug, saxarou;, the apostles, 
last) ig^arog, the most worthless, ver. 10, 11. The antithetical 
words are put down in one and the same passage. The 
prophets also were afflicted, but the apostles much more ; and 
the prophets were able to destroy their enemies, for example 
Elias [and so greatly were they esteemed among men, that even 
the Nobles considered themselves bound to reverence them, and to 
follow or send for them with every mark of honour, 2 Kings i. 
10, V. 9, viii. 9, 12. — ^V. g.], but it was the lot of the apostles to 
suffer and endure to the end. — a-jriSei^ev) In Latin, munus osten- 
dere, munus declarare, are the idiomatic expressions applied to the 
public shows among the Romans. — imSavaTioug) ^pogSoxu/ievoug 
aToSanTv, expecting to be put to death. See Hesychius. — rffl 
x6g/j,iji, to the world) which is immediately after divided into 
angels and men, without the repetition of the article. — xa> 
ayyiXoig xal avSpii'jroig, to angels and men) i.e. those that are good ; 
but rather, those that are bad. 

10. Mciipol, fools) i. 21. — 8ia Xpigrhv — h XpigTu), for Christ's 
sake — dn Christ) These words must be repeated in the two fol- 
lowing clauses. Without any violation of the truth, different 
things may be predicated of one subject ; or of different sub- 
jects, who are regarded as standing on the same footing ; for 
example, of Paul and the Corinthians ; according to the different 
point of view in which they are regarded, and which the words, 
for the sake of, and, in, here express ; for the sake of is applied 
to slaves ; in, to partners. — 'iv8o^oi) men in the highest estima- 
tion ; but arifioi, applies to persons, who are deprived of even 
ordinary esteem. — riinTg bt, but we) Here the first person takes 
the second place, and so it goes on in the following verse. 

11. Tv/ivrjTelio/j,sv, we are naked) The highest degree of poverty, 
2 Cor. xi. 27. [So far were the heralds of the kingdom of 
Christ from being adorned with any splendour. We imagine 
ourselves to be quite the reverse of all this. — V. g.J — xoXaf)il^6//,s6a, 
we are buffeted) as slaves, therefore we are not kings. 

12. Ko«w/Asv, we labour) as if compelled by necessity. Few 
of the Corinthians did so. — iuXo'yoiJ/ji,iv — aiiyoiLi^a, — fapaxaXaufLiv, 
we bless — we endure — we entreat) i.e. we do not return re- 
proaches, persecution, evil speaking, but we only bless ; nothing 
else is lawful ; the world thinks that despicable. 

228 1 CORINTHIANS IV. 13-15. 

13. XiipixaSapiiara, crsf/'vj/jj/ia) both words are used for filth, by 
which not only men utterly outcast, but those devoted as an ex- 
piation for others, are denoted. "laSj -rtipixd^ap/ji^a Sixalou, &vo//,o;, 
the wicked shall be a ransom for the upright, Prov. xxi. 18. rh 
dpyupiov nrspi-i^i^fLa roD -TraiSlov rj/iuv yhoiro, let money be as refuse m 
respect of our child, Tob. v. (18) 26 : add Jer. xxii. 28, where 
nraj avv has been translated by some •Tnpi-^rtiia, paOXov, vile off- 
scourings, Hesychius : ■jrspl'^rj/ia, •7rspixaTd/j,ay^a, avrlXvrpa, am- 
•^\i-)(a,, rj CtJ tu 'iyyri -iravruv. Tspi'^rj/ji.a in Eustathius is, gmyyie/j^d 
Ti, something wiped away with a sponge, and therefore more 
subtle [smaller and less perceptible] than XD/ia ; the latter word, 
XD/ia, is a less forcible term than xd^apiha, the meaning of which 
the nnpl strengthens. Wherefore Paul calls himself and the 
apostles iripiy,a6apiJ,ara rou xoeiio\i—-ripi-^r\it.a, the offscouring not 
only of a persecuting world, but of all men pEngl. Vers. " of all 
things"^, although they do not persecute us ; the world hates us ; 
all men despise us. — laii apn, until now) an epanalepsis [a repe- 
tition of the same words in the beginning of a preceding member 
and in the end of the following member of a sentence. See 
Append.], comp. ver. 11, at the beginning. 

14. Oiix hrpiirm, not making ashamed) An exquisite epithe- 
rapeia.' The dissimilarity between themselves and Paul, be- 
tween the sons and the father, might have made the Corinthians 
ashamed. This 'EnrgoTij, putting them to shame, in the mind of 
the apostle, was not an end, but a means, as he says also on 
another occasion, that he was unwilling to make them sad, 
though he had actually done so. The apostle often introduces 
a certain degree of refined pleasantry, without forgetting the 
apostolic gravity, for example, 2 Cor. xii. 13, note. — vou6itSi, I 
warn) you as a father, Eph. vi. 4. 

15. Tiaiiaytayoxjg, instructors) however evangelical they are, 
being in Christ, not legal instructors. The antithetical terms 
respectively are, 'planting,' and 'watering;' "laying the founda- 
tion," and " building upon it :" ' begetting' and ' instructing.' — 
eu mXXoiis, not many) In like manner every regenerate man has 
not many fathers. Paul does not say, one Father; for that ap- 

' See App. An after addition to words, which might give offence, and a 
kind of softening of what went before by a declaration of friendly feeling 
towards the persons addressed. 

1 CORINTHIANS IV. 16-18. 229 

plies to God alone ; not mani/, is however suiEciently explained 
by the following word, /. Not only ApoUos, his successor, is ex- 
cluded, hut also his companions Silas and Timotheus, Acts xviii. 
5. Spiritual fatherhood has in it a peculiar tie of relationship 
and affection connected witli it, above every other kind of pro- 
pinquity. — ill yap XpiSTui 'irjgou, for in Christ Jesus) This is more 
express than the phrase above, in Christ, where he is speaking of 
other instructors. 

16. TlapaxaXu, I exhort) A short exhortation after a long and 
true account of his own example is valuable. — /i//Aj)ra/ ^ou, 
imitators of me) as sons. Having laid aside pride, cultivate that 
feeling even without the cross, which is fostered in us by means 
of the cross. He proposes the imitation of himself to those, with 
whom he had been, Gal. iv. 12 ; Phil. iii. 17. 

17. Ti/ji,6hov, Timx)theus) xvi. 10. — rixvov /jlou, my son) and 
therefore imitator. Paul calls Timothy his brother; see 2 
Cor. i. 1, note ; but in this passage the affection of the father 
is uppermost in his thought. — ayairrirhv, beloved) to whom 
I have willingly committed the business. — ■xigrhv, faithful) to 
whom I could safely commit the business. — umiivfien, will re- 
mind you) He does not say will teach. The Corinthians had 
knowledge; they had need of admonition. — rag iBoug /j,o\jf my 
ways) in which I walked whilst with you. — xa6ij<;, even as) as 
didxoiiog, a minister. — IxxX^jff/qc, in the church) emphatically in the 
singular number. 

18. "Xls, as though) Because I send Timothy, they think, that 
I will not come. This is the meaning of the particle di, but. — 
£(pu(fi(a6rieav rmg, some were puffed up) Paul wrote this under 
Divine illumination, laying bare and clearly showing their 
thoughts, which would rise in their minds at the very time, when 
they were reading these words. They were puffed up about 
various things ; see next verse, and ch. v. 2. He says, I will 
restrain such persons, when I come. Perhaps also the apostle 
might have learned about this puffed up spirit of the Corinthians 
from the members of the house of Chloe (i. 11). But the 
Corinthians seem to have been puffed up about the delay of the 
coming of Paul, not until after he had sent Timothy, his second 
self, with this very epistle. Then indeed these puffed up 
thoughts suddenly arose in their minds ; Paul himself, then, 

230 1 CORINTHIANS IV. 19-21. V. 1. 

will not come. A puffed up spirit was the frequent fault pre- 
valent among the Corinthians. 

19. 'EXiueoficii,IwiUcome) Paul writes to the churches every- 
where about his coming to them, and thus keeps them in the 
discharge of their duty. — l^v 6 Kvpiog hxfisf}, if the Lord will) He 
wisely adds this condition. Afterwards some things occurred to 
prevent his immediately going to them. — yvueo/n^ai, will take cog- 
nizance) A word used in courts of law. Here, and at ver. 21, 
the man, who was such an outcast abroad in the world, shows 
his paternal authority, see ver. 9, 10. — ou rhv Xoyov, not the speech) 
big, but empty. 

20. Ou yap, for not) An axiom. — h d\jvd//,ii, in power) The 
absence of the article gives force to the meaning, as in Eph. iv. 
21. [ Weigh thoroughly that in which the power of thy Christianity 
C07isists. — V.g.j 

21. T; SeXiTB,- what will yef) Choose. [Comp. 2 Cor. xiii. 3. 
So this phrase, what wilt thou ? is still of importance both as to 
the principal point, and as to its various accessory cases ; see that 
you make room (that you choose rather to leave scope) for Love. 
— V.g.] — h pd^du), with a rod) wielded by a father's hand. Comp. 
Isa. xi. 4. — Jj, or) Paul would prefer the latter. 


'1. 'OXus, absolutely Pllngl. Vers., commonhf^ Paul has no- 
where else used this particle, but it is found thrice in this epistle 
(here, and in vi. 7, and xv. 29), as well fitted to express his 
thoughts, and ia these and in all other places, the particle, i'Xws, 
omnino, is either put in a negative sentence, or it by imphcation 
contradicts a negative sentence : So Chrys. Honiil. 5, c. Anom., 
Nevertheless, although man differs little from an angel, liriihri"OA.D,'S, 
iari ri iLigov, since nevertheless there is some difference between them, 
we do not accurately know, what angels are : so in this passage, no 
fornication, oXoii, at all should be reported among you ; never- 
theless it is, oKoic, absolutely reported. The same principle applies 
to the particle, ?-)]v d(yj\v, absolutely. — h lij^tv, concerning you [Engl. 

1 CORINTHIANS V. 2, 3. 231 

Vers, among]) in yoiir name [case], — rropvila, xal roiahrn vopvila, 
fornication and such fornication) An important repetition ; by 
which the Corinthians might be more affected. — ovde, not even) 
It was a crime not named even among the Gentiles, with the 
exception of a few monsters ; uare is the Protherapeia^ of the fol- 
lowing clause. The apostle shows, that such infamous conduct 
was held in abhorrence even by the Gentiles. — yvmTxcx,, wife) She 
was no doubt a heathen ; therefore he does not direct his rebuke 
against her, ver. 12, 13. The father, we may suppose, was dead. 
— 'ix^iv, should have) by a single act, or by habitual intercourse, 
ver. 2, 3. 

2. Ka,l uf/^iTg, and ye) He presses their sin home to them. — 
mipugicti/j.hoi, puffed up) [as if you were free from blame in the 
matter. — Y.g-] — The force of the word is evident from its anti- 
thesis, to mourn.^lers, ye are) hitherto. — Iviv^fjaan, you have 
mourned) Paul himself wrote these words mourning, nay weep- 
ing ; 2 Cor. ii. 4 ; we should mourn over the transgressions of 
others ; 2 Cor. xii. 21, and repent of our own ; and we should do 
both as regards the first and original sin. — ha,, thai) you have 
felt no grief, which might stir you up, that, etc. — &p6ri, he might 
be taken away) Paul has already in his mind what he is about to 
write at ver. 13. — a'/puv is a milder word here, than l^aipuv after- 

3. 'Eyii f/,h yA,p, I indeed for my part) An antithesis between 
the lighter punishment, which would have been inflicted by tlie 
Corinthians, and the severer one, which is threatened by Paul : 
thence also we have in ver. 2, «;^ffaj, he that Iiath done, a gentler 
expression; but in ver. 3 xocTspyaed/j^voti, he that hath perpetrated, 
a much more severe expression. Afterwards the Corinthians 
did what they ought, 2 Cor. ii. 6. Therefore the severer punish- 
ment pronounced on the sinner (here in ver. 5) admitted of 
being superseded. Thence arose the joy of Paul, 2 Cor. i. 24, 
ii. 1, etc. — T(fi TTVED^ar;, in spirit) Col. ii. 5, 2 Kings v. 26. — 
riSri xexpma, I have already Judged) A weighty effect is produced 
by the sense of the sentence continuing to be gravely suspended 
and poised [as it were a lance], till we come to ver. 5, where 

' See App. Anticipatory mitigation of what follows. 
' To £ jyoK, the daring deed) It was a wicked action, without marriage 

262 1 CORINTHIANS V. 4-7. 

the expression, he who hath perpetrated \\ is again 
taken up in the expression, such a one [rJv ro/oDrov]. — iig -irapiiv, 
as though I were present) It is construed with, to deliver, ver. 5. — 
rhv ovToi rovTo) A triple demonstrative. — oil™, so) very shamefully, 
so, while he was called a brother. 

4. 'Ell rffl ov6/ji,aTi, in the name) It is construed with, to deliver. — 
rov J/toD miij/iarog, and my spirit) ver. 3. — eiv rri dvvdfj,si, with the 
power) The spirit and power are almost synonymous. Paul, 
speaking of himself, uses the word, spirit; of Christ, power, 
2 Cor. xiii. 3 ; Matt, xxviii. 20, xviii. 20. A Hypotyposis,^ 
i.e. so that the power of the Lord may immediately exert itself. 

5. TlapaSaumi, to deliver) This was the prerogative of the 
apostle, not of the Corinthians ; comp. 2 Cor. xiii. 10, note, 
and 1 Tim. i. 20, note. This is a specimen of the highest 
degree of punishment in the Christian republic, adapted to those 
early times. — 'iXeSpov, destruction) death although not sudden. 
The Hebrew word ma corresponds to it : comp. ch. xi, 30. — 
Tris gapxhs, of the flesh) with which he had sinned. [1 Pet. iv. 6 ; 
comp. as to the Spirit, Rom. viii. 10. — V. g.] 

6. Ou xctXov, not good) The not, is directed against the careless 
indifference of the Corinthians. — ri ;cai;^>i^a, glorying) This 
m itself is something good and becoming, xv. 31 ;, but wherever 
it is not anxiously watched, it is at fault, and comes very near 
to a puffing up of the spirit, ver. 2. — fi^mpa — ^u/io?) an Iambic 
verse of six feet [Senarius], Gal. v. 9. — ^u^jj, leaven) even one 
sin and one sinner. — ipupix//.a, lump) the assembly of Christians. — 
^v/j,o?; leavens) with guilt and its example creeping on to a very 
wide extent. [A las ! for how long a period of time, and in how 
great a degree, must the Christian world, if we except those por- 
tions of it which are renewed, he a lump, or collection of filth most 
thoroughly leavened! — V. g.] 

7. Tfiv 'gakaiciv, the old) leaven of heathenism and natural 
corruption. — ha rjre viov <p{ipa/jia, that you m/xy be a new lump) 
the whole of you, evil being taken away. — xaSia, even as) 
The third clause of this verse depends rather on the first, 
than on the second. — a^ii/io(, unleavened) individuals among 

^ A vivid presenting of a thing in words, as if before one's very eyes. Sec 

1 CORINTHIANS V. 8-10. 233 

you, in consequence of conversion, vi. 11. — to ■jras-xa, the pass- 
over) The epistle was written about the time of the passover, 
xvi. 8. — iifj'uv, [our or] of us) Christians. The Jewish passover 
was a type of the Christian and new passover. — Iru^jj) was sacri 
ficed. ' Paul speaks in the past time ; he was much more likely 
to speak in the present, as his scope so required, if he had 
acknowledged the sacrifice of the Mass. Hesychius : Iri^jj, 

8."Eofra^w/i£v, let US keep the feast) The Yulgate has epulemur, 
" let us feast :" an apposite expression. — vakai^, with the old) 
of Judaism and heathenism. These constitute the genus. — 
xaxlag xa! vovriplag) These constitute the species : xax.ia, is vice, 
the reverse of virtue, and that too, virtue unmixed, or in sin- 
cerity, rri iiXixpinia. -jrovripia, is in those, who strenuously retain 
and defend xaxlav, and is opposed, rrj aXrihia, to the truth. 
Ammonius writes thus : •ffovjjf Js, o Spagnxig xaxou, he who is dis- 
posed TO DO evil ;^ comp. ver. 13. Sincerity takes care not to 
allow evil to be mixed up with good ; truth, not to allow evil 
to be mistaken for good. 

9. "Eypa-^a, I wrote) A liew part of the epistle, corresponding 
to the former part ; comp. ver. 1. — iv rjj imeroXri, in the epistle) 
written before this one. The Corinthians had not sufficiently 
understood it ; he now therefore explains it. There is no doubt, 
that Paul and Peter and the rest of the apostles wrote many 
things, which are not now extant ; comp. xvi. 3 ; 2 Cor. x. 10. — 
/iii gvmva/jiiiyvus^a.i, not to be mixed together) in the way of associa- 
tion ; ver. 11 at the end. — iropvoig, with fornicators) vopng, on 
other occasions signifies a male prostitute, but here it applies to 
every one, who commits fornication. Supply here also fi-om ver. 11, 
or covetous, etc. 

10. Ka/') and that. — oi vavrag, not altogether) What is here said 
is not a universal, but a particular negative, Rom. iii. 9, note. — 
rou xoff/iou niiTov, of this world) [tJiere is no place wherein you 
may not fall in with the covetous and extortioners, etc. — ^V. g.] 
In antithesis to a brother, ver. 11." — ap-ra.^iv, extortioners) He 

1 KaxU is the evil habit of the mind : vomplct, the outcoming of the 
same. Calvin defines x-aula, " animi pravitas," on Eph. iv. 32. ■jtovmpos is 
voLfi-xfim irouovi. See Trench, Syr. Gr. Text. — Ed. 

' Tc'KioAx.Td.ii, covetous) Those greedy of gain for themselves. — V. g. 

234 1 CORINTHIANS V. 11. 

gives them this name rather than that of thieves ; because their 
theft is not apparent. {They are included hy implication, who try 
to get the property of others, either hy violence or injustice. — 
V. g.J — He mentions three kinds of flagitious crimes, which are 
committed against the man himself, against his neighbour, and 
against God. — i-rtii cKpilXsn, for then must ye needs) Others have 
written iiipelXtTe''- [Ye ought to have gone out, etc.], for ops/Xers, 
but the present is also used, vii. 14, l-!ri! apa, ra riKva vfiuv axor- 
6a,f>Td isri. What is written withoi;it express limitation, should 
not be always taken absolutely, if there should follow from it 
any imsuitable consequence. In the present day there is room 
for this paraphrase ; " otherwise you must needs go out of a land 
inhabited by Christians." They are therefore especially to be 
avoided, who among Christians wish to be considered virtuous 
above others, and yet are fornicators, etc. — opf/Xsrs) you must 
needs. For thus all intercourse as citizens would be done away 
with : That, which is evangelical perfection to monks, is absurd 
(aronrov, out of place) and unsuitable in the eyes of Paul. — 
Kog/jbox), of the world) which abounds in profligate men. 

11. 'AdiXiphg, a brother) an ordinary appellation. — ho/ia^6/jbsvog, 
who is called) A word in the middle voice [or rather, used in a 
middle sense, neither a favourable nor unfavourable sense]. — 
mpvog, a fornicator) the crimes are here enmnerated, on account 
of which others are to be avoided ; then in vi. 9, 10, more are 
added, on account of which every man should fear for himself." — 
/j,ridi evvefShiv, not so much as to eat) not only not with such a man 
as a host, but not even with him at the house of a third per- 
son. The lowest degre^ of intercourse, which men have, when 
mixed up in company with one another, is to eat together. Even 
among the Jews, Din, excommunication took away all inter- 
course in regard to eating together. We must not eat with the 
man, who shall be unfit to eat along mth the saints in the king- 
dom of God, vi. 10. Let the Church of the present day take 
heed, in which the guests at the Lord's table are not like chil- 

^ So ACD(A)Q- Vulg. both Syr. and Memph. Versions. But B (judging 
from silence) favours Rec. Text's reading, o(p£i'X£T« — Ed. 

^ MeSvms, a drunkard) It indicates the man who drinks large quantities 
of wine, although he does not break out into unbridled revellings V. g. 

1 CORINTHIANS V. 12, 13. 235 

dren in one family, but like a number of strangers of various 
kinds in a large inn. 

12. T/ yaf fim xctl roig e^w xpiveiv ; ou^l rovg 'ieu iifiiTg xphtTt ;) 
Artemonius, p. 212, refers to the conjecture of Le Clerc, and 
after changing a few words presents it in this form : r! ydg (loi 
xat ToTg 'i^co ; xut vuv oui/ roug Ida i/j,iTg xphire. There are here 
various changes of letters, by which the word xplvsiv, the most 
necessary of them all, is cancelled. If the meaning of Paul 
had been, what have I to do with those that are without ? the 
Greek idiom would have required sfioi, not /^oi. T/ ydp /ioi xal 
Tovg i^ai xphiiv, viz. ler! ; for what have I to do to judge those that 
are without ? (Verbals [such as Bengel's " externos judicatio"'\ 
govern the case of the verb, ex. gr, : Curatio hano rem, tak- 
ing charge of this matter.) Expressions very similar occur, 
hari /loi X,m, Gen. xxvii. 46 : ou ffo/, 'O^/a, 6u/ji,iagai, 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 18 : ovx sSti y&p ^aipiiv, Keysi 'Kupiog, roTg adi^sKiv, Is. xlviii. 
22 : oVais f/^fi yivrita,! alirSi ^povorpi^tigai, Acts XX. 16 : -^rohv aoi 
TuvTo, iid'imi, Hippolytus de antichristo, chap. 32. These remarks 
apply to the whole sentence ; we shall now consider the words 
one by one. — xai) also, which intimates, that those, who are 
within, give me enough to do.-"^ — xpimv, to judge) He judges, 
who is not mixed up with them, does not keep company with them. — 
ou;^/, do not ye ?) From what is wont to occur in the Church, 
you ought to have interpreted my admonition, alluded to in 
ver. 9, You judge your fellow-citizens, not strangers ; how 
much more should I ? You judge, will thus signify righteous 
judgment. But this may also be a previous [anticipatory], and, 
that too, a seasonable sting to the Corinthians, who were judging 
[bringing before heathen courts of justice] them that were within, 
while [though] they considered the saints removed [exempt] 
from judgments concerning things pertaining to this life, vi. 
1, 2, 3. 

13. Toig Si i^a, them that are without) The Ivnowledge con- 
cerning the destruction or salvation of the Gentiles is a matter 
reserved for God alone. — xpneT, shall judge) Kom. ii. 16. Supply, 

1 This very particle xKi,also, however, is considered of less importance in the 
2d, than in the 1st Ed., and it is entirely omitted in the Germ. Vers.— E. B. 

ABCG Vulg. Memph. ;(Jf (ante-Hieron. Lat.) Versions omit x«J. D and 
later Syr. retain x«i. — Ed. 

236 1 CORINTHIANS V. 13.-VI. 1, 2. 

and this judgment we in all humility leave to ,God. Thus tte 
and, that follows, more closely coheres with this clause. — %a,l, 
and) an Epiphonema' suited to both parts of this chapter. The 
particle xa/ with the whole sentence is quoted here, from the 
LXX., Deut. xvii. 7, xix. 19, xxiv. 7, xa/, and so. But the 
phrase, as it is written, is not prefixed here, and this is the case 
either for the sake of severity [c. iv. 21], or because s^ap'errs, 
Heb. myai, is used by Moses for taking away a wicked man 
from among the people by capital punishment, by the apostle 
for taking away a wicked man from the Church by excommuni- 
cation. — Thv 'TTovtipov, the wicked person) ver. 2, 9. — u/iwv auruv, 
from a/mong yourselves) So it is found in the LXX. often. The 
antithesis in this passage is, those that are without. 


1. ToXfiL^, dare) Treason against Christians is denoted, by this 
high-sounding word. — rig, any one) even one single person. — 
KpiviiSai) in the middle voice, that is xpi//,a 'ix^iv, obtain a judg- 
ment, go to law, V. 7. — adlxoiv, before the unjust) Every unbeliever 
is unjust ; generally so, even as a citizen. — ivl tuv aylm, before 
the saints) Christians, The great privilege of believers was to 
settle even civil matters among themselves, and the magistrate 
ought not to interfere at all with private affairs, unless in the 
case of those who especially apply to him. The heathen magis- 
trates were very indulgent to the Jews ; and in this department 
no difference was hitherto made between the Jews and the 

2. Oux o'l'dan, do you not know ?) This phrase is used with 
great force six times in this single chapter. The Corinthians 
knew, and rejoiced that they knew ; but they were acting con- 
trary to their knowledge. — oi aywi, the saints) being themselves 
first judged. — rov Kosiiov, the world) all those who are not saints. 
The antithesis is to, the smallest matters ; comp. iii. 22. — xfmijei, 

* An exclamation after a weighty demonstration or narration. Append. 

1 COKINTHIANS VI. 3-5. 237 

they shall judge) The future, comp. ver. 3; Rev. xx. 4. The 
present, is judged, is interposed ; comp. John xv. 8. The saints 
took possession of the civil authority also under Constantine the 
Great, which is the prelude of things to come. [Scripture from 
time to time casts a ray of light on the most important affairs, as 
it were in passing. The proud despise such things; hut the humble 
keep them laid up in their heart, with a truly sober mind. The 
majesty of the saints is hidden, hut it will be revealed at its proper 
time. — Y. g.] — iv, in^) Comp. Acts xvii. 31. — avd^ioi sen, are ye 
unworthy) The figure Communicatio.'' 

3. 'AyysXous, angels) Those who are not holy [referring to 
saints'], and so also wicked men. The article is not added ; a 
gradation in respect of the world [i.e. an ascending chmax, 
arguing a fortiori; if angels, much more the world]. — ^iianxa., 
things belonging to life) worthless if they be compared with 

4. Toug s^ouSivri/j,svovs h rjj IxxXni^icf) those who are even least 
esteemed in the church, any persons whatever rather than the 
heathen. Every one, even the least, is capable of taking on 
him the decision of even the greatest interests in external affairs 
[and therefore is able to come to a decision, not indeed according 
to the ancient laws of the heathens, but on the true principles of 
equity. — V. g.] — Comp. i. 28, xi. 22, and therefore za^/^srs, set 
ye, is the imperative. [It was not, however, to be thought of to give 
way at all in tliat mutter to the jurisdiction of heathen judges. — 
V. g.j 

5. Tlpbg IvrpoTriv, to your shame) The puffed up spirit [ch. v. 2] 
of the Corinthians is hereby checked : Comp. xv. 34. — soph;, a 
wise man) They admired wisdom on other occasions, and wisdom 
produces the ability for judging between brethren in deciding 
causes. — ohhl elg, not even one) Even the least among believers is 
a wiser and more desirable judge than an ungodly man. — ^ufjj- 
esrai) the future; shall he able if he be applied to. — SiaxpTvai) to de- 
termine between parties. It differs from xpTvai, to judge. — aSiK<pou, 
a brother) The singular for the plural, to denote how easy a 
matter it is ; he wishes that the plaintiff and the defendant 

' In the person of ; by. — ^Ed. 

' See Append. An appeal to the reader's own candour to decide. 

238 1 CORINTHIANS VI. 6-9. 

should settle the dispute between themselves, without any inter- 
ference on the part of the judge. 

6. Ka! TovTo, and thai) So also x,ai raura, v. 8 ; Heb. xi. 12. 

7. "OXws) A particle implying a feeling; comp. eh. v. 1 
[note] : it is opposed by implication to firibikui. You ought to 
have no cases oKug, at all, against one another, but you have 
oXwc, after all, notwithstanding. — ^rTr}/i,a, [a faulty defect) even on 
the part of him, who has the juster cause, and thinks he has the 
superior cause [Matth. v. 39.] He does not say, shi, yet this 
readily is added in such cases, v. 8 ; defect \^fault'\ and praise 
are in opposition ; comp. xi. 17, note. Praise is not indeed 
expressly found in this passage. Some such antithetic word, 
however, is intended, because he does not expressly use the 
term, sin, either. The thing which is praised, is something as it 
were more blooming and uncommon than the mere action 
agreeable to the law. So in its opposite. — l/iTv, to you) There 
is a similar dative in xv. 32.^ — jjJa.'KKm, rather) all men do not 
understand this word rather. Many desire neither to injinre 
nor to be injured. They do not attempt to inflict an injury, 
which is a mere pretence to moderation in regard to justice.^- 
a&xE/ir^e) suffer wrong, in the Middle voice ; as airoeTipusk. 

8. 't^£/s, ye) Emphatic. The Antithesis is to those, from 
whom they ought rather to suffer injury. — adixiTn, ye do injury) 
by taking away. — airogripiTri, ye defraud) by refusing [to give 
back a trust] and retaining. — a,&iX<poug, brethren) This increases 
the fault. 

9. "h) Latin an [or ; the second part of a -disjunctive interro- 
gation]. — abiKoi, unrighteous)] Comp. v. 8.-^^a6iXsiav ©eoS, the 
kingdom of God) In this kingdom righteousness flourishes. — 
ou xXtjpoiio/ji^gougi, they shall not inherit) because they are not the 
sons of God.— ^;i -rrXamsk, he not deceived) by yourselves and 
others. — vopvoi — dp-xayti, fornicators — extortioners) Scandalous 
crimes common at Corinth, 2 Cor. sii. 20, 21 ; at Home, Eom. 
xiii. 13 ; in Galatia, Gal. v. 19, 20 : at Ephesus, 1 Tim. 
i. 9, 10 : and in Crete, Tit. i. 12. This remark applies to the 
act 0? fornication, etc., and much more to the habit. — ildcaXoXa,- 
rpai, idolaters) Idolatry is placed between fornication and 

' Kei'uarx, trials) Although concerning a cause not unjust. — V. g. 

1 CORINTHIANS VI. 11, 12. 239 

adultery, for, it usually had these crimes joined to it. — [laXaxol, 
effeminate) Even the hand in the deepest solitude ought to be 
chaste, a necessary warning to youth. 

11. Taura, sucK) The Nominative neuter for the piasculine ; 
or the accusative with -/.ara understood, as lea, Phil. ii. 6 : Even 
the accusative as an adverb may be construed with the substan- 
tive verb to oe. — aXkcc a-ffsXeligaSh, dXXti riyiddSriTe, aXX' sSixaiui- 
Sriri, hut ye have been washed, hut ye have heen sanctified, hut ye 
have been justified) you have been set entirely free from fornica- 
tion and sins of impurity, in regard to yourselves ; from idolatry 
and impiety against God; from unrighteousness against your 
neighbour, and that too, in relation both to the guilt and do- 
minion of sin : chap. v. 7, 10. — rjyida^rire, you have heen sanctified) 
a man is called holy in respect to God. — e8ixai(i!i6r,Ti, ye have 
heen justified) corresponds to, ■ihe unrighteous, ver. 9. I was 
formerly unwilling to commit to paper, what emphasis the apos- 
trophe in aXX' adds to this verb more than to the two preceding 
(comp. 2 Cor. vii. 11), lest some one should hiss me. Consider 
however the antithesis, the unrighteous. Without an apostrophe, 
aXX& is emphatic, but when aXX' has the apostrophe, the accent 
and emphasis fall upon theverb, (which stands in opposition to that 
fault, which is reproved at ver. 7, etc,,) namely, on the word 
edixaiui^rire, ye are justified, because the discourse here is directed 
against [injustice] unrighteousness ; and so in 2 Cor. vii. 11. 
[aXX' is apostrophised before] kxSixvign, revenge, for this is a prin- 
cipal part of the zeal, previously spoken of, arising from holy 
sorrow ; add Mark ii. 17. — iv rSi Mf/^an, in the name) From this 
name we have the forgiveness of sins. — Jv rSj n.nv/^a.n, hy the 
Spirit) From this Spirit, the new life. — ri/iZv, of our) For these 
reasons, he shows them, that there is now no longer any hinder- 
ance to their becoming heirs of the kingdom of God. 

12. Uavra, all things) The apostle takes care that no one 
should abuse those remarks of his, which he was soon about to 
make concerning meats and the belly ; comp. x. 23. The ex- 
pression, all things, is to be referred to what follows ; not to for- 
nication, although this is the principal subject of his argument ; 
but to a subject accessory and incidental, in regard to the eating 
of meats, on which he treats also below, x. 29. On that same 
point it is repeated, that all things are lawful to me, which can 

210 1 CORINTHIANS VI. 13. 

be lawful at all. — /mi, to me) Paul often speaks in the first per- 
son singular, which has the force of a gnome [or moral maxim], 
especially in this epistle, ver. 15, vii. 7, viii. 13, x. 23, 29, 30, 
xiv. 11. To me, i.e., the Corinthians ought to think as I do. — 
evfupipii, are expedient) We must above all consider, what may 
be expedient. — 'i^ignv — l^oveiaaSrigofiai) Conjugate words. He, 
who does not freely use his legitimate power and liberty, steps 
aside from his own power, and passes into the power of another, 
for example, into that of a harlot, ver. 15 ; comp. vii. 4. He 
would be a stupid traveller, who, though his road lay in the 
middle of the plain, would always walk on the bank of the river 
and at the very edge of the stream. And yet many so live, who 
pass even for godly men. The Power ought to be in the hands 
of the believer, not in the things, which he uses. [Liberty 
good in itself is destroyed hy its abuse, Gal. v. 13; 1 Pet. ii. 
16i — V. g.] The very expression I will not \olx. lyd, not 7] 
has power, with application to the individual himself. Not I! 
another may venture it, so far as I am concerned. The believer 
estabhshes this principle in respect of himself : he says in respect 
of his neighbour, all things do not edify, x. 23. — nvoc) any thing 
Neuter, the same as 'xdvra. 

13. Td jSpti/jLara, meats) viz. eeri. The conclusion drawn from 
the lawfulness of meats to that of lust has no weight. — xal raiirn' 
xai toZto,, both it and them) Demonstrative, twice used concern- 
ing the present time ; the it precedes, inasmuch as food is for 
[on account of] the belly. — xarafyrieu) shall destroy ; and that 
too, not merely in the same way as the body is destroyed at death ;^ 
from the antithesis of the belly and the body, it may be inferred, 
that there will be a difference of sexes even in the state similar 
to that of the angels.^ Those things which shall be destroyed, 
considered in themselves, have their use unrestricted [free]. Col. 
ii. 20, etc., Mark vii. 18, [whatsoever thing from without en- 
tereth a man] cannot [defile him]. Now [pi, whereas] is here and 
in the following verse elegantly put instead of /or ; for a severer 
denimciation [" God shall destroy both it," etc.] is subjoined to the 
concession ["meats for the belly," etc.]; a joyfiil declaration [God 

^ The destruction of meats and the belly will be a permanent destruction. 

' For though the belli/ is to be for ever destroyed, not so the body. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS VI. 14, 15. 241 

will raise up us also, etc.J, to the prohibition [the body is not for 
fornication]. He will raise up, directly corresponds fi-om the 
antithetic side to, He will destroy. — rh & eoifj^a,, now [but] the 
body) The body here is not opposed to the belly [alvo], but to 
meats.^ — mpvelcf, for fornication) an abstract noun. — rw Kvflw, 
for the Lord) Christ. The body is His due, for He Himself 
assumed the body, and hath thereby sanctified us ; and we are 

joined to Him by the resurrection of the body tSi ewi/.ari, for 

the body) How great honour ! 

14. "Hyiips — i^eyipeT, hath raised — and will raise) [Paid intro- 
duces here in the way of prelude those topics, which he was to 
discuss more fally and distinctly in ch. xv. — ^V. g.J The simple 
verb is appropriately applied to [Christ] the first fruits, the com- 
pound, of rare occurrence, to the general mass of them that sleep. 
Ef in composition often signifies consummation. The practical 
application from the resurrection of our flesh is, sin once com- 
mitted in the flesh will never be undone. — dia, by) Paul would 
rather connect this with the mentioning of the resurrection, than 
with that of destruction. — duvd/^eue, power) who then can doubt ? 
God is omnipotent. 

15. 'S.diiMaTo,, bodies) whether regard is had to the whole or the 
parts. — apag olt to, iiAXfi roD Xf/ffroD voiftiSia mpnig fLeXr; ;) Some 
copies have &pa for cipa;;' Paul often says apa oh, but in such 
places where the conclusion is subjoined, after a somewhat long 
discourse, apag is more suitable to this place, and they have it, 
whose testimony is of highest value, among whom is Irensus : 
and there is the utmost bapyna, graphic power, in this participle, 
depicting as it were the baseness of the thing : taking away, 
spontaneously alienating the members of Christ, shall I make 
them the members of a harlot ? So the participle fiipuv is ofl;en 
redundant, of which I have spoken, on Chrysost. de Sacerdot. 
p. 394, at the passage, ^'spm iavrh xaTixprif/.vicie, he took and threw 
himself down. — m^eoi, shall I make ?) For they cannot be at the 
same time the members of a harlot and of Christ. 

' The Germ. Vers., however, thinks that the body is opposed to the belly 
[ ventri], and it has on the margin these words : The body is much more 
noble than the belly. — E. B. 

2 So ABOD (A), Orig. 1, 620c : ' tollens' in/. Vulg. Iren. Lucif. : ' aufe- 
rens' in Cypr. : " an tollens " in g. 'H ««« is read by G. — Ed. 

VOL 111. Q 

242 1 CORINTHIANS VI. 16-18. 

16. 'O MXXuft,ivog rji mpvri, he who is joined to a harlot) A 
syllepsis,^ i.e. [by this figure, there being mentally understood] 
the harlot and he who is joined to her ; for so the predicate, is one 
hody, appropriately is in accordance [with such a double subject]; 
and the expression, these two {oi Suo], agrees with this view. — 
'ieovTai, they shall he) This is said in the first instance of husbands 
and wives ; and, by parity of reasoning, is applied to those, who 
become one flesh without a conjugal covenant. By covenant 
the woman becomes the wife of the husband before the husband is 
joined (carnally) to her ; and the reason, why their union is in- 
dissoluble, chiefly rests on this circumstance ; otherwise even the 
union of men with harlots would also be indissoluble. 

17. TtS Kupiui, to the Lord) Christ. It is the same syllepsis 
[the Lord and he who is joined to Him are, etc.] — h -Triiiu/ia, 
one spirit) so closely, as husband and wife are one body. Make 
this your experience. 

18. ^BvyeTi Triv -TTopnioov, flee fornication) Severity with disgust; 
/lee, for danger is near. — vav &//,dpTrj,aa, every sin) even gluttony 
and drunkenness ; comp. v. 13 ; even self-murder [even idolatry, 
however much more grievous the sin may otherwise be. — V. g.J It 
is a more serious matter to abuse the members of Christ, than 
food or wine, and the belly : and the body of a fornicator is 
more debased by the agency of a flagitious deed, than the car- 
case even of the man who has perished by his own hand. The 
comparison at Prov. vi. 30, etc., is not unlike this. — sxt>,(, 
without) a man indeed sins with the body and by the body, but 
not lig against the body ; the sin is not terminated in his body ; 
and he certainly injm'es, but does not alienate the body, he 
rather sins against the xoiXlav, belly, than against the body, as 
the apostle makes the distinction. Such moral sentiments are 
not to be harshly pushed to extremes, nor in their utmost axpl- 
piicf, strictness. The viscera, which stand in a peculiar relation 
to the animal economy, seem likely to be destroyed permanently, 
and not to be restored at the resurrection. The Scripture refers 
much to the bones, as to the solid parts, in respect of good and 
evil, of punishment and reward ; whence it is no vam conjecture, 
that the most intense pain, and so also the most intense degree 
of joy and pleasure, will be in the bones. 

' See Appendix. 

1 CORINTHIAJSrS VI. 19, 20.-Vir. 1. 343 

19. "h) a particle denoting the second part of a disjunctive 
interrogation. The expression, his own, ver. 18, is in this ver. 
sweetly limited. Our body is so constituted, as that it may be 
the temple of God, i.e. His pecuHar and perpetual habitation. — 
rou Ev bfj^Tv, which is in you) This expression assigns the reason 
[aetiology. — See Append.]. The Holy Spirit is in you ; there- 
fore you are His temple, — oS) whom, the Spirit. — xa/ ovx kre 
iauruv, and ye are not your own) This appropriately foUows, but 
yet it is connected more closely with, ye are bought, and in its 
construction, it also depends on on, because. 

20. 'HyopagSriTi, ye are boiight) You are entirely in the power 
of another. To sell is used for to alienate ; to buy for to claim 
for one's self, and here too with propriety ; for the mention of a 
price is added. — r;/i^5, with a price) This word has thus much 
greater force, than if an epithet were added. So also vii. 
23. — do^dauTs, glorify) An Epiphonema [an exclamation sub- 
joined to a weighty argument. — Appen.] They are in error, who 
think that God should b6 only internally, or only externally 
worshipped. — h rp eu/ian v/iZvj'- in your body) Rom. xii. i. ; Phil. 
i. 20. 


1. nipi di uv lypd'^aTi, Now concerningthe things whereof ye wrote) 
He sets before us his subject at the first with elegance, rather 
generally than particularly. The apostles in their epistles often 
treat of marriage ; the apostle Paul alone, once and not of his 
own accord, but when he was asked, advises cehbacy, and that 

1 The words which follow to the end of this clause, are declared by the 
margin of both Ed. as a reading not genuine ; wherefore, also, in the German 
Vers., they are only within a parenthesis. Not. Crit. on this passage agrees 
to it : vi/,Z)ii, iTipl) a sure reading ; the question here is about the use and 
abuse of the body. — E. B. 

Eec. Text adds xul in r^ vusvfitiri v/a,ud ctrisa. wtIu roi Qiov. Both Syr, 
Vers, alone of the oldest authorities support this reading. But ABC cor- 
rected later, D corr. lat., G Vulg. /^ Iren. Cypr. Lucif. Memph. omit the 
words. — Ed. 


too very gently. {So far is this from being a subject, which ought 
to be obtruded upon mankind by human precepts. — ^V.g.j — -/.akh, 
good) This agrees with the feeling, which pervades the preceding 
chapter. Comp. below ver. 7, 8, 26, 34, in the middle of the 
verse, 35 at the end, 40. It is good, i.e. becoming, suitable, for 
the sake of liberty and exemption from what is due [by a husband 
to his wife], ver. 3, and for the sake of keeping one's ' power,' 
which he has over himself undiminished, ver. 4 ; though on the 
other hand touching, ver. 1, has always modesty as its accompani- 
ment among them that are chaste. — avSpu'Tnii, for a man) in 
general, although he be not a Christian, ver. 7, 26. — y\>mi-/.oc, a 
woman) and in like manner for the woman not to be touched. 
In what follows, the one relation involves the other. 

2. A/tz, on account of) comp. the /or, ver. 5. — rag -Ttopnlag, for- 
nications) constantly practised at Corinth \and not even considered 
to be sins by the heathens, and especially by the Greeks. — V.g.], to 
which unmarried persons might be easily allured. The plural 
denotes irregular lusts, and is on that accoilnt more opposed to 
the unity of the marriage relation [wherein there is but one con- 
sort]. — riiv kaurou, his own) the Same as "Siov, her own, which, im- 
mediately after occurs. The same variation occurs m Eph. v. 
22, 23. lavTou, his own, indicates the rights of the husband. 
Both words exclude all community, in which polygamy consists, 
comp. ver. 4. Now the reason, why a man should have a wife, 
is the same as that, for which he should retain her, namely, to 
avoid fornication. Hence also concubinage is refuted, for a con- 
cubine is either a wife or she is not ; if she is not, there is sin, if 
she is, then she ought to continue, ver. 10, 11. 

3. '0(pii'kriv, what is due [due benevolence, Engl. Vers.]) This is 
explained in the next verse. Gataker shows, that the same duty 
was called by the Greeks %ap/i', by the poets yi;XoV»jra. The read- 
ing of this passage, due benevolence, oipeiXofiivriv I'Jmav, is a spurious 
paraphrase.^ [ofitiXfiv is the native (genuine) and simple reading. 
— Not. crit.j 

4. 'iSiou, of her own) This word with the phrase, she has not 
power, makes an elegant paradox. The rights of both are equal. 

' 'OipsiMn is the reading of ABCDGr Vulg. fp Memph. Orig. Cypr. 
' O!psi>,ofihrip eiiioi'xii of Rec. Text is the reading of both the Syriac Versions, 
but of none other of the oldest authorities. — Ed. 

1 COKINTHIANS VII. 5-8. 215 

5. M^ airodrifirri, defraud not) So the LXX., Exod. xxi. 10, he 
shall not defraud her of her duty of marriage, njn o/jt,iXiav alrrn 
(nnJV) oux amiTspfieu. This word agrees with the word due, ver. 
3. — £/' /if! Ti av, except it he) It is very much limited. When these 
conditions occur, it is not privation, but abstinence. — ha s-^oXd- 
f^riTi, that you may be at leisure) The apostle speaks here of great 
leisure, (r%o>.)5i', and ease. Previous abstinence is subservient to 
prayer. [Those who fasted among the Greeks added here fasting. — 
Not. crit.']. Abstinence may also have other motives originating 
it [besides the object of prayer], and those of a bad kind. — xat 
TuXiv, and again) Concerning such intervals, and their measure, 
see Selden on the Hebrew wife. — Jt/ ri aurh, together) This does 
not mean the very act of connubial intercourse, but is opposed 
to the previous separation. — ■Triipdt,'!, should tempt) to fornication, 
etc., ver. 2. — i SarauSs, Satan) who amid the exercises of the sub- 
limer virtues seeks an opportunity of doing the greatest injury. 
Temptation cannot be easily presupposed without Satan. — 
dxpasiav, incontinency) ver. 9. 

6. TouTo, this) what has been mentioned aU along from ver. 
2. — xara eu'yyvu/J,'r)v ou xar smrayriv) See ver. 25, note. 

7. &iXcS) I would for my part, ver. 32. Paul had tasted the 
sweetness of celibacy, and was desirous that others should have 
the same pleasure in it. The expression, / would, may be also 
taken absolutely for it is to be wished, comp. vi. 12, note : as he 
says on other occasions, oux ?iv kXriiLa, there was no wish. — ydf) 
for, used in its strict sense. The reference is to ver. 6. — ws xal 
s/i,auTov, as even myself) unmarried. The Corinthians seem to 
have looked to the example of Paul, ver. 8. — yAfieii^a, gift) That, 
which in the natural man is a natural habit, becomes in the 
saints a gift. The gift here is the entire habit [habitual bear- 
ing] of the mind and body in the Christian, in so far, for ex- 
ample, as marriage or cehbacy is more suitable to him, along 
with the actions consonant to each state, being in accordance 
with the commandments of God. But in the case of godly men 
in an involuntary condition, the assistance of grace is more sure. 

8. Asyw Se, but I say) Comp. ver. 12, where the statement is 

^ Rec. Text inserts before rji 7rpoirev)c^ the words rjj pritiTeict xxl with both 
Syr. Versions. But ABCD(A)a fg Vulg. Orig. Cypr. omit the words. 

246 1 CORINTHIANS VII. 9-16. 

more express. — roTg ayai^oig, to the unmarried) of both sexes, 
comp. ver. 10, 11. — %^^a/j, to widows) including widowers. — 
fiiijcagiv, let them remain) at liberty. — iic x^yu, even as T) Paul 
was evidently without a wife at that time, comp. ix. 5 ; and 
although he speaks here also of widowers, yet he seems rather 
to have been a bachelor, than a widower ; comp. Acts vii. 58, 
and what foUows after 

9. KpiTigov, better) This comparative does not nullify the posi- 
tive in ver. 38. — v •jrvpoveSai, than to be inflamed) A very strong 
word. A man, who maintains continence, may have that, with 
which he has to struggle, although he may not be inflamed. 
Thomas Aquinas on this passage says, to be inflamed [to bumj, 
that is to be overcome by concupiscence ; for concupiscence is a 
certain noxious heat. He, then, who is assailed by it, becomes 
warm indeed, but he does not burn, unless, overcome by concupis- 
cence, he loses the dew of God^s grace. This burning thrusts men 
at last into hell-fire. 

10.^ HapayyiXkdi, ovu lyoi, I command, yet not I) a similar 
zeugma to, I live, yet not I, Gal. ii. 20. The force of the word, 
/ command, is affirmatively connected with the Lord. — o Kvpiog, 
the Lord) Christ, who had given instructions on this subject. 
Matt. V. 32, xix. 4, 5 ; or even spoke to Paul respecting this 
matter ; comp. ver. 12. — /x,fi yupiein^ai, not to be separated) The 
less noble party, the wife is separated ; the more noble, the hus- 
band, puts away ; then in a converse point of view the believing 
wife also is said to put away, and the unbelieving husband to be 
separated, ver. 13, 15. 

11. 'eAi-, if) This word also at the end of this verse is to be 
understood of the husband. — xal ■)(upialir\, she even be separated 
\be put away : not ' depart^ as if of herself, Engl. Vers.]) con- 
trary to the commandment. 

12. To?"; it Xoimii) but to the rest, who are living in marriage. 
— syu, I) see ver. 25, note. — x'eyu, I say) he does not use the 
expression, T command, as in ver. 10. I say, viz. this, which is 
spoken of, ver. 12, 13, 15, 16, and mostly indeed at ver. 15, 
16 ; for if ver. 12-14, be considered separately, they flow from 

1 To<f — -yeyxfinxoffi, to the married) when both hushand and wife are 
among the number of believers. The antithesis is toi; Mi'ttoI;, ver. 12 ; when 
one or other of the parties is an unbeliever. — V.g. 

1 CORINTHIANS VII. 13-15. 247 

ver. 10. — ffwivSoxu, slie be pleased) There might be many, who 
either doubted or were not averse from the faith. — Mjj ap/lrw, 
let him not put away) This rule was stricter in the Old Testa- 
ment. That the difference between the Old and New Testa- 
ment is here regarded, we gather from ver. 18, 15, note. 

13. Tmn, the woman) a sister. 

14. ' 'H.yiaeral) has been sanctified, so that the beHeving party 
may hold intercourse with the other in the exercise of hohness, 
and ought not ,to put him or her away : comp. 1 Tim. iv. 5. 
A very significant word is here used, because Scripture wishes 
to guarantee to us conscience being left everywhere unen- 
cumbered. — Jv rr} yuvuixl) [by the wife\ in respect to the wife, with 
whom he willingly remains ; so h, xiv, 11. — 'jridr^, the believing, 
is not added to yuvaixl, in accommodation to human modes of 
thought [xar avSpa-Trov] : for an unbelieving husband does not 
know what faith is. — Iot/ cipa, otherwise) For [otherwise] the 
children would follow the condition of the unbelieving parent. 
The marriage is Christian, and so also are the offspring. — rixm, 
children) who are born of a believing and an unbelieving parent. 
— axaSapToi, unclean) as those who are born of parents, who are 
both unbelievers, although they be not bastards. — dyid isnv, 
they are holy) nyiagrai differs from this expression as, to become 
holy, from to be holy ; but the holiness itself of the children and 
of the unbelieving parent is the same. He is speaking of a purity, 
which not only makes the children legitimate, not bastards, 
such as those also have, who are bom from the marriage of two 
unbelievers ; but which also imports a degree of nearer relation- 
ship with the Church, and a more open door to faith itself, just 
as if both parents were Christians. Comp. Kom. xi. 16. ' Timothy 
is an example. Acts xvi. 1, who was the bearer of this epistle, 
and there might have been many such among the children at 
Corinth. [A husband is in other respects preferred ; but the faith 
of the wife has more influence than the unbelief of the husband. — 

15. '6) n ^ amgroi. — ■^(japi'i^ie^ai, let — be separated) Let him be 
divorced. A brother or a sister should be patient, and not 
think that fhat ought to be changed, which he or she cannot 
change. \The believing party is not bound to renounce the faith 
for the sake of the unbelieving party. — V. g.J — ou SidouXara,!, is 

248 1 CORINTHIANS VII. 16-19. 

not under bondage) There was more decided liberty in the latter 
case on this account, that the believing party was not likely to 
obtain much assistance from the unbeKeving magistrate; although, 
even in the present day, the same principle holds good for 
liberty and peace; but with that exception [proviso], let her 
remain unmarried, ver. 11. — tv & ilp^vfj, but in peace) An axio- 
matic truth ; one that proceeds from things internal to things 
external. There had been formerly enmity, Eph. ii. 15. 

16. T/ yAp, for wliai) Therefore thou oughtest not to distress 
thyself top anxiously ; but to preserve the tranquillity of thy 
mind, exertions must be made according to the measure of 
hope. — avbpa — ymahia, husband, wife) averse from thee, and 
therefore from the faith. — eaaiig, thou shalt save) The one con- 
sort ought to lead, as far as possible, the other consort to sal- 

17. E/'/iJ7, if not) that is, if this be not so, or, otherwise [butj. 
There is a digression from husbands and wives, ver. 10, to any 
external condition of life. — ixdsrtf), to each) It may be thus re- 
solved, let every man walk, as God hath distributed to him. — 
e,u,epi(Si\i, hath distributed) ver. 7. — ug xexXrixsii, as He hath called) 
The state in which the heavenly calling has found every one. — 

Kvpiog, the Lord) Christ. — ■xipiiraniru, let him walk) This con- 
clusion in which permission and command are blended together, 
is repeated and explained at ver. 20 and 24. Calling from 
above does not destroy our external conditions. Paul shows 
that what any one has done or would have done wthout it, is 
lawful to be done in it. — xal oZroig, and thus) a universal doctrine, 
in which the Corinthians also may acquiesce. 

18. Mij I'Trie'rasdoi, let him not draw) [become uncircumcised]. 
Many, who had apostatized from the Jews to the Gentiles, 
recovered their uncircumcision to some extent by surgical skill, 

1 Mace. i. 15. See Reineccius on this passage. It may be 
gathered from the admonition of Paul, that they were imitated 
by some, who from Jews had become Christians. 

19. Oiiiv IsTi, is nothing) Comp. viii. 8. So also by parity 
of reasoning, slavery and liberty; marriage and celibacy, are 
nothing. — rfipn<sii, keeping) An axiom worthy of particular notice. 
— hroXSiv, of the commandments) Circumcision had been also 
commanded ; but not for ever, as was the case with love. 

1 CORINTHIANS VII. 20-23. 249 

20. 'Ev rri xXriiii, in the calling) The state in which the 
[heavenlyj calling stumbles upon [finds] any one, is equivalent 
to a calling. 

21. Mri got fiiXiTto, care not for it) Do not anxiously seek to 
be set free ; so, do not seek [a wife], ver. 27. — i^aXkov yfneai, use 
it rather) use the power of obtaining liberty, or rather use [con- 
tinue in] slavery ; for he, who might become free, has a kind 
master, whom it is better to serve, than to foUow any other course 
of life, 1 Tim. vi. 2 ; comp. the beginning of the next verse : 
therefore in ver. 23, he does not say, be not, but do not become 
the servants of men. 

22. ' AmXiiihpo;, freedman) 'EXtvhpog, one free, and who also 
was never a slave ; amXiOhpog, a freedman, who had been a 
slave. — KupUv, of the Lord) Christ, which presently after oc- 
curs. — sXeiihpog xXrihli, he that being free is called) At the 
beginning of the verse the word called is put before a servant ; 
here free is placed before the word called, for the sake of em- 
phasis, that he may be also included, who, in consequence of 
his calling, obtains the power of acquiring freedom. Comp. on 
the arrangement of the words. Gal. iv. 25, note. 

23. 'UyopdaitiTi, you have been bought) by God [as the servants 
of Christ. — ^V. g.] — /i)) ytvigk, [not as Engl. Vers. " be not ye"] 
do not become) The internal and external state should, so far as 
it is attainable, agree together, and the latter should be sub- 
servient to the former. To become here, is properly appHed to 
those, who are not slaves. \Let not him, who is free, cast away 
his liberty. Not. crit.] 

24. liapii QsSi, with God) An antithesis to men, Eom. xiv. 
22. Those who are always looking to God maintain a holy 
indifference about external things. By this principle [viz., re- 
gard to God], however, the rule laid down at ver. 20, is limited. 
For example, a man, from being a slave, may become free [and 
thus not abide in the same calling] without any change of his 
condition before God. 

25. UapSimv, virgins) of both sexes: See the following verses. 
So the word, virgin, Kev. xiv. 4. — oix 'i^xjn, I have not) He does 
not say, we have not. The Corinthians expected a special com- 
mandment by revelation, which Paul was to receive. — yvu)/ir,v Se) 
A word used with deliberate choice here and at ver. 40, as pre- 


sently vo^;^«. Aristotle, carefully pointing out the propriety of 
Greek words, especially in his Ethics, makes the following ob- 
servations.: ri xaXov/iivri yi/w^jj i) rou immcoijs lerl Kpiiis opiij, "that 
which is termed yva/irj, opinion, is the right judgment of the 
equitable man :" and again, ?i 8e guy"yvu/j,ri, yvw/iij krl xpirmrj nu 
imiixoug opdri. opSri di rj tou aXriSodg, " and indulgence [concession] 
is the upright judicious opinion of what is equitable ; and the in- 
dulgence of the truthful man is right," Lib. 6, Eth. Nic. c. 11.^ 
There the discussion is more extended, and when we read it all, 
we shall more clearly understand, what ym/iri and guyyvu/ji^ri are. 
''E-TTiTcty^ implies command : yvc!)/j,ri relates to opinion, and has 
guyyva/iri [a common sentiment, fellow-feeling, and so indulgeneel 
closely connected with it, which is a yv<ifjt,r}, accommodated to 
the state or mind of another, as in regard to a thing done, so 
also in case of a thing to be done. See ver. 6, and 2 Cor. viii. 10, 
8, where both of these words, are opposed to rjj imray?}. Each 
has regard to rJ gufi^ipov, the profit of him, whose advantage is 
consulted ; in the same verse 10, and here 1 Cor. vii. 35. Such 
is the nature of those things which are treated of in this chapter, 
that they partly fall under liriraynv, and partly under ym[/,riv and 
tuyymfjjrjv. But it was becoming, that hmrayn should be through- 
out written in the name of the Lord, yvw/ijj and tfuyyvw^?), in the 
name of the apostle. Therefore on that point, which falls 
under smray^v, the Lord had expressly suggested to the apostle 
what he should write, but on this point, which falls under yvcij/iriv, 
it was not necessary to make any suggestion ; for, the apostles 
wrote nothing, which was not inspired, ^eowiugnv ; but they 
sometimes had a special revelation and command, xiv. 37 ; 
1 Thess. iv. 15 : they derived the rest from the habitual faith, 
which had taken its rise within them from their experience of 
the Lord's mercy ; as in this verse ; and also from the treasury 
of the Spirit of God [which they possessed], ver. 40 : and con- 
sequently in cases like this, they might very freely apply 
various methods according to the variety of circumstances and 
persons, as their holy feelings [affections of mind] allowed, 

^ Taylor's translation of this passage is as follows : " What is called upright 
decision is the right judgment of the equitable man ; but pardon is an upright 
judiciary decision of the equitable man, and the decision is right which is 
made by a man observant of truth." 

1 CORINTHIANS VII. 26-28. 251 

and they might give up their own right, humble or reprove 
themselves, prefer others to themselves, beg, entreat, exhort 
(2 Cor. vi. 1, vii. 8, xi. 17, note), at one time treat with greater 
severity, at another with greater mildness ; and hence Paul, for 
example, uses the softer word Ko/i/^w, and not x'lyu, ver. 26, 12. 
He therefore here also, though without smraynv, wrote those 
things, which nevertheless exactly agreed with the mind of the 
Lord, who willed it, that this ym//-ri, opinion, alone should be 
given. But at the same time, the apostle faithfiilly informs us, 
according to what principle every thing was written (a modesty 
from which how far I would ask, has the style of the Pope 
departed ?) and furnishes a proof, that those, who have already 
sufficient assistance [safeguard] from the word and Spirit of 
God, should not demand anything extraordinary. — dig p.iri/ihog, 
as having obtained mercy) The mercy of the Lord makes men 
faithful; faith makes a man a true casuist. — wJ Kvplouf from the 
Lord) Christ. — vigrlg, faithful) having faith in the Lord ; evinc- 
ing that faith both to Him and to men. 

26. Am rfiv htdrSieav avdy/irjv, for the present distress) The 
famine in the time of Claudius, Acts xi. 28. It was very long 
and severe, especially, in Greece. Therefore this counsel of 
Paul was, partly at least, suited to the time. — av^puiri^, for 
a man) This term is intended to apply to both sexes. — 
oiiTcag, so) as he is [in the same state in which he is] : comp. 
ver. 27. 

27. AeSstfa; — XiXueai, thou art hound — thou art loosed) There 
is an argument in the very words. When hound to a wife, a 
man is often prevented, with or without any blame to him, from 
being able so munificently to practise hberality and the other 
virtues, as he might wish. In the verb XiXvgai, thou art loosed, 
the participle is latently contained [thou art one untied^, and it 
has the force of a noun, so that loosed denotes not only him, 
who is no longer bound to a wife, but also him, who never was 
so bound. We find a similar phrase in Job xxxix. 5. — /ajj, not) 
twice, i.e. thou art not forced to seek. 

28. Tri eapul, in the flesh) Not in the spirit, to which the 
trouble is sin — but in this present case here there is no sin^ — 
lyii be, but I) He writes to them with the affection of a father, 
■ror. 32. — (pubou^ai, I spare) It is more difficult and rec^uires 

262 1 CORINTHIANS VII. 29, 30. 

■ greater firmness to regulate well the state of marriage, than of 

29. TouTo d's (pri/ii, but this I say) The same form of expression 
occurs xv. 50, for the purpose of explanation, in summing up 
the whole. — adiXpo!, brethren) Paul is wont, especially when 
writing about external circumstances, to introduce the most 
noble digressions, as the Holy Spirit is always calling him to the 
things that are most excellent. — o xonphg) the present time, either 
of the world ver. 31, ch. x. 11, or of individuals, the time of weep- 
ing, rejoicing, etc. — exinsTak/j/imi) narrow, short, the contrary of 
unencumbered liberty, ver. 26. — rh Xomhv, [but^ as to what 
remains) The particle here is very suitable. [lie hints, that the 
consummation of the world is not far off. — V. g.] — ha, that) 
Time in short, is of such a nature, that they ought, etc. [Some 
spend much of their time in seeking the superfluous conveniences 
of life, in wandering thoughts, in a too pertinacious pursuit of 
literature, in the length and frequency/ of their feasts and amuse- 
ments : and it is a virtue in the opinion of worldly men, when any 
one knows how to spend with his boon companions in a manner not 
without its charm, half or even whole days and nights in empty 
conversation and pursuits. But if it should become necessary either 
to engage in prayer, or to watch over the education of his children, 
or to exemplify the duty of love to his neighbour, then truly the 
want of time is made an obstacle ; nay, he has not even leisure to 
consider, how much guilt is contracted by such conduct. — "V. g.] — 
yvrnTxag, wives) and so, children, friends, patrons. We ought to 
consider nothing our own. — /iri, not) Thus Christian self-denial 
is appropriately expressed. They, who have [earthly goods], as 
persons who have and are likely long to have, are void of Chris- 
tian self-denial.] — w<r/, may be) This word is supplied also in the 
following verses. , 

30. O/ yaipowig, they who rejoice) he does not say, they who 
laugh. [Rom. xii. 15. The train of thought is here (in the 
words, " they that rejoice") of nuptial feasts ; as in the pre- 
ceding words (they that weep) of the death of a wife, etc. — V. g.] 
He speaks soberly as is suitable in the vale of tears. — iig firt 
xar'ey^avTtg, as though they possessed not) To possess, after, to buy, 
makes an epitasis [an emphatic addition to the previous words. 
Append.] : as after use, abuse comes, in the next verse, from 

1 CORINTHIANS VII. 31-34. 253 

which it is evident, that the figure Ploce [the same word twice, 
once simply, next expressing an attribute. Append.] occurs in 
the three preceding clauses ; for as the' Apostle Paul exhorts 
the teacher to teach, and every one employed in doing good to 
be active in doing it, Rom. xii. 7 ; so they, that rejoice, rejoice in 
the world, which same is the very thing that he forbids. 

31. O'l ■)(ji<Jiiiim, they that use) Paul seems to have used this 
expression for, and they that sell, because according to the gene- 
ral practice of the world, selling in itself is most suitable to 
travellers. We must use, not enjoy. — iig /ifi xara^pu/iivoi) as 
not abusing. The compound verb both in Greek and Latin 
denotes not only the perversion of the use, but also [* abundan- 
tiam,' the abundant use'] an \over-much using. — -Kafayti, passeth 
away, every moment, not merely sliall pass away. — rJ e-x/i/j^a tou 
x6g/iou rouTov, the fashion of this world) the world itself and the 
fashion of it, which is to marry, to weep, to rejoice, to buy, etc., 
Heb. D?2f, Ps. xxxix. 7, Ixxiii. 20. While a man, for example, 
is advancing from the twentieth to the fortieth year of his age, 
he has almost lost all his former relations and acquires new con- 

32. ' A//,ipl/juvov;, without carefulness) not only without affliction, 
ver. 28, but also without any care distracting the mind. — 
aya/iog, he that is unmarried) namely if he wishes to use wisely 
the condition in which he is placed. — roij xuplov, of the Lord) 
Christ, ap'sdii, may please) by holiness of body and spirit. 

33. TlZg apegii) how he may please. The word please is repeated 
from the preceding verse, and comprehends here all the duties 
of a husband, which the wife may demand in everthing relating 
to the married state. 

34. Me/if pmrai xai ij yuvri xai jj ■jrapi'svog) That is, there is a differ- 
ence also between a wife and a virgin. Not only the unmarried 
and the married man have duties differing from each other ; but 
also the duties of the wife, and virgin (of the female sex) differ 
as far as possible from each other. Some connect the word 
{j,i/i£pigrai, having the particle xal also before it,^ by a different 
pointing, with the foregoing words, but Paul refers it to those 

1 Lachm. reads xal fisftipiirrxi xal with AB Vulg., and punctuates thus, ^ 
•yvi/ccixi, xxi fiefiipinTM. xai «j yvv^, etc., G fff read frsfcipurrxi xai. 
Tischend. reads as Lachm., but puts the full stop at yuvetixi. — Ed. 

254 1 CORINTHIANS VII. 35-37. 

which follow. The difference, namely between marriage and 
celibacy, each of which claims for itself a different class of 
duties, rather refers to women than to men ; for the woman is 
the helper of the man ; — the woman undergoes a greater change 
of her condition, than the man, in contracting marriage ; comp. 
ver. 39, 40. Further, he is speaking here chiefly of virgins, ver. 
25 : therefore the word /iE/if^/crra/ is particularly well adapted 
to this place ; and the singular number does not prevent it from 
being construed with wife and virgin. So 2 Kings x. 5, in the 
Hebrew, He that was over the house, and he that was over the 
city, the elders also and the bringers up of the children sent" 
[singular verb] (Heb. rhfif), so below, ix. 6, ri M0N02 l/w xa,> 
Sapvd^as, x.t.X., " or I ONLY [instead of fiovof] and Barnabas." — 
ha fj ayla, that she may he holy) She thus pleases the Lord, if 
she be holy, being wholly devoted to him. Holiness herd im- 
plies something more than at ver. 14. 

35. Auruv, your own. — Qf!>yj>i, a snare) A snare, the fear of 
committing sin, where there is no sin, or even forced service. 
Men are unwillingly drawn into a snare, Prov. vii. 21, LXX. 
That is readily considered as a snare, which is most conducive 
to profit \_e\j[Lipii>ov\. — ixigyrnfiov) an antithesis to aS'^fTifi.oviiv, in the 
following verse. — suvdpedpov) akin to this is the verb vpoeedpiviiv, 
in ix. 13. An example is found in Luke x. 39. — ra Kvpiw, to 
the Lord) tvvapi&pov, as well as 'jrapiSpivu, governs the dative. — 
a,'7npie'!ra,aroic) This explains the word iWdpeipov, for assiduous 
attendance upon .the Lord, and distraction, are the reverse of 
each other. Sitting [involved in. the tWdpiipov] assists the devout 
mind. Comp. Luke x. 39, 40. Paul says something similar of 
the widow, 1 Tim. v. 5. 

36. T;j, any man) a parent. — aay^riiionTv) viz. iaurh. — rrtv 
TapS'ivov avrou) a virgin, his daughter. — vo/j,il^£i, thinks) Antithesis 
to, I think (suppose), ver. 26. — Eau ^ InripuKiLoi) if she pass, dxfiriv, 
the flower, of her age without marriage, as it were despised by 
suitors. — hcptiXii, it so ought to he [need so require, Engl. V.l 
[because he cannot see how better to consult the advantage of his 
daughter. — V. g.], having no necessity, in the following verse is 
the antithesis. — oux a,/j,apTdvii, he sinneth not) The matter is 
sweetly expressed by short clauses. 

37. 'E(rr>iH£n, he who standeth stedfast) There is in this passage 

1 CORINTHIANS VII. 38-40. 235 

an admirable synonymy [accumulation of synonymous clauses] 
and description of liberty. — i/^n lyoiv avdyxriv, having no necessity) 
on account of wliich he should prefer celibacy to marriage, 
ver. 26, or marriage to cehbacy. — l^ouglav^ control \_power], 
without any interference. — tx^i, has) for having : for not and but 
are in mutual relation to each other. There is the same enal- 
lage in Col. i. 6, note. — '^ripl, over) For often the will is one 
thing, and the power an altogether different thing. — Idwu, his 
own) Liberty is elegantly denoted. [Those who have now a 
regard to the Divine will, are often led to think, that they have 
been appointed to obtain only by one way, the things which cor- 
respond to the Divine will. Nevertheless, God grants to man full 
liberty regarding what is agreeable to His law, Deut. xxxvi. 6.^ — 
V. g.] — x'sxpiHiv) has so judged [decreed, has come to this as his 
decided opinion]. — xaXws to/e/J doeth welt) he not only does not 
sin ; he acts very well (xaXSig). 

38. "nsTs, therefore) We must observe, with how great 
earnestness, fidelity, and fulness, Paul dwells on this passage.— 
xal) also. 

39. 'Ek Kvpl(i}, in the Lord) So that Christ is here also all 
things. Christians and unbeUeVers mixed in society and dwelt 
together. He therefore commands Christian men to marry 
Christian women. 

40. Maxapiurepa, happier) ver. 1, 28, 34, 35 ; Luke xxiii. 29. — 
Soxa, I think) The Corinthians thought more of themselves than 
was right, and less of Paul. Paul with delicate pleasantry, 
aSTiiuc, gives them back their own expression. — xayii) I also, no 
less certainly, than any of you [who may think he has the 
Spirit]. — xiveu/itt, &10V, the Spirit of God) whose counsels are 
spiritual, divine. 

* Eather Numb, xxxvi. 6. Let them marry to whom they think best, — ^Ed. 



1. Ilepl — o'lhafjitv, as touching — we know) This topic is taken 
up again at ver. 4, when the parenthesis, which follows, has 
been concluded. — or;) that. This explains the " we know." — 
ymdiy, knowledge) The article is not added, ■^) that he may not 
concede too much. — 'i-)(pfj,i)ij we Jiave) He speaks in the first 
person of himself and others, more estabhshed in the faith ; 
when speaking more generally, he uses the third, ver. 7. Thus 
we easUy reconcile the all [ver. 1] and not in all [ver. T\, — 
jj yvudic, knowledge) without love. [Although the fundamental 
doctrines and those most necessary and difficult are spoken of. 
V. g.] — (puaioT, puffeth up) when a man pleases himself; comp. 
thinks, ver. 2. — ij bi aya.'irri, but love) the right use of knowledge, 
love, towards God, ver. 3, and towards our neighbour. — oixo8o/iiT, 
edi/ieth) when a man pleases his neighbour. Knowledge only 
says, all things are lawful for me ; love adds, but all things do 
not edify. 

2. 'Eid'evai, that he knows) This has respect to the " we know," 
ver. 1; it differs irom to be acquainted with.^ — W, anything, 
Paul makes some small concession here ; comp. the following 
clause. — ouva, not yet) like a novice. — xaSiig, as [in the way 
that]) namely in the way of love, [taught] by God. 

3. Tov &ibv, God) The love of our neighbour follows the love 
of God. — ouroi, this same) who loves. — lyvugTai) is known. Active 
follows passive knowledge, xiii. 12. In this expression we have 
an admirable metalepsis' — ^he was known, and therefore he hath 

1 Therefore, also, in the Germ. Vers., the article ought to be wanting in 
this passage. — E. B. 

" The Latin synonyms are scire and cognoscere. Scire, to know, to be 
skilful in, chiefly applied to things ; cognoscere, to know, to become acquamted 
with persons or things formerly unknown ; however, iyuaxhcti is the reading 
of ABD (A) G/(cognovisse). EUhxi of Rec. Text is supported by Vulg. 
(scire) Cypr. Hil. — Ed. 

^ See Append. A twofold trope, or figurative use of the same word or 

1 CORINTHIANS Till. 4-7. 257 

known, Gal. iv. 9, note. The knowledge is mutual. — iw' auroD) 
by Him. 

4. B^wffsws) He more closely limits the subject proposed at 
ver. 1 : as concerning, therefore, the eating, etc. — oh&ii) nothing, is 
the predicate ; nothing, the force of which is augmented by the 
antithetic words, in the world, Wn, 1 Sam. xii. 21, LXX., ouSei/ ; 
comp. ch. X. 19, note. \_A piece of wood or stone and nothing 
besides. — V. g.] 

5. Asyo/j^svoi, that are called) God is said to be the supremely 
powerful One. Hence by homonymy [things or persons distinct 
in nature receiving by analogy the same name], angels who are 
powerful on account of their spiritual nature, and men who are 
powerful from being placed in authority, are called gods. — 
h ovpavSi, in heaven) — M yrjg, on earth) The provinces of the 
gods among the Gentiles were divided into heaven, and earth, 
along with the sea; but each of these belongs to God. — Sio! ■yoXXo/ 
xa,! xupioi mKkoi, gods many and lords many) Ps. cxxxvi. 2, 3. 

6. 'H/i/i') to us, believers. — i^ o5 r& itawa, of whom are all 
things) Therefore, we have one God. — to. irawa,, all things) by 
creation. — itiJ^sTi, we) behevers. — iig avrh, unto Him) He is the 
end for whom believers live. — -ao,! iTg, and one) Christ, the object 
of divine and religious worship. The apostles also, for the 
purpose of avoiding the appearance of polytheism, more fre- 
quently called Christ Lord, than God, when they wrote to the 
Gentile churches. — Kupwg, Lord) This appellation comprehends 
in itself the notion of the Son of God, and therefore also of 
God, along with the idea of Redeemer. — di o5, by whom) The 
dominion of Christ is hereby proved ; by Him all things are of 
God. — 8i avrou, by Him) We come by Him, iig, to the Father. 
The plan of this sentence is as follows : — 

Of whom are all things) , ^- ^ to Him, 

•' ^ f by creation :f , ., ,. 

>• , >■ by restitution. 

by whom are all things ) J by Him, 

7. AXX') "We have ymm, knowledge ; but others have it not in 

the same degree. ngg, some) an antithesis to all, ver. 1. Some, 

viz. the Jews, holding the idol in abomination; the Greeks 
regarding it with reverence, x. 32. — roij ubiiXou, of the idol) 


258 1 CORINTHIANS VIII. 9, 10. 

They had this feeling,' as if the idol were something ; or at 
least as if the thing offered to the idol were polluted thereby; — 
E&js apri, until this hour) when by this time they should have 
knowledge. — ws) as : on this depends the distinction. — //.oXwitm, 
is defiled) a suitable expression, by a metaphor derived from 
flesh. — ^pSifia, food) used indefinitely, ver. 13. — hf^ag, us) hav- 
ing or not having knowledge. — ou 'xapidTriei) neither as regards 
pleasing Him in the judgment, nor as regards displeasing Him, 
fphg rh hanpiTsSai [so as to be accounted the worse for it] ; <snvle- 
rri/jji, I commend ; but the word irafierrifjii occupies a middle place 
between a good and a bad sense, as is evident from the Ep. of 
Athanasius, irpog ' Afj^ouv, where he makes this periphrasis, puff;>t^ 
Tig ixxpiSig rj/i^ag oii •jrapa.BrritSu vphg TifLuipiav? So ver. 10, oixo&o/j,ri- 
S^girai is used as a word in a middle sense. This is the founda- 
tion of lawful power \liberty, ver. 9], s^ousiag ; comp. dl in the 
next verse. — ours — •7ripiaeiuo//,iv din — ugTipoLfLiSa, neither are we the 
better : nor — are we the worse) because in both cases thanksgiv- 
ing is retained, Rom. xiv. 6. 

9. 'H l^oueia, lawful power [liberty]) a word frequently 
used for power and liberty in this discussion, ix. 1, 4, etc. : 
comp. vi. 12. — u/iuv, of yours) which you so eagerly uphold, 
ver. 11. 

10. E/'^wXs/y) A word fitted to deter. It is found in 1 Mace. 
i. (47), 50, X. 83 ; 3 Esdr. ii. 10. — oixoSo/iri6ri<seTai, shall be built 
up in [emboldened to]) An antiphrasis.^ You ought to have built 
up your brother in doing good ; but you by your example impel 
him to do evil. [The force of example is great. — V. g.] — ra 
ii8ciiX66vra, Igihiv, to eat things offered to idols) By these very words 

' Ernesti says, Bibl. th. noviss. T. i., p. 511, that Bengel, along with 
Heumann, prefers the reading avunhlcf in this verse to the common reading 
avviihvi(Tii, and approves of it, but without foundation. Certainly Bengel's 
older margin has marked (rvunSei'if with y, the later with S ; and the Germ. 
Vers, has expressly printed avviiiiiati. — E. B. 

Tisch. prefers auuuHau with D (4) G Vulg. both Syr. Versions, and^. 
Lachm. reads auunhlcf with AB Memph. — Ed. 

2 Any natural Ejection in the animal functions will not bring us to punish- 

3 See Appendix : When words are used to signify the contrary of what is ex- 
pressed, as here, shall be luilt up (usually applied to what is good), meaning, 
shall be impelled to what is bad Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS VIII. 11, IS.-IX. 1. 259 

the horror of the weak man is expressed, who eats notwith 

11. 'AvoXirrai, shall perish) He will lose his faith, and, if he 
do not recover it, his salvation, Rom. xiv. 23. \_See, what im- 
portant results a single action may produce, although externally 
considered it seemed to be of little consequence. — V. g.] — bl Sv, 
for [on account of] whom) For rather than instead of suits the 
passage before us ; that we may be taught, what we ought to do 
for the sake of our brethren. — airiianv, died) prompted by the 
love, which thou so very little imitatest. 

12. TxtvTovTii, striking) [Engl. V. not so well, wounding'], as 
the weary cattle are urged on by the lash. Striking is elegantly 
used, not wounding, for a wound is seen, a stroke is not so dis- 
cernible. You strike brethren, or make them strike them- 
selves. — i'lg Xpigrhv, against Christ) to whom the brethren are 
united. The expression, against Christ, in the latter clause 
bears the chief emphasis ; when ye sin, in the former. 

13. Kpia, flesh) In order to avoid with the greater certainty 
flesh sacrificed to an idol, I would abstain from all kinds of 
flesh, — exavbak'isoi, I should make to offend) The person is 
changed : he just now said, if meat offend. 


1, Om ii/jil sXrohpos ; oiix. si/JjI avoeroKoi \) am I not free "l am 
I not an apostle ?) There is a transposition of these two clauses 
in the present received reading :^ but Paul first lays down the 
proposition, I am free; then, the reason of it [by aetiology. 
Append.], / am an apostle ; and there is a hendiadys in this 
sense, I am entitled not only to Christian, but also to apostolic 
liberty. We have a chiasmus^ in the discussion of the subject : 
for in it he first claims for himself the apostleship,\ev. 1—3, then 
he asserts his liberty, and that too as an apostle, ver, 4, 5, 19, 

1 AB Vulg.'Memph. Syr. Orig. 4,266 b, support the order as in Bengal 
D Gfg later Syr. put d'prosTd'Kos before 'ihii6ifo;, as in Rec. Reading. — Ed. 
' See Appendix. 

260 1 CORINTHIANS IX. 2-5. 

[whereas in the statement of subject, ver. 1, ' free' comes first, 
' apostW next]. That, which free is in the adjective, ver. 1, 
s^oueia, power, is in the substantive, ver. 4 ; comp. viii. 9. — 
ov^l — eupaxa, have I- — not seen ?) Observe the firmness of the 
apostle. — rh 'ipyov fiov, my work) A testimony derived from actual 
facts, which is the strongest. 

2. 'TfiTv, to you) to whom I came; who have received the 
Gospel ; you cannot deny it : IfiTv, as far as you are concerned. 
Similar datives are found at ver. 21. — ^ y&p a(pf>ixyl;, for the 
seal) From the Church of believers an argument may be de- 
rived for the truth of the Gospel, and of the Christian reli- 
gion. — affoffT-oX^ff, of apostleship) A person even, who was not an 
apostle, might bring men by means of the Gospel to the faith, 
as Philip, Epaphras, and others ; but Paul calls the Corinthians 
the seal not of catling of whatsoever kind, but i of his apostolic 
calling : because he had the signs of an apostle, 2 Cor. xii. 12 ; 
Kom. XV. 18, 19 ; nor did the Corinthians merely receive faith, 
but also a singular abundance of gifts, 1 Cor. i. 7. 

3. 'h) This is an anaphora with"^ ^ e(ppayig, ver. 2 — amXoyla, 
a defence [or answerj) The Roman Pontiff, in his desire to be 
irresponsible, avwiudwog, assumes more to himself. — roTg s/zi avax- 
plvovsiv, to those who debate my case [examine me]) who have any 
doubt of my apostleship. 

^4. Ml) oiix 'ix"/^^" ; have we not ?) He comes from the singular 
to the plural, including his colleagues [in the apostleship]. — 
(payiTv xai miTv, to eat and to drink) without labouring with his 

5. 'ASsX(pri\i yuvaTxa, a sister, a wife) Expressed in the nomi- 
native case this is the proposition implied, this sister is my wife ; 
wherefore the name, sister, does not prevent marriage. — m-epid- 
yiiv, to lead about) an abbreviated expression^ for to have and 
to lead about ; for he had no wife. Expense was laid upon the 
Churches, not from having, but from leading about a wife. — 
wj, as well as) this word also refers to ver. 4. — o'l Xoimt, the 
others) The article shows that all the others had done so. We 

* See Append. The frequent repetition of the same word in the begin- 
nings of sections. 

^ Au'th eutJ, is this) namelj, that you are the seal of my office. V,g. 

* See Appendix, " locutio concisa." 

1 CORINTHIANS IX. 6-10. 261 

may presume the same of John. — xal o'l &S$X<po! roD Kupiov, and 
the brethren of the Lord) Acts i. 14 ; Gal. i. 19. — Krifag, 
and Cephas) There is a gradation here ; comp. iii. 22, note. 

6. TcS /ifi IfjaZia^at), to forbear working with the hand. 

7. T/s, who) The minister of the Gospel is beautifiiUy com- 
pared to a soldier, a vine-dresser, a shepherd. The apostle 
speaks of that which is a common occurrence ; although, even 
then, there had been some, who were soldiers on their own 
charges — volunteers. — (punUi ; plants) iii. 6. 

8. Ka/) also. Not only do I not speak this as a man [accord- 
ing to mere human modes of thought], but with the approbation 
of the law itself. 

9. Oi pif^iieeig jSouv aXoSivra) So the LXX., Deut. xxv. 4. — 
akouwa,, threshing). Horses in the present day are employed in 
threshing com in some parts of Germany. — -fLn tuv ^ouv, does 
God care for oxen) It is not at aU denied, that God cares for 
oxen, since the man, who would have muzzled the ox, threshing 
the corn, would have committed a sin against the law. But the 
conclusion proceeds from the less to the greater. [If God cares 
for mere oxen, much more for men]. This is a specimen of the 
right mode of handling the Mosaic laws, enacted regarding 

10. lldvTiag, altogether) The word, 'saying,' is put into the 
question itself. — Sti) namely, that — 1^' iXirl6i), riDDP, which the 
LXX. always render I-tt" iXirldi : comp. Acts ii. 26. — o^elXii, ought) 
There is a change of person. The obligation [implied in oplXiiJ 
is with them that remunerate, not with them that labour ; other- 
wise the latter would commit sin by not receiving. ' So also 
regarding the precept, ver. 14 : comp. / ought, 2 Cor. xii. 11. — 
aporpiuv, that [animal] which ploweth [or he that ploweth^) This 
also is the labour of oxen. It seems to be an adage, something 
like this ; hope supports the husbandman. — rtji iX'rlSog avrou,^ oj 

^ The margin of the 2d Ed. prefers the shorter reading, It' Itit/S; toD 
/iirix^iv, of which there is not a vestige, either in the older Ed., or in the 
Gnomon, or in the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

It' i'hmli tow finkxuv is the reading of ABC both Syr. (Memph.) Theb. 
Vulg. (in spe fructus percipiendi) Orig. 1,170 ; 641 c. But D (A) corrected 
later, G^ read tHi; ITit/Soj aurov fterexii" • to which Rec. Text adds It" 
•Xt/3/.— Ed. 

262 1 CORINTHIANS IX. 11-16. 

his hope) The abstract for the concrete : of the fruits, in the hope 
of which he, who now threshes, plowed, — /itri^uv, to become 
partaker) viz. ought. To become partaker of his hope is a peri- 
phrasis for the verb to thresh. Namely, he who plows, plows in 
the hope of threshing and eating; he, who threshes, possesses 
that hope, which he had in plowing, and threshes in the hope of 

11. 'TfiTti, unto you) he does not say yours, as afterwards. — 
/j.'sya, a great thing) Comp. 2 Cor. xi. 15, 14, where it is ex- 
plained as the same as " a marvel." 

12. "AXkoi, others) true apostles, ver. 5 : or false ones, 2 Cor. 
xi. 20. — v/jjiiv) over you. — /jjaXkov, rather) on account of our 
greater labour. — rjj e^ouslcj, roLiiTri) The repetition gives force to 
the meaning ; this power [such a power as this]. — ariyoinv) eriyoi 
signifies properly to cover ; them to protect, to defend; likewise 
to conceal, to bear and endure with a desire to conceal, as here ^ 
and in xiii. 7. On the other hand, ou eriynv, not to forbear, in 
a burst of strong feeling, 1 Thess. iii. 1, 5. [The minister of the 
Gospel requires to put in practice this forbearance : For reproaches 
of this kind are cast upon him, viz. on the ground of arrogance or 
avarice, which among politicians (or men of the world) are con- 
sidered virtues. — ^V. g.] — i'va, /j,fi syxarriv Tiiia dSifisv, lest we should 
hinder), i.e. that we should as far as possible forward the Gospel. 
Those, who are least encumbered, do more work and cause less 
expense ; hence the celibacy of the priests among the Papists 
and of soldiers in the commonwealth. 

13. TA ilpA) sacred things. — sx roD ilpotj, of the temple) — hsme- 
rtjpi(fj, at the altar) If the Mass were a sacrifice, Paul would have 
undoubtedly accommodated to it the apodosis in the following 

14. 'O Kvpio;, the Lord) Christ Matt. x. 10. 

15. "Eypa-^a, I have written) lately. — fj^aWov, rather) construed 
with die. The reason of such a solemn afiirmation is explained 
at 2 Cor. xi. 7, etc. — rig, any man) who should either give me 
a livelihood by the Gospel, or should declare that I thus gained 
my living. 

16. T&p,for) He now states, in what this glorying consists.— 

' " We suffer without speaking or complaining." Ed. 

1 COKINTHIANS IX. 17-20. 263 

luayyiXl^afi-ai [if], I preach) This must be taken in the exclusive 
sense ; if I preach, and do so not gratuitously ; if I do nothing 
besides. — avdyxvi, necessity) Owing [duty] takes away glorying. — 
oua/ Se, but [yea] woe) but intensive ; not only have I nothing, 
whereof I may glory, but even woe [to me, if I do not], Jon. i. 4 ; 
Ex. iv. 14 ; Jer. xx. 9. 

17. 'Exiiv, willingly) This is here used instead of gratuitously, 
whence I have a reward makes an oxymoron ;^ moreover he 
defines the reward and gain in the following verses. Paul often, 
when speaking of his own affairs, uses increase and diminution 
[au^rigig and /is/wff/s], not unlike a catachresis, and suitable to 
express his self-abnegation. He might have willingly preached 
the Gospel, and yet have received a reward from the Corin- 
thians ; but if he should receive a reward, he considers that 
as equivalent to his preaching unwillingly ; so in the follow- 
ing verse the use of his legitimate 'power' might be without 
abuse ; but he considers in his case the former in the light of the 
latter;^ comp. Eom. xv. 15; 2 Cor. xi. 8, 9, i. 24, ii. 5, vii. 
2, 3. — oixovo/i,iav -rirngTBUfiiai, a dispensation of the Gospel is com- 
mitted to me) I cannot withdraw myself, although I should 
fail of my reward. Again, the language is exclusive, as in ver. 

18. "Ira, that) This is an answer to the question. — S^ici), future 
subjunctive.' — elg ri iMTj xaTay^pri<!a66tt,i) that I abuse not, i.e. that 
I may withdraw myself as far as possible from any abuse. 

19. "Ex 'wavTMv, from all men) Masculine, as we have imme- 
diately after, unto all; comp. the more. I was free from all men, 
i.e. no one could have held me as subject to his power. — 
idoCXaaoi, I made myself a servant) a servant suits himself en- 
tirely to another. — roO; vXiiom;, the more) The article has a force 
relative to all, i.e. as many ef them, as possible. — xsf>8>igu, F might 
gain) This word agrees with the consideration of a reward. 

20. 'ils 'lov&aTog, as a Jew) m regard to those things which 

' See Appendix. The pointed combination of contraries. " Oratuitousl^, 
yet I have a reward." — Ei>. 

^ i.e. He would regard his using his power as if it were an abiise. — Ed. 

^ Fut. snbj. is an obsolete form seldom found, but legitimate. Indeed, 
the subjunctive itself is an old future. — See Donaldson's New Cratylus. 

264 1 CORINTHIANS IX. 21-2*. 

are not defined by the law; for as under the law follows, although 
even those, who observed the laws of Noah, might have been 
called men occupying a place midway between the Jews under 
the law and men without the law. — iig vm vo/iov) fifi d'n airJ? two 
to/iov is subjoined in the oldest copies.-^ It was an omission easily 
made in others from the recurrence of the word v6f/,ov. — roii) 
The article seems to be put here not so much for the sake of 
emphasis as of necessity, as M under follows. 

21. 'Av6/j,ovi) This is here used in that sense, which the meaning 
of the primitive word precisely produces, as avvroraxrov, Heb. ii. 
8. — ii; avo/ios, as without law), by omitting things that may be 
omitted in regard to things ceremonial. — firi wv avo^os, who am not 
without the law) Paul was not (anomus) without the laic, much 
less was he (antinomus) opposed to the law. — /a^ avo/ioj, ©sffl, aXX' 
'inoiiog Xpiera) Xpidrog, Qiou Igri, iii. 23 : whence, he who is with- 
out the law to God, avo/tos ©£», is also without the law to Christ, 
amjjioi XpisrSi : he who is under the law to Christ, 'iwo/Ms Xpieru, 
is under the law to God, mo/iog ©sC. Concerning the law of 
Christ, comp. Gal. vi. 2, note. "Ewo/ios has a milder meaning 
than u'jrh v6//.ov. 

22. Toils asSiviis, the weak) The article is not added to 'lovdalouc, 
nor to &v6/Mvg. It is added to aakviTg, because he is chiefly 
speaking of them, viii. 7 : and all these are easily gained, if 
they be rightly treated. — yiyova, I am become) When the verb is 
thus put [in the Perf. middle, a tense almost present in meaning], 
the transition is easily made from the past iyevofiriv to the present 


23. "Iva evyxoivnivhg avTou yhiafia^ The SDv and yhofiycci show 
great modesty. Those things which follow, are referred to this 
verse, as to the proposition [the theme to be handled]. — auToiJ, 
of it) of the Gospel and salvation ; comp. the words, I might 
save, ver. 22. 

24. Oux o'i'&arf, know ye not ?) The comparison is to a thing 

' And, therefore, both in the margin of the 2d Ed. it is elevated from the 
mark y to the mark ft and in the Germ. Vers, it is inserted in the context. 
— E. B. 

These words, fii — uofcou, are read in ABCD (A) G- fff Vulg. Theb. But 
Rec. Text omits the words with Memph. Syr. and Orig. 1,391 c ; 3,51fi /, 
4,166 d.—Eo 

1 COKINTHIANS IX. 25. 265 

very well known to the Corinthians. — ^eTs, one) Although we 
knew, that one alone would be saved, still it would be well worth, 
our while to run. [For what will become of tJiose, who never 
cease to defend themselves by the inactivity of others, Comp. 
X. 5.-^— V. g.] — o'uTia rps^iTif 'ha xaraXa/Sjjrs, so run that ye may 
obtain) Paul speaks of himself to the end of the chapter ; he 
does not yet exhort the Corinthians directly ; therefore he seems 
here to introduce into his discourse by a third party ^ that sort of 
encoiiragement, which P. Faber, i. 2, Agonist, c. 32, shows that 
the judges of the combats, the instructors of the young in gym- 
nastics and the spectators were accustomed to give ; — also Chry- 
sostom Hom. on the expression iav irnv^ ; and Caesarius, quaest. 
29; for the words, he says, they say,^ are more than once omitted. 
See ch. v. 13, xv. 32, 33 ; Eph. vi. 2 ; Col. ii. 21 ; Ps. cxxxvii. 
3 ; Jer. ii. 25, li. 9. "Therefore this is the sense here ; they say, 
so run, etc. ; and this clause belongs to the protasis, which is con- 
tinued at the beginning of the following verse, oUrw, so, a particle 
expressive of praise as well as of exhortation, Phil. iv. 1. — 
7fii-)(STi, run) All are urged, as if each, not merely one, was to 
obtain the prize. — ha, that) to the end that. 

25. nSs, every man) There were many sorts of contests. — 
3s, but) an emphatic addition (J-jrlratii). The race was among 
those contests that were of a lighter description; wrestling, 
to which allusion is presently made, is among those that were 
more severe. — irdvTa, all things) supply -/.ara, as to, throughout. — 
lyyipandirai, is temperate) Those, who were to strive for the 
mastery, were distinguished by their admirable mode of hving. 
See the same Faber, and the same Chrysostom de Sacerd., 1. 4, 
c. 2, at the end. — IxiT^ai) they, who run and wrestle. Christians 
had abandoned the public games. — ipSaprhv, corruptible) formed 

^ ■jriiires, all) Comp. X. 1. — V. g. 

'^ See Appendix, under the title Sermocinatio. " So run that ye may 
obtain" is not Paul's direct exhortation to the Corinthians, but the language 
of the spectators of the games, etc., to the racers, quoted by Paul as apply- 
ing to himself. Comp. v. 26. Obliquely reference was meant to the 
Corinthians Ed. 

8 Beng. means that Paul's omitting, in the allusion or quotation, " As the 
saying is," does not militate against its being a quotation. For he elsewhere 
omits thip express marking of quotations. — Ed. 


of the wild olive, of the apple tree, of parsley and of the fir tree. 
Not only the crown, but the remembrance of it perishes. 

26. ''Eydi) /for my part. — oDrws) so, as I said, ver. 23 : comp. 
ouTca, so, ver. 24.— ou;e abrfkag, not uncertainly, I know what I 
aim at, and how to aim at it. He who runs with a clear aim looks 
straight forward to the goal, and makes it his only object, he 
casts away every encumbrance, and is indiffereint to what the 
standers bye say, and sometimes even a fall serves only to rouse 
him the more. — ituxreLai, I fighi) Paul adds the pugUistic contest 
to the race, in preference to the other kinds of contest. — ug om 
aipa dspciiv, not as one beating the air) In the Sciamachia [sparring 
in the school for mere practice] which preceded the serious con- 
test, they were accustomed to beat the air; comp. [ye shall 
speak to] the air, xiv. 9. 

27. ' TTumd^cii) Eustathius says, Iviima, pair/ ras 'jtbpI roue 
ofSaXfiovs 'TrKrtyde' l§ wi/ ix fispoug xaipioirarov, xat to vvuiridZ^iiv, 
xal eufiaroi; u'Traiiriai/Lo; fi,era(popixSig, 6 xarot, ewrri^iv?' He at the 
same time shows, that -Kpoexoyjiiia, appHes to the foot, as ii'?ru>mov 
to the head ; therefore compare '?rp6isxo/jb//,a and rlivTovTig with 
iinroivdZfii, viii. 9, 12. — rh <safi,a, the body) A near antagonist, 
Eom. viii. 13 ; 1 Pet. ii. 11. — doiiXayoiyu) I lay my hand upon 
my body, as on a slave, and restrain it ; comp. respecting a slave, 
Sir. xxxiii. 25. wwrna^w, as a. pugilist, dovXayaiyu, as a runner. 
The one word is put after the other ; the one denotes rather the 
act, the other the state ; the one is weightier than the other ; 
for at first greater austerity is necessary, till the body is sub- 
dued.; — xripu^ag) Kfipvxig were present at the games [who placed 
the crowns on th'e brows of the conquerors announcing their 
names. — V. g.] — ad6-/.i/Mg, one rejected, cast away) Unworthy of a 
prize, of a crown. It is a word which was used in the public 

■■ Blows around the eyes are termed v%am» ; from which, on account of 
it being a most tender [susceptible] part, we have both i'jrama^iiv, and 
i'truTtanfios, applied to the severe disciplining of the body metaphorically, 
viz., that disciplining which is in the way of mortification. 



1. Oil iiXea di v/jlS,s ayvoiTv, Moreover, I would not that you 
should be ignorant) The phrase refers to the whole passage ; for 
the Corinthians were acquainted with the history,; comp. ix. 13. 
^The particle moreover transfers the discourse from the singular, 
ix. 26, to the plural. — oJ •jraripss ^fiZv, our fathers) even the 
fathers of the Corinthians ; for the Gentiles succeeded to the 
place of the Jews. [^Our ancestors, he says, in respect of com- 
munion with God. — V. g.] — 'jramg, all) had gone out of Egypt 
— there was not so much as one of so great a multitude detained 
either by force or on account of disease, Ps. cv. 37. Five divine 
benefits are mentioned, 1—4, and as many sins committed by 
our fathers, 6—10. — lirh djii nfiknv ^foiv, were under the cloud) 
Ex. xiii. 21, 22. — 8i& rljg iaXaeern dir}X6ov, passed through the sea) 
Ex. xiv. 29. 

2. Kai Toivrsg sig rhv Mwua'^v s^wTrriciavro, and all were baptized 
unto Moses) aai, and so. He resumes what he slightly touched 
upon in the preceding verse about the cloud and the sea, and 
shows to what each refers. They were baptized in the cloud, 
so far as they were under it ; and in the sea, so far as they 
passed through it. They were neither wet with the cloud nor 
with the sea, much less were they immersed in either (although 
some conjecture, that a miraculous rain fell from that cloud, 
from what is said in Ps. Ixviii. 9, cv. 39), nor is the term bap- 
tism found in the writings of Moses. But Paul uses this term 
with great propriety, 1. Because the cloud and the sea are in 
their own nature water (wherefore also Paul is silent respecting 
the pillar of fire) ; 2. The cloud and the sea took the fathers out 
of sight and restored them again to view, and this is what the 
water does to those who are baptized. 3. They were initiated 

^ Preference, howerer, is given to the particle yxp, both in the margin of- 
the first and second Ed., and in the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

ABCD(A)G7^ Vulg. Orig. 4,143e; 144a, Iren. 264 Cypr. 157,277 have 
yecp. Rec. Text li with Orig. 1,541«, some MSS. of "Vulg. and both Syr. 
Versions. — Ed. 

268 1 CORINTHIANS X. 3, 4. 

by the cloud and by the sea ; and as initiation, at Col. ii. 11, is 
described by circumcision, so here by baptism, a metaphor com- 
mon to the Old and New Testament; comp. eh. v. 7. But 
they were baptized unto Moses, as the servant of God, Ex. xiv 
31, because they had begun to believe (in) him, and that they 
might afterwards believe (in) him ; comp. ilc, Rom. iv. 20.'^ 
£J3airTi<sa.vro, in the middle voice, received baptism. In the 1st 
verse it is hinted what God did for them ; in ver. 2, what the 
fathers received. The sacraments of the Old Testament were 
more than two, if we take into account these .extraordinary ones, 
at the time of their exodus out of the land of Egypt. — xal h rjj 
SaXdier), and in the sea) In repeated indicates a new step in their 
progress and privileges. 

3. Kal irdvTig, and all) The three former particularly refer to 
baptism ; this and the following, to the Lord's Supper. If there 
were more sacraments of the New Testament, Paul would have 
laid down something that bore likewise a resemblance to the 
others. — ri aCrJ) the same, in respect of the fathers that fell, or 
did not fall ; not in respect of them and us ; for in the New Tes- 
tament there is none of the Mosaic manna ; comp. of one [par- 
takers of that one bread], ver. 17. — ^pSi/j,a, meat) Ex. xvi. 14. — 
irvtv/iaTixhv, spiritual) Manna was spiritual food, not in itself, 
John vi. 32 ; nor merely in the way of prefiguration ; but 
because there was given from Christ to the Israelites, along with 
food for the body, food for the soul, the manna, which is far 
more noble than external food : comp. the next verse ; and in 
this better sense, the denomination is given ; comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 
24, 25 : and there was spiritual food not only to believers, but 
also, on the part of God [as far as God's part is concerned], to 
the others. 

4. Ilo/ia, drink) This relates rather to Ex. xvii. 6, than to Numb. 
XX. 8, where mention is made also of cattle. — yap, for) Such as 
is the rock, such is the water. — ix wvEu/ianx^s axoXouSouarig mrpai, 
from the spiritual rock, that followed them) The article rtjg is not 
added. The people did not know, what the rock was ; therefore 
Paul long after adds, but the rock was Christ. This spiritual 

' [He staggered not] at [in reference to], the promise of God : so here, 
baptized unto Moses, viz., in relation to him as their divinely appointed 
leader. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS X. 5-7. 269 

rock is spoken of as following them, not on account of its follow- 
ing the people ; for it rather went before them ; but because, 
although at that time it was really present with them, ver. 9, yet 
it was only in after ages that at length it was made known to 
them ; comp. on the word aKokoukr/, to follow, 1 Tim. v. 24 ; on 
the order of natural and spiritual things, 1 Cor. xv. 46. 

5. 'AXX, hu£) although they had so many signs of the Divine 
presence. — oux b ro/s irXmeiv abruv, not with the most of them) The 
position of the particle not should be noticed. Reason might 
suggest, that God certainly was well pleased h roT; vXnogn, with 
the mast of them. This the apostle denies. He not only points 
out those, who are particularly described presently afterwards, 
but at the same time many others. — o ©eJj, God) whose judg- 
ment alone is valid. — y.a,Tserpudrieav, were overthrown) in great 
heaps, and with great force. The LXX. have used thi» word in 
Numb. xiv. 16. — y&p, for) The event showed,' that they had not 
pleased God. — h rjj £pri/j>u, in the wilderness) farfirom the land of 

6. TaSra, these) benefits, which the people received, and the 
sins which they at the same time committed. — rumi, examples) 
by which we may be instructed, from which we may learn, what 
punishments, we must expect, if, receiving such benefits, we 
should sin in a similar manner. — ilg to //-ri, that not) The benefits 
are put down in th6 order, in which they are arranged by Moses, 
in the difierent chapters of Exodus ; the offences, with their 
punishments, in a different order. The fondamental principle, 
from which the offences proceed, is concupiscence : afterwards, 
the mention of idolatry most of all serves his purpose, ver. 7, 4 : 
fornication was usually joined with idolatry, ver. 8 : temptation 
with murmuring ; see the following verses. Those offences are 
chiefly mentioned, which relate to the admonition of the Corin- 
thians. — imSifitiTds) The LXX. have this verbal noun. — xaxZv, 
after evil things) Eom. xiv. 20. — i-!ri6v/j,tiaa,v, lusted) Numb. xi. 4. 

7. Vinek, be ye) In this ver., and ver. 10, the matter is set 
before them in the second person; for Paul was beyond the 
danger of idolatry, nay, he was even the object of their murmur- 
ing ; the other things are put in the first person — both be- 
comingly so. So 1 Pet. iv. 1, 3, in the second person. — r/vjs 
ahrm, some of them) We should mark some ; where some begin, 

270 1 CORINTHIANS X. 8, 9. 

the majority of the multitude easily follow, rushing^ both into 
sin and to punishment. — sxdSieiv, x-r.X.) So the LXX., Exod, xxxii. 
6. — fiaysni xal van, to eat and drink) This quotation is much to 
the purpose; comp. ver. 21. — ■jral^nv, to play) A joyful festival 
is here indicated (celebrated with lascivious dancing around the 
calf. — V. g.), and at the same time the vanity of the festival on 
account of the idol is implied. 

8. 'Empveiisav, committed fornication) Num. xxv. 1. — s'lxoffi rpiTg 
•)(ikiu.hi<;, twenty-three thousand) They are said to have been twenty- 
four thousand, Num. xxv. 9. A stroke from God swept them 
away ; but besides, the princes [" the heads of the people," Num. 
xxv. 4] were hanged, and the judges were commanded to put to 
death their men, over whom they presided, who had been joined 
to Baal-peor. Moses as well as Paul gives the number of them, 
whom the plague itself of that day destroyed. Why then does 
Paul subtract, a thousand ? The precise number of the dead, we 
may suppose, was between the round numbers, 23,000, and 24,000, 
say 23,600, and had been known by tradition. We do not fol- 
low the subtUties of other interpreters. 

9. m>)3e Ixci-E/pa^a^si') The compound verb, as in Matt. iv. 7. 
The simple verb follows immediately after. — rJv Xpiisrov, Christ) 
Paul mentions five benefits, ver. 1-4, of which the fourth and 
fifth were closely connected ; and five crimes, of which the fourth 
and fifth were in like manner closely connected. In speaking of 
the fifth benefit, he expressly mentions Christ ; and in speaking 
of the fourth crime, he shows that it was committed against 
Christ. \_See App., P. II., on this passage, wliere the reading 
Xp/arbv is defended against Artemonius, Not. Crit.^]. — sTeipaaav, 
tempted) Num. xxi. 5. Christ is therefore God. Comp. Ex. xvii. 2. 
Often those things which are declared concerning the Lord in 
Old Testament, are spoken of Christ in New Testament, Eom. 
xiv. 10, 11 ; and that temptation, by which the people sinned, 
was an offence pecuHarly against Christ, Ex. xxiii. 20, xxxii. 
34 ; Is. Ixiii. 9 ; for when they had drunk from that Rock, 

1 Lachm. reads Kvpiov -witli BC, and some MSS. of Memph. Vers. But 
Tischend., Tvith 'D(A)Qfff Vulg., both Syr. Versions, Memph., Theb., and 
Marcion, according to Epiphanius (o Si Ma^xiav di/rl toS Ki^ioi) Xj/otok 
iToimif'), Iren. 264, XfrnTo'i/. This last is the better attested reading 
therefore. A has &£oV.— Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS X. 10, 11. 271 

wMcli was Clirist, ver. 4, tney yet complained for want of 
water, Num. xxi. 5. Therefore they were also preserved from 
the fiery serpents, by raising a serpent on a pole, a type of Christ. 
As Abraham " saw Christ's day" [John viii. 56], as Moses 
embraced "the reproach of Christ" [Heb. xi. 26], so the Israel- 
ites tempted Christ : and yet the Corinthians could more directly 
tempt Christ. 

10. MjjSs yoyyLZiri, do not murmur) comp. ver. 22. Moses 
and Aaron were the secondary objects of murmuring in the 
Old Testament. — lyoyyvem, murmured) Num. xvi. 41. With 
Moses, murmuring preceded the temptation ; but Paul places 
murmuring after the temptation in the last place, as being most 
like to that sin, into which the Corinthians were liable to fall. 
He who is weaker [than the Lord], ought not to murmur; 
comp. ver. 22 ; Ex. xvi. 8, 10, at the end of the ver. — a's-wAovro, 
perished) ibid. ver. 49. — iXoSpivrou, destroyer) Comp. Wisd. xviii. 
22,25; Heb.xi. 28, note. 

11. ndvra, all things) He resumes what he said, ver. 6, and 
in this recapitulation adds, all things, which stands in apposition 
with ensamples. — ^rvTeoi) ensamples. — exehois, to them) construed 
with happened. — lypa<pri, were written) The use of the Old Tes- 
tament Scripture is in the fullest force in the New Testament. 
It was not written out in the beginning [but subsequently : for 
the edification of us in the ends of the world]. — r<i ri'krt ruv aimm, 
the ends of the ages) ol aiZvsg, all thipgs, even former ages ; ra reXn, 
in the New Testament, comp. Eom. s. 4. The plural has great 
force. All things meet together, and are coming to their height : 
benefits and dangers, punishments and rewards ; comp. the fol- 
lowing verse. All that now remains. is that Christ should come, 
as the avenger and judge ; and until that happens, these ends, 
being many, include various periods succeeding each other. — 
xa.rrivT7igiv, have come upon) as it were unexpectedly. He does 
not say, we, who have come upon the ends. The same word 
occurs, xiv. 36. 

1 The Germ. Ver. shows on the margin of the 2d Ed. the readmg rvmx.a.^ 
raised from the mark s to the mark y. — E. B. 

Lachm. reads TUTT/xS?, with ABC Orig. 1, 170; 536/; 4, 8e; /fl- Vulg. 
Iren. ("in figura "), Hilary (in prseformationem). Tisch. reads ri-rroi, with 
D(A)G Memph., Theb., later Syr. (Syr. has in exemplum nosfnim).— Ed, 

272 1 CORINTHIANS X. 12-16. 

12. 'O Soxui) he, who stands, and thinks that he stands. — 
lerdvai, that he stands) wellrfleasing to God, ver. 5. — iJ>n •xieri, 
lest he fall) ver. 8, 5. 

13. 'neif>a(!f/,bs, temptation) It is mere human temptation, such 
as may be overcome by a man, when the man has to do either 
with himself, or with others like himself; to this is opposed the 
temptation of demons ; comp. ver. 20, 14. Paul had greater 
experience ; the Corinthians were inexperienced, and therefore 
more free from concern. — oix s7Xri<pev, has not taken) he says olx, 
not ohy-iri. He is, therefore, speaking of some temptation, with 
which they are at present struggling ; comp. with e/Xji^ed, liath 
taken, Luke v. 5, 26; 2 Cor. xii. 16. — merlg hi, hvA, faithful) 
An abbreviated expression, of which the one member must be 
supplied from the other. Hitherto you have not been severely 
tempted ; you owe that not to your own care, but to the pro- 
tection of God ; but now a greater temptation hangs over you ; 
in it God also will be your defence, but be ye watchful. Thus 
hi, hut, extends its meaning to ver. 14. God is faithful in afford- 
ing the assistance which both His word and His former works 
promise. — ■nipaeStivai, to be tempted) by men or demons. — blvask, 
you are able) viz., to bear, from the end of the verse. — eiv, with) 
God permits us to be moderately tempted; and at the same 
time provides a way of escape. — xa/, also) the connection being 
unbroken. — iK^aen) a way of escape, which takes place gradually, 
even while some things remain to be borne. The same word is 
found, Wisd. ii. 17, viii. 8, xi. (14), 15. 

14. ' A'jrh Trig ildcaXo'Karpsiag, from idolatry) The consequent 
[idolatry] is put for the antecedent [things offered to idols], 
with a view the more to deter the Corinthians from indulging 
in this sin : i.e. avoid things offered to idols, and the religious 
use of them, in so far as they are things offered to idols. Hav- 
ing premised this caution in the 23d ver., he shows that the use 
of those things in a civil point of view is indeed lawful, but still 
they ought to be used with great caution. 

15. ^povi/jioig, to the wise) to whom a few words are suiEcient 
to enable them to form their judgment concerning this mystery. 

16. To -TtoTripm, the cup) The cup is put before the bread; 
because according to his design [to reprove the eating of meats 
sacrificed to idols, answering to the bread of the Lord's Supper], 

1 CORINTHIANS X. 17. 273 

he dwells more on the consideration of the meat, ver. 21 ; men- 
tion is however made of the cup, because it is inseparable from the 
other element. The interchange of the order here is a proof, that 
the body of Christ is received separately, not inasmuch as it has 
the blood accompanying it. In mentioning food more respect is 
paid to meat, than drink ; but in the mystery of redemption the 
blood is oftener named, than the body of Christ. Hence Paul's 
promiscuous arrangement [sometimes the bread, at other times 
the wine coming first]. — njs ivXoyiug, of blessing) on that account 
it is distinguished from a common cup, Matt. xxvi. 27. — o eJXo- 
youfiiv, which we bless) plural as in we break, supply, we, ministers 
and believers, each for his own part : comp. ch. v. 4. All, who 
bless and break together, enter the more closely into com- 
munion. — xoivMvla, communion) This predicate used in the ab- 
stract shows that the subject should likewise be taken in the 
abstract. The cup, which we use, i.e. the use of the cup (comp. 
Mark vii. 30, note). He who drinks of this cup, is a partaker 
of the blood of Christ ; so ver. 18, they who eat. The highest 
degree of reality is implied: comp. ver. 19, note. — roD ai/iarog, of 
the blood) that was shed. Now, he who is a partaker of the 
blood and body of Christ, is also a partaker of the sacrifice, that 
was offered on the cross : comp. ver. 18 ; a partaker in short of 
Christ himself; comp. what is put in antithesis to this, ver. 20, 
at the end. — rhv aprov) There is a construction similar to this, 
vii. 17 : and in the LXX., Num. xxxii. 4. T^s ihXoyiag is here 
again to be suppled ; the bread of blessing. — roD ffu)//-aros rov 
Xpierou, of the body of Christ) of the body delivered up to death 
for us ; comp. the opposite [the antithesis] to this, ver. 20, at 
the beginning. The body of Christ is also the Church, as in 
the following verse; but here the very body of Christ is 
intended, from which the blood is contradistinguished. 

17. "Or/, since) He proves, that the cup and the bread are 
the communion; for the bread by itself does not make them 
that eat it, become one body; but the bread does so, in so 
far as it is communion, etc. — ilg aprog (one bread), viz. there is 
[and indeed it is such bread as is broken, and carries with it 
(implies in the participation of it) the communion of the body of 
Christ. — V. g.] — 0/ -TToXkol, the many) believers [Eng. Vers, is 
different, " We being many are one bread and one body"]. — 

VOL. III. . s 

274 1 COKINTHIANS X. 18-23. 

ex. rou hli &pro\i, of the one bread) and therefore also of the 
one cup. 

18. lou SvSMgTrjplou, of the altar) and therefore, of God. He, 
to whom the offering is made, those things which are offered, 
the altar on which they are offered, have communion [a mutual 
tie in common], as is evident from the following verses, comp. 
Matt, xxiii. 20, 21. 

19. T/, what) In the Protasis, he has derived his argument 
from the sacred rites of the Christians and Jews ; and now about 
to give the apodosis, he uses rpohpa-irtla, precaution in the way 
of anticipation, and sets down by implication the apodosis itself 
with pious caution, luXa^Zg, in ver. 20 : he who eats things 
offered to idols, cultivates communion with demons. An idoP 
is a piece of wood, and nothing else ; what is offered to an idol 
is a piece of flesh, and nothing else ; but that cup and that 
bread, which have been spoken of at ver. 16, are not a mere cup 
and mere bread. 

20. 'AXX', but) viz. I say. — Baif/^ovloig, to demons) rather than 
to idols. — xoivmous, the associates) Those who were present at the 
sacrifices of the Gentiles, which serve as an invitation to demons, 
opened the window to demons, to make an assault upon them- 
selves. — 0£ffi, to God) in whose commimion you ought to be: 
Deut. xxxii, 17, — 'idueav Sai/iomig, xa> o'j QsOj, They sacrificed to 
devils and not to God ; comp. Baruch iv. 7. 

21. Oil S{jva,ek) ye cannot, without very great sin. — Kuplou, of 
the Lord) Christ. — rpa'Tri^ris Kupiov, of the Lord^s table) The 
Lord's Supper is a feast, not a sacrifice ; on a table, not on an 

22. XlapaZrfkoviJ.ty) do we jprovohe to jealousy ? namely, by 
idolatry, ver. 7 ; Ex. xx. 5. The kindred word is nis^n, aySva 
'nap'f^in, to cause one a conflict, to weary out. Is. vii. 13. So 
Deut. xxxu. 21, — airol 'jrapst^fiXaiedv fie W ou ieSi, they have moved 
me to jealousy with that which is no god. — le^uporepoi, stronger) so 
that we may flee from His jealousy when kindled? [The 

' By inverting the order, the margin of both editions intimates, that 
illaTLoSvroi/ is to be placed first, and that Ei'SaXoi/ should be second in the 
order ; but the Germ. Ver. follows the reading of the text E. B. 

BC corrected later, D Vulg., d Memph., Theb. "Versions, have the order 
tilaiXiiurou — ei'laM'. A omits jj ori eJSaXo'i/ rt hriu Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS X. 23-30. 275 

weaker party is provoked without danger ; but it is different in the 
stronger. — V. g.] 

23. 2ij/ji,fiipii, expedient) ver. 33. The power, by which all 
things sf soT/v, are lawful, is given by God : BUfj,(pspov, expedi- 
ency, is a thing affecting myself: oixodo/j,fi, edification, relates to 

25. ^ MnSh amxplmTis, asking no questions) whether it has been 
offered to an idol or not. Curiosity is often more injurious, than 
simplicity. — 8ia r%v cwiihriaiv, for the sake of the conscience) of 
another, ver. 29, whose benefit is consulted by keeping silence, 
lest he should be disturbed. 

26. ToS Kupiov, of the Lord) not of idols. Ps. xxiv. 1, rod 
Kuphu ^ yr] xa! rh -irXripiaz/jo, abrrii — The earth is the Lord!s and 
the fulness thereof. Ps. 1. (xlix.) 12, Ifij^ yap IdTiv ^ oixoviJ,ivri 
xa! rb irXripaiiJia, uuttj; — The world is mine and its fulness. — 
vXripco/j^a, fulness) including all kinds of meats. 

27. QiXiTi 'TtopiuiffSai, you wish to go) Paul does not much ap- 
prove of this, nor does he forbid it. 

28. Th f/jrivvdavTot, xai r^v duveldrisiv, for the sake of him^ that 
showed it, and for conscience sake) a Hendiadys. /ijjiiiw denotes 
serious information given of a thing. 

29. Tn\i sauTou, thy own) comp. the preceding verse; or rather, 
because he is there speaking in the plural, my own ; comp. this 
with what immediately foUows. — kripo-j, of another) of whom, 
ver. 28. — fi sXiuhpla fio\i, my liberty) i.e. [Why am] 1, along 
with the liberty of my conscience [judged] ; so immediately after, 
by the conscience of another, i.e. by another along with his con- 
science which is encumbered with scruples. — xpUirai, is judged) 
i.e., his weak conscience cannot deprive my conscience of its 
liberty. — aXXr}g, another) This word has greater force, than if it 
had been said, of another \_judged by another conscience ; not 
as Engl. V. another man's conscience^- 

30. 'E/w, I) This expression has reference to his legitimate 
power [See ver. 23]. — t! l3Xae^-/i//,oiJ/jiai, why am I evil spoken of) 
by him, who does not use his Hberty, i.e. no man can reprove me 
(but ^Kae<prifiiTv, to speak calumniously of, is even worse), as if / 
tvere acting contrary to my conscience. — Imp ol, for which) i.e. 

• vxv, all) As far as concerns the diflFerence of meats, ver. 26. — V. g. 

276 1 CORINTHIANS X. 31, 32.-XI. 1, 2. 

why am I assailed with reproaches for my thanksgiving? — EJ%a. 
piSTui, I give thanks) Thanksgiving sanctifies all meat ; it denies 
the authority of idols, and asserts the authority of God. — 1 Tim. 
iv. 3, 4 ; Rom. xiv. 6. 

31. Em, whether) A great first principle, comp. Jer. xxii. 
15, 16. — e"t£ r; To/E/rs) or whatsoever ye do, which is either more 
or even less common than eating or drinking. [It is in the 
highest degree just to consider in all our words and actions, whether 
they tend to the glory of GoD, 2 Cor. ix. 12; 1 Pet. iv. 11. — 
V. g.J — el; do^av ©sou, to the glory of God) with thanksgiving and 
the edification of our neighbour. 

32. Tfi ixxXridicf ro\J QtoZ, to the church of God) the holy church 
called from among the Jews and Gentiles. The same name is 
found ch. xi. 16, 22. 

33. navra) Tiara, vdiira, in all things. — Taei)!, all men) Jews, 
Greeks, Christians. — apsgxu, I please) with respect to their con- 
sciences. — iva gaSuii, that they may be saved) By this standard 
we must determine what is profitable. 


1. MifiriTai fiov, imitators [followers'\ of me) He adds this verse 
to the former to show, that we must look to Christ, not to him 
[the apostle], as our highest example. — Xpitrou, of Christ) who 
did not please Himself, Rom. xv. 3, but gave Himself at all costs 
for our salvation, Eph. v. 2. 

2. ''Efaim, I praise) [This verse is the proper commencement of 
the chapter. — Not. Crit.] Nowhere else does Paul so dii-ectly 
praise any of those, to whom he writes. But here he resolves 
to write about anything, which does not properly fall under 
his TapajyiXiav, admonition, to them, ver. 17 ; in which, however, 
if they will follow the reasons, which he has set before them, and 
comply with the custom of the saints, ver. 16, which he finally 
lays down as somewhat stringent, he assures the Corinthians, 
that they will be worthy of praise, and declares, that they will 
incur neither Peter's indignation, nor his. — 'jravra) xara 'jravTa.— 

1 COEINTHIANg XI. 3, 4. 2V7 

(ttou, me) construed with you remember, or with all things, xvi: 14. 
— ttapihmx.a — '!rapad6eiic, I delivered — traditions [ordinances]) This 
is applied to doctrines, whether imparted to them by word of 
mouth, or by letters, whether they relate to mysteries, or cere- 
monies, ver. 23, xv. 3 ; 2 Thess. ii. 15 : they have a greater re- 
lation however to ceremonies. In ver. 23, he says respecting 
the Lord's Supper, that he both received and delivered ; but 
here, he says, that he dehvered, he does not say that he had 

3. As, but) On this subject Paul seems formerly to have given 
no commandment, but to have written now for the first time, 
when he understood that it was necessary. By the expression, 
I would, he openly professes his sentiments. — or/, that) Even 
matters of ceremony should be settled according to the principles 
of morality, so that they may agree with those principles. It 
may be said. How does onfe and the same reason in relation to 
the head (i.e. of Christ, or of the man) require the man to un- 
cover his head, and the woman to cover hers ? Ans. Christ is 
not seen ; the man is seen ; so the covering of him, who is under 
Christ is not seen ; of her, who is under the man, is seen. — avdphs, 
ywaiTih;, of the man, of the woman) although they do not hve in 
the state of marriage, ver. 8, and what follows. — ii xi^aM, the 
head) This term alludes to the head properly so called, concern- 
ing the condition [the appropriate dress] of which he treats in 
the following verse. The common word. Principal,^ is akin to 
this use of the term head. The article ^ m^ist be presently after 
twice supplied from this clause. — xtpaXri Xpigroij, the head of 
Christ) iii. 23, xv. 28 ; Luke iii. 23, 38 ; John xx. 17 ; Eph. 
iii. 9, where God is said to have created all things by Christ, 
therefore He is the head of Christ. — 6 @ios, God) ver. 12. 

4. TipoSiMyJiitvog 7\ irpo<priri\icav, praying or prophesying) especially 
in the church, ver. 16, and in the assembly [the coming together'], 

ver. 17 xara xitpaXrii, [having a covering] on his head) The 

state of the head, the principal part, gives dignity to the whole 
body. [The face is chiefly referred to, when he speaks of a covering. 
— v. g.] — sp^wv) having, i.e. if he has. The men of Corinth used 
not to be covered, and m this respect, the women imitated the 

* This word is given as it is in the original. In this form, it is not Latin, 
but it is probably the German substantive, which signifies head. — T. 


men. In order to convince the women of their error, Paul speaks 
conditionally of the man. — rrjv xKpa.'k^v alroV, his head) properly 
so called, as just before in this verse ; comp. note to ver. 6. 
Otherwise, the man praying with his head covered would sin 
more against Christ, than the woman against the man, vvdth her 
head uncovered. 

5. nadcx. ds yvvrj, hut every woman) Se, hut, forms an epitasis 
[emphatic augniientation or addition]. In this whole passage the 
woman, especially the woman of Corinth, is principally admon- 
ished. — •!rptiei\i-)(piMvri Jj 'irpoiprirevouga, praying or prophesying) There- 
fore women are not altogether excluded from these duties ; at 
least the Corinthian women did that, which, so far as it may be 
lawful, Paul at ch. xiv. [34, 35] puts off, namely, to some suit- 
able occasion distinct from the more solemn assembly. — axara,- 
■/.oXiiitTM, uncovered) nature demands a covering, but how far the 
forehead with the face, and the hinder part of the head, should 
be covered, is a matter left to the customs of the people. It is 
probable, that Jesus and His disciples had their heads covered 
according to the customs of the Israelites ; whence the rule is not 
universal, and not more ancient than Paul. And there was 
-rapddogi;, an ordinance, not a rule strictly so called, but a custom 
[ institutum] eine Verordnung. A question arises here, what is 
to be thought concerning wigs ? First, they do not seem to be 
considered as vipi^6\am, or covering for the head, for they are an 
imitation of the hair, and where that is too thin, they supply the 
defect, and in the present day are sometimes quite necessary for 
the sake of health, and they no more veil the face, than every 
man's ovm hair : and even if women were accustomed to wear 
wigs, they would not be considered as thereby sufficiently covered. 
Therefore the head of a man is scarcely more dishonoured by 
them, while he prays, than while he does not pray. The wig, 
however, especially one too long and bushy and having little re- 
semblance to the natural hair, is in reality an adventitious thing, 
and originates in pride or at least in effeminacy either voluntary, 
or arising from a false necessity : — it was not so from the begin- 
ning, and it will not he so always. Paul, if we could now con- 
sult hinl, would, I beheve, not compel those, who wear wigs to 
cast them off entirely ; but he would teach those, at least, who 
have not begun to wear them, for ever to unlearn [avoid] them, 

1 CORINTHIANS XI. e, 7-10. 2T9 

as a thing unbecoming men, especially men engaging m prayer. 
— £ffr/, is) Such a woman does not differ from one, that has been 

6. Ksipaaia)) let her be shorn) As the hinder part of the head is 
by nature in the man and the woman respectively, so in general 
it is becoming the forehead to be in its mode of dressing : ver. 
14. The imperative here is that of permission, but a permission, 
which has in it mimesis, or a deduction to something unsuitable.-"- 
So shaving is unbecoming in nuns. — aieyjih, a shame) So ver. 14. 
The opposite, comely, ver. 13 : glory, ver. 15. — rh xilpaeSai, ri 
^upagSa,/) the one is more than the other. Mic. i. 16, ^{jprisai xai 
xiTpai. ^up&Ta,i, the back part of the head ; -Aelpirai, the forehead. 
In Mic. already quoted, there follows a gradation in the enlarge- 
ment of the baldness occasioned by shaving. 

7-10. Oux oipiiXsi, X.T.X., ought not, etc.) The man has more 
freedom in regard to his head-dress, especially when he is not 
engaged in praying or prophesying, than the woman. — xara- 
xuXxivreslSai, to cover) verses 7 and 10 have an exapt antithesis. 
Observe, first, he ought not, and she ought : secondly, look at the 
diagram : The man ought not to be covered ; because the man 
is, A. the image of God, B. and the glory of God : but the 
woman ought to be covered : C. because she is the glory of the 
man, D. and on account of the angels. The man, he says, is 
the image of God ; supply, and of Christ from ver. 3 (see ver. 
8 ; comp. ver. 12 ; Ix, of, concerning the man and concemi^ 
God ; but &(i, by, concerning the woman) : not only on account 
of his power over the woman itself, but also on account of the 
causes of that power, viz., because the woman is of the man ; but 
she is of the man, for {^j^p, ver. 9) she was created for the man. 
But the man is, in a nearer relation, both of God and under 
God; and so he represents God. Now because man is the 
image of God, he is at the same time the glory of God ; comp. 
ghry, 2 Cor. viii. 23. But the woman is the glory of the man ; 
because the man is the head and lord of' the woman. It is not 
said, the image and glory of the man ; but only the glory of the 

1 A woman -would not wish xslpaaSat. But if she wishes to be wncovered 
in front, let her alpo be uncovered behind, i.e., xei^xaia. This allusion to 
the supposed words of the woman, whom he refutes, constitutes the mimesis. 
See Appendix. — Ed. 

230 1 CORINTHIANS XI. 7-10. 

man, as it were suspending the expression. But he proves, that 
she is the glory of the man, ver. 8, 9, as it were in a parenthesis ; 
from which it may also be gathered, why the man is the image 
and glory of God. Now since the woman is the glory of the 
man, she might at the same time be called the image of the man ; 
but Paul compensates for this by another expression, and says, 
for this cause, namely, because the woman is the glory of the 
man, she ought to be covered because of the angels ; for in the 
diagram which we have just laid down, D is to A, as C to B. 
The meaning of this gnome-like sentiment' [expressed entirely in 
the same way m the notes to the Germ. Ver.] should be elicited 
from the very words that are added ; let the woman cover her- 
self because of the angels, i.e. because the angels are also covered. 
As the angels are to God, so the woman is to the man. The 
face of God is manifested : whereas the angels are covered, Isa. 
vi. The face of the man is manifested, [uncovered] ; the woman 
is covered. Nor is the man on that account exalted above the 
angels ; but he is merely considered so far as he represents God 
in regard to the woman, which cannot be said of the angels. 
But the woman ought to be covered especially in praying and 
prophesying; for it belongs to the man, in preference to the 
woman, to pray and prophesy ; when therefore the woman takes 
upon her those functions, then some open avowal is most neces- 
sary on her part, that woman is still properly and willingly in- 
ferior to man. Both the outward dress of the body showing 
humility in the heart, whioh the angels cannot penetrate, and 
the external order delight the angels themselves, who also con- 
template the order, and look at the conduct of men in the as- 
sembly of the Church, iv. 9 ; Eph. iii. 10 ; comp. Eccles. v. 6, 
where LXX. have -irph 'irpoeumu esoD, before the face of God. The 
conclusion is drawn from angels to the uncreated Angel, as from 
the less to the greater. AddPs. cxxxviii. 1. But if not covered, 
the woman offends the angels by what is unbecoming. Matt, 
xviii. 10, 31. Moreover the woman ought to be the more care- 
ful not to offend the angels on this account, that she requires 
their protection, somewhat more than the man. She needs it 
more, on account of her own wealmess just as children [minors, 

1 See Appendix, under the title Noema. 


inferiors] do : comp. note on Greg. Thaum. Paneg. 160 ; as also 
demons lay more snares for the woman, 2 Pet. ii. 19. The sen- 
tence of the law against the man when seduced and overcome is 
in proportion to the seduction, and the victory gained over him; 
but the woman was first overcome ; or farther, she is more as- 
sailed by those extremely limpure spirits, whom the Greeks, on 
account of their eagerness to obtain victims, call fiiXouXoug, lovers 
of destruction. Comp. Matt. viii. 31, xii. 43. This great supe- 
riority of the man over the woman is qualified in ver. 11, 12, by 
way of I'jTihpannia, [after-softening of a previous unwelcome truth. 
— Append.], lest the man should exalt himself, or the woman 
think herself despised. Jac. Paber Stapulensis says, " Man was 
immediately made by God, the image and likeness of God, for 
His glory : but the woman mediately through the man, who was 
as it were a veil placed between her and God ; for the medium 
is viewed as an interposing object, and a veil. To mark this 
mystery, when a man turns himself to God, which he mostly 
does in praying or prophesying, he ought to do so with his head 
uncovered, having, so to speak, no veil between himself and God, 
•offering thus to God the honour of his creation : but the woman 
with her head covered acknowledges her creation, and, as it be- 
comes her, offers honour to God, in the second place and through 
the medium of the glory of the man, for the man is the first and 
immediate glory of God. The woman is mediate and second, 
and became immediately the glory of the man, and was made 
tor the sake of the man himself." The same Stapulensis pro- 
ceeds, " Both man and the angels were immediately created by 
God, and therefore man should have no covering, as a symbol of 
this event, when he is turned to God, any more than the angels ; 
but the woman ought to have it, not only on account of the man, 
but also on account of the angels ; for it would be pride, if she 
made her creation equal to that of the angels, inasmuch as she has 
this power [the privilege of creation] by means of the man. For 
what else is this, that a woman has and ought to have power 
over her head, but that she has this privilege through the media- 
tion of the man, i.e. through the mediation of her h&d, who is 
her husband ?" The discreet reader will skilfully qualify these 
remarks by those made by us above. 

8. Ou yafi, for not) As his own wife stood in relation to the 

282 1 CORINTHIANS XI. 10-12. 

first man, so is the whole race of women to the men. — 1^ avSphg, 
from the man) from the rib of the man. 

10. 'Oipi/Xii, ought) This verb differs from BiT, it is necessary : 
6<peiXii denotes obligation, SsT, necessity. The former is moral, 
the latter, as it were, physical necessity; as in the German, 
wir sollen und mussen, we shall and must. — l^ouslav ix^n) to have 
power over the head. From that antithesis between ver. 7 and 
10 [ought — ought not], it is evident that the power is the same 
as iLoXMiLiLo,, a covering : so Gen. xx. 16, ti^y^V niD2- LXX, ug 
Tifiiiv rou ■!rpoed)'rov em, for a covering, i.e., for a testimony of un- 
defiled matrimonial chastity. On the contrary, the priest was 
commanded aitov.aXli'jtriiv, to uncover the head of the woman, 
who had withdrawn from the power of her husband in conse- 
quence of adultery, or who was at least suspected of that prime. 
Num. T. 18. This passage agrees admirably with both quota- 
tions; only s^ougia, power, is a more suitable word here than 
ri/jt,'^, honour. Nor would it at all have been foreign to the 
purpose to compare Ps. Ix. 9, Ephraim is the strength of my head. 
Paul uses k^ovalav by an elegant metonymy of the sign for the 
thing signified ; or even by a mild metonymy of the relative 
for the correlative, vmrayn, subjection, or the Hke ; unless it be 
rather the sign, by which the woman avows and acknowledges 
that, although she prays and prophesies, still she is inferior to 
the man; in short, it is on this condition that the power of 
praying and prophesying falls to her share, and without that 
sign it must not be exercised. And this term is therefore more 
suitable, because it is closely connected with the d6^a, glory, 
ver. 15 : and i^ovgia, power, is also applied to the angels. 

11. 'Ev Kip/w, in the Lord) in Christ, by whom both the mail 
and the woman have been created and redeemed. The differ- 
ence between the man and the woman. Gal. iii. 28, begins now 
rather to disappear in respect of Christ in this ver., and in 
respect of God in the following verse, than in respect of the 
angels. Therefore ver. 9, 10, 11, 12, elegantly correspond with 
one another in their short clauses. 

12. 'Hyuvij Ix roS) Only here, and at ver. 10, the articles are 
added. In ver. 10, the force of the relative is at ver. 9, and. in 
ver. 12 at ver. 11. — Ix — 5;(i, from [of] — hy) The particles 
differ ; presently afterwards Ix is also said of God. — -s-avra, all 

1 CORINTHIANS XI, 13-16. 283 

things) the man, the -woman, and the mutual dependence of 
either upon the other. 

13. 'Ell uftTv ahrotg, in yourselves) without a long explanation. 
— 'ieri, is it ?) a direct interrogation, as vi. 5. — ymoMo. — ra Qiip, 
a woman — to God) Paul describes the leap, which the woman 
uncovered takes, passing heyond both the man and angels. An 
excellent hypotyposis,^ though short. 

14. OuSI avrri) does not even nature itself, from which aU 
learn very easily. — n puff/j, nature) and its light concerning what 
is becoming. — lav xo//,^) if he has long hair, like a covering ; for 
he is not commanded to be altogether shorn. — aTijLia,, disgrace) 
viz., if he do that without any reason ; for sometimes even hair 
becomes men. — Num. vi. 5; 2 Sam. xiv. 26;. Acts xviii. 18. 
The Nazarite, who had hair, however long, ought to retain it. 

15. 'Avt! mpi^oXaiou, for a covering) Not but that an artificial 
covering ought to be added, but because her longer hair is a 
proof of covering the head as much as possible : the will ought 
to correspond to nature. — 'Bidorai, has been given) by nature. 

16. E/' Si, but if) A curt [abrupt] hint,^ as at xiv. 37. Paul 
perceives, that some exceptions may be taken, but he authori- 
tatively represses them. — Soksi' (pi\6veixog, seems contentious) A 
disputer of this sort might think that he was contending rightly ; 
but Paul calls him contentious. This is what he says : If any 
one wishes to contend, and deems himself right in doing so. In 
this passage it is rather intended to teach the Corinthians 
modesty, than to bind all : comp. 2 Cor. ii. 9. For he espe- 
cially restrains their (pvelcasiv, puffed up spirit : comp. xiv. 34—38. 
— rifi^iTg, we) your teachers, of the Hebre;w nation. — emriHiav, 
custorn) that a woman should not cover her head, especially 
when she prays. — «/ ly.%kr\siai rou ©eoD, the churches of God) 
which ought not to be despised, xiv. 36. 

^ A vivid picture in words of some action. Appendix. 

" The word air^, the omission of which was thrust down by the mairg. of 
2d edition from the mark y to the mark s, is exhibited in the Germ. Ver. 
— E. B. 

AvTYJ is read by Lachm. with AB^ after SsSora;, and before it, in CH 
and later Syr. and Vulg. Tisch. omits it with D(A)G/S.— Ed. 

^ The word in the original is prsecisio, explained by Cicero to be a figure 
which rather gives a hint to the understanding, and leaves it to supply what 
is not expressed. — See De Or. iii. 53, Her. iv. 30. — T. 

284 1 COKINTHIANS XI. 17-20. 

17. ToDro) this, which follows. — irapayyiXKa, [Engl. Vers. / 
declare] I command) in the name of the Lord, ver. 23, xiv. 37. 
— oux iiramZv, not praising) the opposite is, I praise, ver. 2. The 
two parts into which this chapter is divided, are closely connected 
by this antithesis ; in the one the Corinthians were regarded as 
well-disposed, in the other, as committing sin. — 1I5 rh xpiTrrov, for 
the better) An assembly of believers ought always to be pro- 
gressing towards that, which is better. — s/j ri tittov, for the 
worse) and therefore for condemnation, ver. 34. At first Paul 
speaks more gently. xpeTrrov, tittov, form a paranomasia.^ 

18. TipSiTov, first) This word, when secondly does not follow, 
gives the discourse a degree of characteristic ^605 or feeling." 
Their assembly, even in the use of the gifts, might be held by the 
Corinthians for the better, xiv. — h t9i IxxXrieicf, in the church) 
The church here approaches to the signification of the place of 
meeting. It/ rh aCri, into one place, [where it is right, that all 
things should be arranged with a view to harmony. — V. g.] — 
s)ri<Sfia.Ta) divisions, not only in your mental opinions, ch. i. 10, 
but also as to your outward meetings, ver. 21. — /j-ipog ti, partly) 
He excepts the innocent, and uses a mild term. — mgTivoi, I 
believe) while his love was unaffected by it, ch. xiii. 7. 

19. Kat aipeesig, also heresies) Schisms and heresies are here 
applied to one thing ; nor is the also intended to make a dis- 
tinction ; but this is its meaning : not only many good things, 
not merely small stumbling-blocks, viii. 9, are found among you, 
but there must be also heresies, or different opinions and schisms, 
which generally arise out of them. Now there is at once both 
necessity for these and it is profitable to the godly, where men 
less approved are mixed up with them. A schism is a mutual 
separation ; heresy is the separation of one party from the unity 
of the Church, in regard either to faith, or worship. — 0/ doxi/xoi, 
those approved) Therefore there were at least some such persons 
among them. A conciliatory (a(ST$Tog) mode of expression ; for 
what he really meant to say, was, that those less approved should 
be openly manifested. 

20. 'Svnp^o/jbsmv oh i/j,uv, when ye come together therefore) The 

' See App. The two words by the similiarity of sound forming the more 
striking contrast. — Ed. 
' Appendix on moratus Sermo. 

1 COKINTHIANS XI. 21. 28f 

therefore has the effect of resuming the discourse, ver. 18. — om 
tan (payih) there is not aught to eat, i.e. it does not fall to you to 
eat ; eating is prevented, viz. because the bread is withdrawn ;^ 
he therefore pointedly says, to eat. It is an indefinite expres- 
sion. [^Man kommt nicht dazu, wegen Abgang des Brots und 
Weins, " we come not for that purpose, on account of the want of 
bread and wine." — Not. crit.] Sometimes they came in for the 
privilege of eating the Lord's Supper- itself, ver. 26. Sometimes, 
they were excluded, some at least, who came too late, and had 
not been waited for, ver. 33. So krl with the infinitive, lleb. 
ix. 5. So not merely on one occasion Chrysostom. — See 1. 2 
de Sacerd., p. 388. There is a similar use of the verb ylnrai. 
Acts XX. 16. So niDB'i' pK, 2 Chron. v. 11 ; SU^ pK, Esth. iv. 2 ; 
oxix 'idTiv apai, LXX., 1 Chron. XV. 2 ; oOx sVr; '!rp6s as a.vTierr]vai, 
2 Chron. xx. 6, and decidedly Gen. vi. 21, xa! esrai eol xal 
sxitvoig (pajih. — Kvp'iaxhv, the Lord's^ An antithesis to his own, 
(idiov) supper, next verse. 

21. "Exagro:, every one) G. Eaphelius says : " It was a Custom 
at Athens, in the age of Socrates, for every one of those, who 
met at supper, to bring some meat for himself, w^hich they did 
not set out for general use, but every one usually ate his own." 
Then, after he has referred to the testimony of Xenophon, he 
concludes, " That this very passage of the apostle, is a proof so 
far of the observance of this custom, even at that time, by the 
Corinthians, who had become Christians, that when they were 
about to celebrate the Lord's Supper, they brought at least 
bread and wine, if not other meats also, into the church, of which 
a part was afterwards taken and consecrated for the eucharist. 
For doubtless Paul calls the first their own supper, ver. 21, 
7diov diTwov, namely the meat, which every one had brought fi^om 
home, and which they fell upon as their right, without waiting 
for others. Then, oJ //.ri 'iy^ovris, those who have not, ver. 22, can 
be understood to be no other than the poorer members, in whose 
presence, the richer, not without showing contempt for them, 
intemperately feasted, before the distribution of the elements in 
the Lord's Supper, which the poor were present (had come) to 
enjoy, while no other food besides was prepared for them." — ■ 

1 Those who came first consumed it all, and left none for those who came 
late Ed. 

286 1 COKINTHIANS XI. 22-24. 

vpoXaiJ-^ani, takes before) when he ought to wait, ver. 33. — h rffl 
(payini, in eating) Language which relates to the feeding of the 
body, Ter. 33, etc., from which the Lord's Supper very widely 
differs. — xa/, and) and one indeed (inasmuch as he has not) is 
hungry (and thirsty) : but another (inasmuch as he has, is well 
filled and) becomes drunken. The one has more than is good for 
him, the other less. 

22. Tap, for) He presses upon them with questionings. — 
oixiag, houses) ver. 34. — t^s fxxT^riniag, the Church) of which the 
better part was the poor, James ii. 5. — rou 0£oD, of God) This 
constitutes the honour of the Church. — xaraippovsTre, do you 
despise) when you do that apart in the church, which you 
might do at home. — /J,ri t^ovrag, not having) Those, who have, viz. 
the wealthy ; those, who have not, viz. the needy. — olx. sTaivSi, I 
praise you not) MBiusig [saying less than is intended], implying : 
You are very much to be blamed. 

23. 'Eyw yap 'rtapiXa^ov, for I received) by immediate revela- 
tion. "We ought therefore with great reverence to approach that 
most solemn mystery, which the Lord instituted, while He was 
yet upon the earth, as we are distinctly informed by Matthew, 
Mark, and Luke, and which He renewed, besides, when Ho 
ascended into heaven, by special revelation to the Apostle 
Paul." — Jac. Faber Stapulensis. — a-rh tou Kupiov, from the Lord) 
Jesus Christ. — irapiduxa, I delivered) in your presence. — 6 Kvpicg 
'irjeoug. The Lord Jesus) This word Jesus is added with delibe- 
rate intention. He had just said from the Lord. — h t-5) vuxrt, 
on the night) Hence it is called the Supper. Comp. Ex. xii. 6 ; 
although in regard to the paschal lamb, the time of the day was 
expressly appointed ; not so in respect to the Eucharist. — 57 -Trapi- 
didoro, on which He was betrayed) This is thus brought forward 
with evident intention ; for His being betrayed broke off the 
conversation of Jesus with his disciples : comp. note at ver. 26. 

24. "ExXaai, broke) The very mention of the breaking, involves 
the distribution, and refutes the Corinthian mode of making it 
every man his own, ver. 21. — rJ i'lrsp l/iZv xXufji^tvov, which is broken 
for you) In the gospel by Luke the words are, which is given 
for you. In the Lord's Supper, with the bread broken, the body 
of Christ, which was given unto death for us, is taken and 
eaten, as real food ; although no one would be likely to affirm. 

1 COKINTHIANS XI. 25, 26. 28T 

that the Lord would have used the breaking of bread, if it had 
not been the common practice at that period. The passion of 
Christ is [should be] naturally before the eucharist ;^ hence the 
institution of the Supper took place immediately before the 
death of Christ. Therefore the body of Christ is said to be 
given in respect of the passion considered in itself; to be broken, 
in respect of the passion fitting the Lord's body for being eaten : 
and the expression for you shows that the word given is at the 
same time indicated, so that it is an abbreviated phrase, with 
this meaning ; which is given for you and broken to you. These 
remarks indeed refer to the common reading xXuf^em, firom the 
verb 'ixXaes immediately preceding ; but the Alexandrian read- 
ing had not the participle, as ig evident firom the fourth book of 
Cyril against Nestorius f whence others have supplied dib6/j,ivov 
troTH Luke. My body, which for you, is a nervous sentence, as 
John vi. 51, in the old copies, my flesh for the life of the world.^ 

25. Msra rh himvndai, after supper) Therefore you, Corin- 
thians, ought to separate common meals fi-om the Lord's Sup- 
per. — oeaMg, as often as) As often as is not a command, but it 
is implied that we should often eat and drink.— ff/i/jirs, you may 
drink) this cup, ver. 26. — lig rriv i/^riv avd/jLvtiffiv, in remembrance 
of me) This is presupposed by Matthew and Mark. Luke uses 
it once, Paul twice, because it is very suitable to his purpose. 
The old sacrifices were useful in bringing sins to remembrance, 
Heb. X. 3 ; the sacrifice of the body of Christ, accomplished 
once for all, is revived by the remembrance of forgiveness. 

26. Tov SdmTov 7-ou Kvpiou, the death of the Lord) the death, by 
which Christ was sacrificed for ns [and His blood was separated 
from His body. Hence he says separately, This is my body ; and 

' Or rather, translate " Passio natura prior est quam eucharistia." The 
suffering is naturally prior to the thanksgiving.— Ed. 

^ Hence also the participle xT^afieuou, and the preceding imperatives x«- 
/SsTE, (payert, are reckoned on the margin of Ed. 2, by a change of opinion, 
as weaker readings, and they are put doubtfully in the Germ. Ver. — E. B. 

To tTT vfA.m is the reading of ABC corrected later. G supports the 
xXii^Ejoj/ added in Eec. Text. D corr. later _^ add ^^wn-TOftivou. Memph. 
and Theb. favour lMfis:ic,«. Vulg. Cypr. 107 have " Quod pro vobis trade- 
tur."— Ed. 

» BCDL Vulg., Theb., Orig., and Cypr. omit the '^» '-■/a lima of the Rec. 
Text.— Ed. 

288 1 CORINTHIANS XI, 26. 

separately, This is my blood. — V. g.J So also, He is mentioned 
in the Apocalypse as a lamb, that had been shin. — KarayyeXkiTi, 
ye announce [show]) The Indicative, with the for, is to be re- 
ferred to the, / have delivered, ver. 23. He convicts the Cor- 
inthians from their own practice, such as it was. New things 
are announced [shown fortK], and the death of the Lord ought 
always to be new [fresh] in our memory ; Ex. xiii. 8, %a/ 
amyyikiTg, and thou shalt show [announce] ; referring to the 
passover ; whence the paschal lesson is called tTiin, the annuncia- 
tion. The Syriac version also has the indicative. — a^p'S ou, 
until) Paul derives this from the particle 'iug. Matt. xxvi. 29, 
whatever seems to be lost to us by Christ's going away, is com- 
pensated by the Lord's Supper as by a kind of equivalent, so 
that from the time of the Lord's departure from the sight of 
believers to His visible and glorious coming, we still have Him- 
self, whom for a time we do not see. What was conspicuous in 
our Redeemer has passed into the sacraments ; Leo the Great, 
Serm. 2 on the ascension. On this account it is said in remem- 
brance of Me : and of this mode of remembering there was no 
need, as long as He was in person with His disciples ; conse- 
quently He did not institute the Supper sooner, but on that 
night, on which His being betrayed broke off the visible inter- 
course with Jesus upon the earth ; but He instituted it then, 
lest He should also be forgotten, when no longer seen. It may 
be asked, why did He not institute the Supper, during the forty 
days that elapsed between His resurrection and ascension ? 
Ans. 1. Because it chiefly relates to the remembrance of His 
death. 2. The Sacred Supper is a specimen as it were of com- 
munion at the same heav9nly banquet with Christ in heaven, 
but after His resurrection, Christ did not eat and drink with His 
disciples, but merely ate with them, and only for the purpose of 
convincing them of His being truly raised from the dead and of 
His actual presence with them. This remembrance is of the 
closest and most vivid kind, such as is the remembrance of chil- 
dren towards their parents, of a wife towards her husband, of a 
brother towards a brother, united with faith, love, desire, hope, 
joy, obedience, and comprehending the whole of the Christian's 
present condition. This relation to Christ is in force from the 
close of His last feast with His disciples till His coming again, 

1 COKINTHIANS XI. 27. 289 

Matt. xxvi. 29. This mystery joins the two closing periods of 
the two Dispensations, the Old and New. — &v) at whatever time 
His coming may take place.'^ Then it will be drunk new, Matt, 
xxvi. 29. — iXSfi, come) in glory, iv. 5. It is not called a return; 
comp. Acts i. 11, note. 

27. 'ildTi 05 av esSlr} rov aprov rourov 5] ■jr/i/jj rJ TOT^piov nil Kupiou 
am^iciig) Some read n formerly for xai, but xat^ remains, as in 
what follows, of the body and blood of the Lord, From the par- 
ticle 5j, Pamelius, writing to Cyprian concerning the Lapsed, 
impugns the necessity of communion in both kinds. The dis- 
junctive particle, if any one thinks that Paul used it, does not, 
however, separate the bread and the cup ; otherwise the cup 
might as well be taken without the bread, as the bread without 
the cup. Paul twice demands, both with the bread and with 
the cup, the remembrance of the Lord Jesus, according to His 
own words, ver. 24, 25; but in the manner, in which the Lord's 
Supper was celebrated among the Corinthians, a man might 
at the same time both eat this bread and drink the cup, and yet 
apart [separately] he might eat this bread unworthily or drink 
this cup unworthily, since the remembrance of the Lord was 
certainly profaned by any impropriety, though it were only in 
the case of one of the two elements, ver. 21. But if any one 
among the Corinthians even in that time of confusion took the 
bread without the cup, or the cup without the bread, on that 
very account he took it unworthily, and became - guilty of 
the body and blood of the Lord. — ava^lcag, unworthily) They 
do so, not only who are without repentance and ' faith, but who 
do not examine themselves. The unworthiness of him, who eats, 

' Nay, but the margin of both editions, with consent of the Germ. Ver., 
implies rather that we should omit this particle ^j/, if we follow the copies. 
— E. B. ^ . . ■ ; 

ABCD corrected later, G omit av. Rec. Text has none of the oldest 
authorities on its side in reading «j/ Ed. . 

2 The margin of the second edition, with the Germ. Ver., confirms this, 
his more recent opinion, which is different from the decision of the first 
edition.— E. B. - ; 

BCDG^ Vulg., Cypr., read ^, which may seem to favour the Romish 
doctrine of communion in one kind being sufficient. A (and according to 
Lachm., which Tisch. contradicts, A or D) and translator of Orig. read 
««;.— Ed. 


290 1 CORINTHIANS XI. 28-32. 

is one thing, of eating, is another. " Some indeed say, that he 
excludes, not a person unworthy, but one receiving unworthily, 
from the sacred ordinance. If then even a worthy person ap- 
proaching unworthily is kept back, how much more an unworthy 
person, who cannot worthily partake?" — Pelagius among the 
works of Jerome. 

28. Aox;//.a^£r4i, let him prove [examinej) by judging as to 
himself, and by judging as to [discerning, i.e. distinguishiag from 
common food] the body of the Lord, ver. 29, 31. — avdpuiros, a 
ma7i) any one, iv. 1, even one that is in himself unworthy. — 
BUTcas) so at length. — ix roS) The preposition expresses circumspec- 
tion of mind ; but r6» apnv, rh irarripm, the bread, the cup, ver. 27, 
forms a phrase showing that they had not been duly discerned, 
by the receivers at Corinth : see the preceding verse. 

29. 'K.piiia) [without the article, comp. v. 32. — Not. crit.] some 
judgment, a disease, or the death of the body ; see next verse ; 
so that those who do not discern the Lord's body have to atone 
for it in their bodies. He does not say rh xaToixpi//,a, the con- 
demnation. — i^ri Siaxphuv, not judging as to [discemingj) Comp. 
Heb. X. 29. — ro aSi/ia, the body) supply, and the blood. — Toi3 
Kupio-j, of the Lord) An Antonomasia [an appellative instead of 
the proper name], i.e. Jesus. The Church is not called the body 
of Jesus, or the body of the Lord ; but the body of Christ : The 
question here then is about the proper body of the Lord Jesus. 

30. A;(i TouTo, for this cause) The Corinthians had not observed 
this, cause ; but in our day it is proper to attend to it. — unkviTe 
xal appaiuro/, weak and sickly) weak fi'om slighter distempers ; 
sickly from more serious diseases ; comp. Rev. ii. 22. — xoi/iuvrai, 
sleep) A word in a middle sense, l_f/,seov, midway between good 
and bad] as distinguished from the state aftfer death. It does not 
denote here however a dreadful death. 

31. Aiuxpho/jiiv, we would judge as to) before the deed. — Ixxpivo- 
/jji6a, we should be judged) after the deed. The simple verb and 
its compounds are elegantly used ; nor is it immeiately added 
by the Lord. But Paul afterwards discloses it to us [who it is 
from whom the judgment comes], we are chastened by the Lord, 
Eev. iii. 19. 

32. Suv rS xogfiif), with the world) The world's condemnation is 
therefore certain, being without chastisement. 

1 CORINTHIANS XI. 33, 34.-Xn. 1, 2. 291 

33. 'fioTE, therefore) The remedy and counsel smtably follow 
the reproof of vice, and the simpler the better. — ' AbiX(ptii //,ov, my 
brethren) This appellation is suited to the conclusion. 

34. TLeiv^, is hungry) that he may not wait. Anticipation.^ — 
Xo/Tce, the rest) regarding the Lord's Supper ; for presently after 
in this epistle he in like manner sets in order questions as to 
spiritual things. 


1. Hip! di rw 'Ttvev/LaTiKuv, Now concerning spiritual gifts) This 
is in the Neuter gender, ch. xiy. 1. Some may wonder, that 
there is no discussion in the other epistles also on the gifts, in 
which however other churches were not wanting, ch. xiv. 36 ; 
Gal. iii. 5 ; 1 Thess. i. 5, ii. 13. The abundance of gifts in the 
Greek churches was a powerftd confutation of the learned but 
vain curiosity of the Greeks. The abuse of them afforded Paul 
an occasion of writing to the Corinthians ; and here we may 
observe the mark of divine wisdom, inasmuch as every book of 
the Sacred Scripture, even of the New Testament, has discussed 
certain subjects pecuUar to itself. The Corinthians abounded 
in spiritual gifts, and yet Paul had occasion to write to them, as 
well on other matters, as also on this topic, and that too without 
delay : comp. ch. xi. at the end. Now, there is set forth here ; 
I. The unity of the body, verses 1-27. II. The variety of its 
members and functions, verses 27—30. m. The grand principle^ 
on which the gifts may be rightly exercised, viz., by love, ver. 31, 
and in the whole of the followiag chapter. TV. The comparison of 
the gifts with one another, ch. xiv. — ou 6sXw i/iSs ayvosii, I would 
not have you ignorant) This expression is repeated in ver. 3 in 
synonymous terms, as if after a parenthesis. — ayvosii, to be ignor- 
ant) ch. xiv. 38. 

2. O'lSars, ye know) nearly related to the verb you remember, 
which is found in Eph. ii, 11. — o5'3are, 6V;, on 'Uvti rin, vpii; t& 

^ See App. ' Occupatio.' It is the same as ■nrpax.mra.'Kyi^i;. Anticipa- 
tion of an objection which might be raised. — ^Bd, 


iidoi7M r& afifjva iig av jiyidh avayo/j^mi) The analysis of these 
words will be easy, if we only keep hold of this thread of con- 
nection, oV/ ^yisSi, that you were led; so that iiyigh is not to be 
regarded as a mere accessory proposition [SjTicategorema ; see 
Append.], but the predicate itself; comp. Eph. ii. 12 ; where 
Gentiles and Gentilism are likewise distinguished in the enun- 
ciation. For, instead of on or w?, there is said conjointly iig on, 
Germ, wie dass {as or how that), and cr; iig, that as : and that 
too with another word interposed, as in Xiphilimus, in his Epi- 
tome of Dion, Xix^h aura, or/ apa wj 'AA£|av3fos iXdav avrhv dia- 
di^iTai, it being told to him, that (or/) when (wr) Alexander comes, 
he will succeed him : or even with a longer parenthesis, as in 
Xehophon, hrauSa yvovng oi //.atnviTg oig, t'l f/^n a-jroxpcieovrai aiiroiig, 
on., X.T.K., here the soothsayers knowing, unless they shall repel them, 
how that, etc. : therefore that is doubled in Greek as n DS in 
Hebrew, Gen. xvii. 17, supplying I say. Furthermore av is 
joined with the verb nyi<sh, as we have also in Xenophon y.atfhg 
i'( ypd-^ai ug av op66ra.Ta kxaripu yjfifiro, I take the opportunity of 
stating how he should most suitably treat either of these (the 
spirited or dull horse) ; where Devarius (who has suggested to 
us both of these quotations from Xenophon) shows that av in the 
distribution of the construction is joined potentially to the verb 
XP(fiT6. Therefore the principal meaning will remain, if iig av be 
entirely put aside by itself (parenthetically) in the construction, 
as in 2 Cor. x. 9 [IVa [j^n 3o'f w oig av eK<pol3eTv v/j,ag^, where it signifies 
as if; and so it might be taken in this passage : nor even is av 
easily constnied with an indicative, such as iiyigh is. Moreover 
in ijyish a-Trayofiivoi, the passive is construed with the middle, the 
siinple with the compound ; you were led and led away, you gave 
yourselves up to any guidance whatever. The Scholium of 
Chrysostom amounts almost to this [is much the same as this] : 
though that Scholium has been censured by later writers with- 
out a cause ; o'ihari, on "EXXrivig rire, ■irug arr^jyieh, kXKo/iivoi rori, ye 
know, when ye were Greeks, how you were led, being at Hiat time 
drawn away. Add Castellio. a<pu>va dumb, a proper epithet; 
comp. ver. 3, you when blind vfent to the dumb; you dumb [unable 
to speak as you ought, by the Spirit of God, ver. 3], to the blind. 
3. A/0, toherefore) He infers this thesis, that spiritual things 
ftre with all Christians, and with [in the possession of] them 


alone, i.e. with those who glorify Jesus ; and that by means of 
those spiritual things faith in Jesus is proved ; for idols bestow 
nothing spintual : when the superstition of thci Gentiles was 
overthrown, there was not the same need of miraculous gifts. 
This is the alternative, he who glorifies Jesus, has the Spirit of 
God ; he who does not glorify Him, has not the Spirit of God, 
1 John iv, 1, 2. Paul furnishes a test of truth against the 
Gentiles ; John, against the false prophets. — ympiZ,ta v/iTv, I make 
known to you) Divine operations of thai sort had been formerly 
unknown to the Corinthians. Before receiving these letters of 
Paul, their knowledge had been less distinct, as they had been 
rescued not long before from heathenism. — h miinan Qiou, by 
the Spirit of God) Immediately after he says, by the Holy Ghost. 
Godhead and sanctity ^ are synonymous especially when speak- 
ing of the Holy Trinity. — XaXZv, speaking) This expression is of 
very wide application ; for even those, who perform cures and 
possess miraculous powers, are accustomed to use words. The 
antithesis is to the dumb idols. —£i av&kjia, calls Him, accursed) 
as the Gentiles did, but the Jews more so. There is a raTiimeig, 
or saying less than is intended. He does not call Him accursed, 
i.e. he in the highest degree pronounces Him, blessed. Accursed 
and Ziord are opposed. [It is a proof of long-suffering patience, 
which surpasses all comprehension, that Jesus Christ, the Lord, 
at the right hand of the Father does not refuse to tolerate, for so 
long a period of time, such a mass of blasphemy from unbelievers, 
and especially from the Jews, in their wretched state of blindness. 
That consideration ought to suppress in the Christian any indigna- 
tion felt by him, on account of any reproach whatever, however little 
deserved. — V. g.] — tmiTv, to say) '!rvev/i,aTix.u;, in a spiritual manner. 
4. Aioiipiiiii, divisions) The Lxx. use this term to express the 
Hebrew word npiriD, concerning the orders of the priests. Comp. 
dividing, ver. 11. — di, but) an antithesis between the one foun- 
tain and the many streams. — ^apis/idruv, of gifts) Those endow- 
ments which in ver. 1 he had called spiritual things, now, after 
mentioning Jesus, he calls gifts. — miv//,a. Spirit) The Holy Spirit 
is spoken of in this verse ; Christ in ver. 5 ; God the Father in 
ver. 6 : and calUng them gifts, ministrations, operations, agrees 

* Sanctitas, Holy Majesty. See note, Rom. i. 4. — Ed. 

294 1 COKINTHIANS XII. 5-8. 

respectively with these names. The Spirit is treated of at ver. 
7, etc. : the Lord at ver. 12, etc. : God at ver. 28, etc. — [Comp. 
Eph. iv. 4, 5, 6.] 

5. AiaxotiSiii, of ministvations) ver. 28. — 6 bi airbg Kvpw;, but 
the same Lord) The Son of God whom the Holy Ghost glorifies 
by those ministers. 

6. ''Evip'y7}/jbdTuv, of operations) ver. 10. — o de auro's ' ieri &ib;, 
but it is the same God) by the working of His Spirit, ver. 11. — 
TO. irdvra, all things) The working of God is seen somewhat more 
extensively than the offices of Christ, and the gifts of the Spirit. 
— iv vagiv, in all) Mascuhne ; comp. to every man, in the fol- 
lowing verses. 

7. (^aitpiaaig, manifestation) various, by which the Spirit wiani- 
fests Himself, as He is hidden in Himself. — itphg rh ev/ji,p£pov, with 
a view to that which is profitable) This is treated of at ver. 12, 13. 

8—10. <{)• iripui- sr'iptfj, to One, to another, to another) Three 
Genera : comp. ch. xiii. 8, and among these the expression, to 
another, denotes many species, each one under its own genus. 
So also XV. 39, 40, 41. aXXos in turn is used for distinguishing 
the species ; iTspog, the genera. By a change, aXXos is used to 
distinguish genera, inpog, species : Heb. xi. 35. Prophecy is put 
here under the second genus, rather than under the first, be- 
cause under uhe second such things are stated, as are more ap- 
plicable to those, that are without, viz., to unbelievers, than to 
such as are stated under the first genus, viz., to believers. — dia, 
by) presently after follows xarii, according to ; Iv, in ; which are 
severally used with great propriety. [The Engl. Vers, loses this 
nice distinction by translating the ii&, xaTit,, and h aU alike ' byT\ 
— Xoyoj, the word) Both wisdom and knowledge are set forth ia 
the church by the word. — Mp/as — yvueitai, of wisdom, of know- 
ledge) Paul in various ways mentions knowledge, especially to the 
Corinthians, either by itself, 2 Cor. vi. 6, or with things closely 
connected with it; in word [utterance] and knowledge, 1 Cor. i. 
5 ; comp. 2 Cor. xi. 6 ; in faith and utterance and knowledge 
and in all diligence, 2 Cor. viii. 7 ; prophecy (concerning mys- 

^ The -word sutI should rather be rejected, as well by the margin of both 
editions as by the Germ. Ver. — E. B. 

Rec. Text reads imi deos with later Syr., Orig., and B, which puts e(TT. 
after hipyav. But ACT)(A)Grfg Vulg. Iren. Hilar, omit ihti. — Ed. 


teries) and knowledge, tongues being added, 1 Cor. xiii. 2, 8 ; 
either hy revelation or hy knowledge, or by prophesying, or by 
doctrine, ch. xiv. 6 : and here of wisdom and knowledge ; Col. ii. 
3 ; Eph. i. 17, iii. 19. He speaks as of things, which are of 
daily occurrence among the Corinthians ; at present we are in, 
doubt as to the meaning and distinction of the words themselves. 
This is certain, that when they are ascribed to God, they differ 
only in their objects : see Eom. xi. 33, note ; when they are 
attributed to believers, wisdom penetrates the length, the breadth, 
the depth and height, more than knowledge. Knowledge is, so 
to speak, sight; wisdom is sight coupled with taste.-' Know- 
ledge relates to things that are to be done ; wisdom, to things 
eternal ; hence also wisdom is not said to pass away ; ch. xiii. 8, 
and knowledge is of more frequent occurrence ; so Paul does 
not so much predicate the former as the latter concerning the 
Corinthians, ch. viii. 1, ii. 6. Prophecy belongs to the prophets 
wisdom to the wise ; what is left, viz., knowledge, to the scribes, 
Matt, xxiii. 34 ; Luke xi. 52. — rh aM) the same, by whom the 
word of wisdom is given. 

9. n/tfr/s, faith) The faith here spoken of is not that, which 
is common to all the saints, but it is a peculiar gift, and distin- 
guished too from the four species, which immediately follow ; and 
yet it is joined more with them, than with that first and third 
genus of gifts, ver. 8, and ver. 10 at the end. This faith then is a 
very earnest and vividly-present apprehension of God, chiefly in 
regard to His will, as to the eifects, that are particularly con- 
spicuous either in the kingdom of nature or of grace ; therefore 
it is connected with the operation of the miraculous powers, 
ch. xiii. 2 (of which the principal, because the most useful to 
others, was the power of curing diseases), and with prophecy (to 
which the discerning of spirits was closely related, ch. xiv. 37) ; 
Rom. xii. 6. And from this description, which we have now 
given, it is evident, how common or saving faith, and miracu- 
lous faith, which is a peculiar gift, may either agree or differ, 
how the one may, or may not be, without the other, and either 
of them may, or may not be, without love. Men even without 
righteousness and love may have an intelligent perception of the 
omnipotent will of God in Christ, Matt. vii. 22 : but none but 
^ ' Sapor, ' akin to sapientia. — Ed. 

29G 1 CORINTHIANS XII. 10-] 3. 

holy men can apprehend the will of God reconciled to us in 
Christ : and in these things [as respects this apprehension] 
there is not one faith working miracles, another saving faith, 
hut one and the same faith. In its first act it always has a 
miraculous power; for it is something entirely supernatural, 
Eph. i. 19, although not always in such a degree, or on such a 
particular occasion, as that it should exert itself conspicuously ; 
see Note on Chrys. de Sacerd., § 416. — ■)(afi(Sii,aTa lafj^arm, gifts 
of healing) " Not only miraculous cures are meant. Acts v. 15, 
xix. 12, xxviii. 8, but also the gracious blessing on the cure of 
the sitk, by natural remedies ; as it cannot be denied, that 
some physicians are more fortunate than others, which should 
be attributed not merely to their skill, but especially to Divine 
grace;" E. Schmidius. This remark may also be applied to 
other gifts ; for as the king of Judah substituted shields of 
brass for those of gold, which had been lost ; so after the 
Church lost what were purely gifts, grace still lends its aid 
more secretly beneath the guise of human efforts and instru- 
mentalities, and that too the more abundantly, in proportion as 
the more opportunity is given to it. 

10. nfop»jr£;{6, prophecy) See at Rom. xii. 6. — Siaxpleiii irn-j- 
l/jarm, discerning of spirits) so that he can show to others, what 
sort of a spirit each prophet possesses, ch. xiv. 29. — y'evr, 
yy.uifsuii — tp/iriiiila, kinds of tongues — interpretation) ver. 30, xiv. 
5, xiii. 26, 27. 

11. BoiXirai, wills) the Spirit. So, as God willed, ver. 18, 
He gives the several gifts, or some gifts, in various measures, to 
the several individuals. 

12. Ourca xa! 6 Xpisroc, so also Christ) The whole Christ is 
the head and body. The head is the only-begotten Son of God, 
and His body is the Church ; Augustine. This is in harmony 
with Ps. xviii. 51. To His Anointed, to David and his seed : 
for so the accent requires it to be. 

13. 'E» evl vnv/jiari, by one Spirit) The Holy Spirit is in bap- 
tism. — E/'s £1' ffS/ia, into one body) that we may be one body, truly 
animated by one Spirit. — e/Ve 'louSaibi, lin "EXX>jii£s, whether Jews 
or Greeks) who were bodies of men very different by nature. — 
t'lTi do\JX(ii lire eXivhpoi, whether bond or free) who were bodies of 
men very different by human institution. — Tavrs; iv Tviu^a) we 

1 CORINTHIANS XII. 14, 15, 297 

all have been made to drink one Spirit. \_Omitting i'n, we have 
the true reading,^ I(ot. crit.], John vii. 37, etc. Hence also the 
unity of the body is inferred. I do not think however, that 
there is any direct allusion here to the Lord's Supper, Mark x. 
38, note. 

14. Ka/ y&p, for even) This protasis concerning the body 
extends to ver. 26 : and is so adjusted, that the apodosis, ver. 
27, is summarily added. 

15. 'E&v, if) The more ignoble members ought not to be viUfied 
by themselves, ver. 15, 16, nor can they be neglected by the more 
noble, ver. 21, 22. — «:)?, the foot) The foot is elegantly intro- 
duced speaking of the hand, the ear, speaking of the eye, the 
part speaking of the part that most resembles itself. For so 
among men, every one usually compares himself, with those, to 
whom in gifts he bears the greatest resemblance, rather than 
with those, who are far superior, or far inferior. Thomas 
Aquinas says : " Men devoted to active life are distinguished by 
the members, that serve the purposes of motion ; those who are 
devoted to a contemplative life are distinguished by the members 
that serve the purposes of the intellectual powers." He is there- 
fore of opinion, that the feet are kept in subjection ; that the 
hands occupy a more dignified position ; that the eyes are the 
teachers ; that the ears are the learners. — om il/i,! Ix, I am not of) 
supply, therefore, from the following clause. 

15, 16. Ou '!rap& TouTo ouK 'isTiv ly, roS gdijj^aTOi) M^ in interroga- 
tion expects a negative answer, as ver. 29, iJ^n ■"'diiTig angnXoi ; 
[are all apostles, surely not ?] but oix interrogative affirms, as 
eh. xiv. 23, oux spousiv ; [will they not say ?] Therefore the ques- 
tion, whereby some read [as Engl. Vers, elc.J, ou Ta^A toZto ovx 
'idTiv h roD tfw/iaros ; is it not therefore of the body ? perverts the 
sense [Beng. reads it without interrogation']. OO -jrapSt, roCs-o oiix, 
possesses a double, not a simple power of negation, as Acts iv. 
20, oO Suva^ste /A^ XaXiTv, 2 Thess. iii. 9, oi^ 6V; ouk £%('/i£i' i^ovelav 
[not that we have not power]. If the foot should say, because I 
am not the hand, I am not of the body : this saying of the foot is 

^ The els is omitted by BCD corrected later, G; "unum spiritum (others, 
uno spiritu) potati sumus " in the oldest MS. (Amiat.) of Vulg. fff Syr. 
Memph. Rec. Text has t'ls with later uncial MSS. A has h nufia, iafisr. 

298 1 CORINTHIANS XII. 16-24. 

blandly contradicted : Thou art not therefore not of the hody, 
thou dost not therefore cease to be of the body. The phraseo- 
logy of Theophilus of Antioch is very like this : oh itapii, rh ft^ 
^Xi'TTiiv nt)g rv^Xoug, ^dij xal oux igri rh (pSig roD rikioM ipcuiov, it does 
not foUow, that, because the blind do not see, now therefore also 
the light of the sun does not appear, lib. ad Autol., c. 3 ; and in 
this passage •jrapa denotes on account of, as Deut. xxiii. 4. 
Origen, c. Cels., p. 385, ou Sia. tovto oh fi,oi^evovei, They do not for 
this cause cease to commit adultery. Chrysostom, ou yap B^tou h 
roTg dvey^epigi xoivtuvouvTi;, h roT; ^ptjerorifoig oh xonoivriieTi, if you do 
not now partake of what is unpleasant, you will not partake of 
what is better, on 2 Cor. i. 7. 

16. To dug, the ear') a part less noble. — 6ip6a,X/ji,hg, the eye) a 
most noble and most commanding (Jiye/ioviiifi) part of the body, 
comp. Num. X. 31. Sight excels hearing, ver. 17, 21. 

17. E/ oXov axo^, if the whole were an ear) It is not said, and 
if, for the etc. is supplied at the end of the verse, or if the whole 
were smelling, where were the taste and the touch ? 

18. Ka^ws rii'iXrigiv, as it hath pleased Him) We ought not to 
require other and deeper reasons for things, beyond the will of- 
God : it is lawful to philosophize in subjection to that will ; we 
may do so respecting the world in its best ideal, [in a state of 
optimism] as the apostle does here respecting the human body 
in its best ideal. 

20. 'Ev di ffu/j,a, but one body) From this unity there foUows 
the mutual dependency of the members. 

21. Xpiiccv, need) To this refer the word necessary, ver. 22. — 
ij xiipaXri, the head) the highest part. 

22. ' AehvieTeptx,, more feeble) the hand, compared with the 

23. ' Arifi^orepa, Qess noble] less honourable) as the feet. The 
comparative is used to soften the expression ; positively dis- 
honourable [ignoble] was too severe. But he so calls those parts 
which are covered with garments.— a(f;)/;7/Aora, uncomely) which 
stand in need of clothing. — n/ifiv — irspiTiktJ.iv) So the Lxx., 
Esth. i. 20, iripiSiieovei n/i^v; likewise Prov. xii. 9. — sve/, 
have) from the attention which they receive from the other 

24. Ou xP^lciv s^ii, luxve no need) Why then is it necessary to 

1 CORINTHIAJSS XII. 25-28. 299 

adorn smooth cheeks with patches ? ' — gvvsxipagi) hath tempered 
together. — n/iriv, honour) comp. ver. 23, at the beginning. 

25. 'Tmp aXKfiXm /ispi/ivSiei, care for one another) This is ex- 
plained in the following verse. The plural f/,ipi/ivusi, more ex- 
pressly denotes the care of all the members, than if it were said 
in the Attic dialect, fj^ipif^v^.^ 

26. '2\)yyaAp%i) rejoice with it. Both this expression sinA suffer 
with not only denote the affection, but also the effect. 

27. 'Ex iJj'ipoMi, in part [m particuh/f\) He adds this, because 
the Corinthians were not the sole constituents of the body of 
Christ and His members, ch. xiv. 36. Even Rome should hold 
it enough, if she be apart \in particular]. 

28. 'Ev, in) So, Ik, in [the "body], ver. 18, occurs with the 
same verb set. — irpoirov, first) The apostles, not Peter apart from 
them, are in the first degree ; the others follow them, according 
to the nature of their office, their time, their dignity, their use- 
fulness. — "TTpoipriTag, prophets) Acts xiii. 1. — rplrov diSagxd'koug, 
thirdly, teachers) Teachers hold a high place, and are preferred 
to those very persons,' who work miracles. Under prophets and 
teachers are included also evangelists and pastors ; comp. Eph. 
iv. 11. — sVs/ra, then) The other classes are not distinguished by 
members [fourthly, etc., as first, secondarily']. — duvAfins, powers) 
The abstract for the concrete, and also in the following terms. 
— avnXri-^iig, xujSipvfiaeig, helps, governments [xu^'spvrisig properly 
is the piloting of a ship]) They hold governments, who take the 
lead [the helm] in managing the church. Helps, are those who, 
though they are not governors, yet exercise a certain power and 
influence, by which the others are supported; comp. xiii. 3. 
These two offices are not again -taken up at ver. 30. Princes, 
as soon as they adopted the Christian faith, claimed for them- 
selves the office of helps and governments ; but at the begmning 
those who stood first in authority, prudence, and resources in 
the church, defended and governed it. Government is occupied 
with external things ; therefore the Spirit reckons it as occupy- 
ing an inferior place. — ip//,r}vila.g yXaseZiv, interpretations of 
tongues) The expression does not seem to be a gloss spuriously 

' As was the custom, in Bengel's days, among fops. — Ed 
' Neut. plur. with verb sing. — Ed. 


introduced from ver. 10/ for ip/j^nviia yXugguv is there in the 
singular number, and it is repeated in ver. 30. The want of 
the connecting particle [the asyndeton] is equivalent to the 
closing formula, etc., or et cetera. 

29. M)j 'xdwig, are all? [surely not]) i.e., not very many are. 
— Svvd/ieig, powers) viz., are all ? For if Paul referred the have 
all ? of ver. 30, to it, he would have expressed it here. 

31. Zri\o\JTi, emulously desire) The Spirit gives as He wills, ver. 
11 : but yet behevers may freely follow out, and engage in, one 
thing in preference to another, ch. xiv. 26. God's operations 
are pleasant, not compulsory. — to, xpilrrom, the better gifts) ac- 
cording as each gift is more favourable to love. Theology is 
comparative : ch. xiv- 5, 19. — iti) [and yet, Engl. Vers.] nay 
even: so in ti -/.al, yea even also, Luke xiv. 26. I not only 
exhort, but also show the method, and the way or plan [the 
true mode of viewing the subject]. — xa^' birfp^okriv) This ex- 
pression attaches to the noun substantive the force of a super- 
lative (Rom. vii. 13), as if he were to say, the way most way-like 
[viam maxim^ vialem]. — oSJv, a way) He does not add the 
article, keeping the Corinthians somewhat in suspense, while 
he explains the way: ^■|^> the way of love. — &eixv\j//,i, I show) 
The present. Paul is now waxing warm, and is carried on to 
love. When he has made this ' showing' of the way, he returns 
to the gifts, as the word emulously desire [^>jXoDr£] repeated in- 
dicates, here and at ch. xiv. 1. 


1. Eaii, if) All the gifts [although they may he, in the highest 
degree, delightful, extensive, and useful. — V. g.] ought to be 
estimated, exercised, and elevated, according to love and its 
standard. The apostle introduces into the discussion of the 

' The margin of the second edition, with the Gnomon, is more favourahle 
to the fuller reading, than the larger edition and the Germ. Ver. — E. B. 

All the oldest MSS. and Versions read yhvi •y'kwiuZsi) only. Hilary 967 
alone has " genera linguarum vel loquendi vel interpretandi." — Ed. 


gifts a more efficacious discussion respecting love. So in Dis- 
putations, we must always return to those points, which give a 
higher degree of grace. — ra/s) all — yXueeaig, tongues) A grada- 
tion : with the tongues, ver. 1 : prophecy, ver. 2 : faith, ver. 2 : 
/ shall have bestowed, ver. 3. — XaXSi, I speak) The tenor of love 
causes, that, whereas he just before used the expression, to you, 
he should now however speak in the first person singular. He 
does not except even himself in the condition supposed [viz., 
Though I speak, etc., and have not charity, etc.] — xa/ ruv ay- 
yeXuv, and of angels) Angels excel men, and the tongue or 
tongues of the former excel those of the latter. Moreover, they 
use their tongues At least to address men : Luk^ i. and ii. — 
dyaffjiv, love) by which the salvation of our neighbour is sought. 
— fjLri sj/w, have not) in the very use of the gifts, and in the rest 
of the life. Many indeed have prophecy and other gifts, without 
charity and its fruits, ver. 4 ; Matt. vii. 22, which are called 
gifts, not so much in respect of themselves, as of others. — yiy om) 
I have become, for want of love. The language becomes severe 
[obtinet a«ro/i/av]. — yaX%hi, brass) Brass, for example a piece 
of money of that metal requires less of the skill of the artist, 
than a cymbal, for instance, of silver. He may be compared 
to the one who speaks with the tongues of men without love ; 
to the other, who speaks without love with the tongues of 
angels. — ny/uv — aXakaZov, sounding — tinkling) with any sound 
whatever, mournful or joyful, without life and feehng. The lan- 
guage varies, / am nothing ; it profiteth me nothing, ver. 2, 3. 
Without love, tongues are a mere sound : prophecy, knowledge, 
faith, are not what they are [seem to be] : Matt. vii. 22, 15 ; 
1 Cor. viii. 1, 2 ; James ii. 14, 8 ; every such sacrifice [gift 
exercised without love] is without [the heavenly] reward,^ how- 
ever much such a man may please himself, and think that he is 
something, and promise to himself a great recompense. "With 
love, the good things which are the antitheses to these defects, 
are understood. 

2. MtiiSTripia, mysteries) Eom. xi. 25, note. He does not add 
wisdom, which is nothing without love. — yi-a.! irasav rriv ymm, and, 
all knowledge) This is construed with I'lba, I understand, as 

* Comp. Matt. vi. 2.— Ed. 

302 1 CORINTHIANS XHI. 3,, i. 

being a word of kindred meaning and immediately preceding. 
Of those gifts, which are enumerated at ch. xii., Paul at ch. xiii. 
selected such as are more remarkable, and to which the pecuhar 
prerogatives of love are fitly opposed. Mysteries relate to things 
concealed ; knowledge comprehends things which are more ready 
at hand, and more necessary, as Wissenschaften is commonly said 
of natural things — -ff/ffr/v, faith) ch. xii. 9, note. 

3. Ka^ kdiv, and if) This is the utmost that the helps and 
governments can do, ch. xii. 28. — ■y\/iiif/,i<soi, though I should distri- 
bute) He puts in the highest place, what refers to the human 
will and seems to be the most closely connected with love, in 
regard to acting and suffering. He, who delivers up his goods 
and his body, has much love, 2 Cor. xii. 15 ; but he who delivers 
them up without lovi, keeps back his soul to himself:^ for love is 
a faculty of the soul ; therefore he speaks o{ profit {iKpiXoZ/iai) in 
the apodosis. On -^ai/iit^siv see Eom. xii. 20. — vapadZ, give up) for 
others. — ha) even to such a degree as that I be burnt, Dan. iii. 28; 
they gave up their bodies to the fire, -TrapeScanav to, ifw/iara aurZv lig 

4. 'h ayavri, love) He poults out the nature of love. He does 
not say, love speaks with tongues, prophesies, gives to the poor : 
but it is long-suffering. This is a metonymy for the man, who 
has love. But Paul chiefly mentions those firuits of love, neces- 
sary in the use of the gifts, which he requires from the Corin- 
thians, and without which there may be prophecies, but there 
can be no profit. If we take 1 Cor. viii. 1, we may advan- 
tageously compare together the delineation of love which Paul 
adapted to the Corinthians, and the delineation of wisdom, which 
James in like manner adapted to [portrayed for] those to whom 
he wrote. Jam. iii. 17 .—/iaxpo6v//,sT, suffers long) Thp twelve 
praises of love are enumerated by three classes, ver. 4—7- — (if we 
reckon together one pair at the beginning, and two pairs at the 
end, as we show in the following notes). The first consists of 
two members, (1.) it suffers long, is kind : (2.) envies not. We 
have the same synthesis and antithesis, Gal. v. 22, 20. Long- 
suffering has respect to evil proceeding from others : kind has 
respect to the extending of good to others ; on the other hand, 

^ He may give up his body, but he keeps back his soul. — Ed, 

1 CORINTHIANS XIU. 4, 5. 303 

it does not grieve at another's good, nor rejoice at another's 
calamity. The conjunction is wanting to is kind [Asyn- 

4j 5. Oil irefiTspiierai, ou pugiovrar oiix aeyrnJ^oviT, ou ^jjre/'ri saurijgj 
vaunteih not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself un- 
seemly/, seeketh not its own) The second class consists of four 
members : in the first and second, two things in excess, which 
are generally united, are taken away ; in the third and fourth 
two things in defect, which are likewise united, are also taken 
away : for as-)(ii\i/,ovitv means the want of attention to that de- 
cency, and that civility, which propriety required to be ob- 
served : and Z,riTiT\i ra iavrov is connected with the neglect of 
others, when a man looks merely to himself and leaves others to 
themselves. Love avoids these two defects, and the third cor- 
responds to the first, for both refer to the desire of approving 
one's self to others : the fourth is opposed to the second, for both 
refer to the necessity of avoiding party feeling. Ou vipvipeisTou, 
it does not act insolently, with pride and ostentation ; again, ovx 
agx^/jioviT, it is not uncourteous, unpoUte, rude :^ see what I have 
remarked on j;he verb ■jrepviptiirai ad Gregorii Paneg., p. 141, 
etc. ; ou ipvaioZrai, is not puffed up, with too strong party-zeal for 
another; comp. iv. 6 : again ou ZrinTr^ laur^s [seeks not its own'], 
does not show favour to itself, and does not ask others to show it 
favour. In a way not dissimilar, twice two members have hke- 
wise respect to each other mutually (though they are occasion- 
, ally placed in a difierent order by chiasmus direct or inverse) 
at ver. 7, and especially at xiv. 6. 

5. Ou 'xapo^uverai — v&wa, v'jrofihii, is not provoked — heareth all 
things') The third class, consisting of six members ; of which the 
third and foufth, and so the second and fifth, the first and sixth 
agree with one another. For there is a chiasmus, and that too 
retrograde, and quite agreeing with the double cHmax by steps 
negative and affirmative. And of aU these our neighbour is the 

^ Where love flourishes, there also true modesty prevails, which is termed 
eiviliiy among people of the world (nor yet should familiarity be blamed as 
insolent) : on the other hand, every degree of elegance of manners, even in 
its highest perfection, shows in men of the world something of an insolent 
character in it, on account of self-love. Let the world cease to boast of 
virtues ; they apply only to true Christianity. — ^V. g. 

304 1 CORINTHIANS XIII. 6, 7. 

personal object ; — the real ^ object, as regards the future, is, love 
is not provoked, it hopeth all things, it endureth all things ; as re- 
gards the past, the object of the thing is, it thinketh no evil, it 
covereth [Engl. Vers., bearetli] all things, believeth all things : as 
regards the present, it rejoiceth not at iniquity, but rejoiceth together 
with others in the truth ; now by thus transposing the members, 
the elegance of the order, which Paul has adopted, is the more 
clearly seen ; which the following scheme thus represents, and 
its evident plan shows the thread and connection : 

r 1. It is not provoked, 
r 2. It thinketh no evil. 
J ("3. It rejoiceth not at iniquity. 

I 1 (4. But rejoiceth at the truth. Present. 

L 5. Covereth all things, believeth all things, past. 

L 6. Hopeth all things, endureth all things, future. 

Thus the order is mutually consistent with itself; and the reason 
appears, why these last, hopeth, endureth, are put at the end, 
because in fact they are to be referred to the future. — oh ■?rapo^{)- 
nrai, is not provoked) although love glows with an eager desire 
for the Divine glory, yet it is not provoked ; comp. Acts xv. 39. 
— oi XoyiZfTai -rh xaxiii, pEngl. Vers, thinketh no evil']) doth not 
meditate upon evil inflicted by another, with a desire to avenge 
it. So the LXX. for njfT atJTl often. [It does not think thus, This 
or that man inflicts upon me this or that wrong ; he has either done, 
or deserved this or that. — V. g.J 

6. 'ASmicf, — aXrjhlcf, in iniquity — in the truth) On this antithesis 
see Horn. ii. 8. — euyy^^aipei, rejoiceth with) congratulates, with joy. 
AU truth cherishes joy. 

7. ndvra, all things) all things occurs four times, viz., those 
things, which are to be covered, or believed ; and which are to 
be hoped for, and endured. These four steps beautifully follow 
one another. — STsyii, covers) conceals^ in relation to itself and in 
relation to others arsyo/iiv, we cover, ch. ix. 12, note. — msriUi, be- 
lieves) as he covers the evil deeds of his neighbour, which are 
apparent, so he believes the good, which is not apparent. — IXit/^e;, 
hopes) See the ground of hope [viz., " God is able to make him 

^ The object of the thing, as contrasted with the object of the person. 
" reale objectum" — " objectum personale." — Ed. 
^ Bears, without speaking of what it has to bear. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS XIII. 8-10. 306 

stand ;" therefore, " he shall be holden mji"], Rom. xiv. 4 ; era^rj- 
atrai ; he likewise hopes good for the future, and endures evils. — 
■jm/iBvii, endures) until hope at some time springs up, 2 Tim. ii. 
25. Thus the praises of love describe as it were a kind of circle, 
in which the last and first mutually correspond to each other ; 
it is long-suffering, it is kind ; it hopeth all things, it endureth all 
things ; and, that which is of far greater importance, it never 
faileth, pleasantly follows this fourth step. 

8. OvSiTors hvivrei, never faileth) is not destroyed, does not 
cease, it always holds its place ; it is never moved from its posi- 
tion; comp. kw/Vrovrss, Mark xiii. 25, note. — e'ln d$ irfopririmi, 
but whether prophecies) y\z., there are : soch. xv. 11. Prophecies 
in the plural, because they are multifarious. — xarapyviS^sovTai, 
they shall be done away with) This is the expression in the case 
of prophecies and knowledge ; but regarding tongues, -jravaovTai, 
they shall cease. Tongues are a most charming thing, but the 
least lasting ; they were the first gift on the day of Pentecost, 
Acts ii., but they did not continue in the primitive chiu'ch so 
long as the other miraculous gifts : nor have they anything 
analogous in a perfect state, as prophecy and knowledge have, 
to which they ought therefore to yield ; whence presently after, 
respect is shown to those in preference to tongues, when he is 
speaking of "that which is perfect." — y^Xuesai, tongues) These 
occupy a middle place, because they are the vehicle and appen- 
dage of prophecies ; but prophecy and knowledge constitute two 
different genera, ver. 9, 12. 

9. 'Ex fiipou;, in part) Not only does the apostle say this. This 
prophecy and this knowledge, which we have, are imperfect ; for 
the same must be .said even of love, we love only in part [not 
perfectly] ; but such is the nature of prophecy itself, with the 
exception of the one prophet Jesus Christ, and such the nature 
of knowledge, that they ought to be reckoned among the things, 
which are in part, [not merely because they are now imperfect, 
but also] because we use them only in this imperfect life. On 
the phrase, comp. the note on Rom. xv. 15, I have written more 

10. "EX^jj, is come) in its own time, by degrees, not by a 
sudden bound. In spiritual things, those of weaker age ought 
not too eagerly to aim at what belongs to those, who have reached 


308 1 CORINTHIANS XIII. 11, 12. 

greater maturity. That, which, is perfect, comes at death; 
2 Cor. V. 7 : and at the last day. — ron, then) not before. There- 
fore prophecy and knowledge never entirely pass away in this 

11. "On, when) The progress from grace to glory, which awaits 
individual believers and the whole Church, is compared to the 
different stages of human life. — vjjt/os, a child) Exemplifying the 
humility of Paul. The natural man does not willingly remember 
his childhood because he is proud ; but the soul, pining away 
under adversity, confesses the early passages of its early growth, 
Job X. lO.-j-i'KdXovv, I spoke) There is a reference to tongues. — 
ippovouv, I understood [I had the sentiments]) The reference is 
to prophecy ; for it is something more simple. — eXoyiZ^6/inv, I 
reasoned as a child) The reference is to knowledge ; for it is more 
complex. — on d's, but when) He does not say, when I put away 
childish tilings, I became a man. Winter does not bring spring ; 
but spring drives away winter ; so it is in the soul of man and 
in the Church. — xar^^yjjjca, I put away) of my own accord, will- 
ingly, without effort. — rdt, tou vtj'xiou, childish things) childish 
speaking, childish understanding, childish counsel, ra, the 
Abstract. The humanity is not taken away, but manhood is as- 

12. BXs'?ro//.iv, we see) This corresponds in the Lxx. to the 
Hebrew words nsT and ntn, 1 Sam. ix. 9 ; 1 Chron. xxix. 29, 
concerning the Prophets ; and this passage has a synecdoche of 
the nobler species for the whole genus ; and along with the verb, 
we see, supply, and hear, for the prophets both see and hear ; and 
it was usual generally to add words to visions. It will be of im- 
portance to read the Paneg. of Gregory, and the remarkable 
passage of Origen, which has been noticed by me in my obser- 
vations on that book, pp. 104, 105, 217, 218, 219. But what a 
mirror is to the eye, that an enigma is to the ear, to which the 
tongue is subservient. On various grounds, we may compare 
with this Num. xii. 8. Moreover he says, we see, in the plural : 
/ know, in the singular ; and to see and to know differ in the 
genus [classification] of spiritual things, as the external sense, 
and the internal perceptions differ in the genus [under the head] 
of natural things. Nor does he mention God iii this whole verse ; 
but he speaks of Him, as He shall be all in all. — ron, then) Paul 


had a great relish for those things, that are future : 2 Cor. xii. 2, 
3. — irpogavov "ffphg vpoeuvov, face to face) D''3D ?^< D''Ja, with our face, 
we shall see the face of our Lord. That is more than na PK na, 
(STo/Mo, irpbs STof/^a, mouth to mouth. Vision is the most excellent 
means of enjoyment. The word /3?i.£« is elegantly used, and 
is adapted to both states, but under a different idea. — yndexu, 
iviyvuffo/iai) The compound signifies much more than the simple 
verb ; I know, I shall thoroughly hnow. And so Eustathius in- 
terprets the Homeric word imo-^o/Lai, aKpi^idTara imrriprieto, I shall 
observe most accurately ; and Ivkyiaitos, an overseer, axo'Tivrric 
axpi^Tts, an accurate observer ; and adds the reason, on fi Ivrnpo- 
6egig xa! axpl^iidv Tiva di^f/ialvn %ai ivircteiv ivipyhag, that the eV/ pre- 
fixed to the simple verb signifies a certain degree of accuracy 
and additional energy. — Kaiijg xal iiri'yiiwsSrjv, as also I am known) 
This corresponds to the expression, face to face. 

13. Nuv/ di fitsvii, but now abideth) This is not strictly said of 
duration ; for these three things do not meet in it ; since faith 
is terminated in sight, and hope in joy, 2 Cor. v. 7 ; Eom. viii. 
24 : love alone continues, ver, 8 : but it refers to their value, in 
antithesis to prophecy, etc., in this sense : On calculating 
accounts [on weighing the relative values] these three things are 
necessary and sufficient ; let only these three stand ; these exist ; 
these abide, nothing more. A man may be a Christian without 
prophecy, etc., but not without faith, hope, love. Comp. on the 
verb, fiem, I abide, E,om. ix. 11 ; 1 Cor. iii. 14 ; 2 Cor. iii. 11 ; 
Heb. xiii. 1. Faith is directed to God ; hope is in our own 
behalf; love is towards our neighbour. Faith is properly con- 
nected with the economy of the Father ; Hope with the 
economy of the Son; Love with the economy of the Holy 
Ghost, Col, ii. 12, i. 27, 8. And this too is the very reason 
of the order in which these three things are enumerated, vwl, 
now, has the effect of an epitasis'^ [and shows what are the 
especial duties of us travellers on the way to the heavenly city. — 
V. g.J — rpla, three) only. Many are not necessary. Paul often 
refers to these three graces. Eph. i. 15, 18 ; Phil. i. 9, 10 ; Col. 
i. 4, 5, 22, note ; 1 Thess. i. 3 ; v. 8 ; 2 Thess. i. 3, 4 ; Tit. i. 1, 
2 ; Heb. vi. 10, etc. Sometimes he mentions both faith and 

• An emphatic addition augmenting the force. — Append. 

808 1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 1-5. 

love, sometimes faith [by itself] denoting by sjTiecdoche the 
whole of Christianity, 1 Thess. iii. 6, 5. In a -wicked man we 
find infidelity, hatred, despair. — raCra, these) Heb. DH, i.e. are, 
viz. greater than prophecies, etc. — /iii^uv, greater) the greatest, 
of these, of the three. He not only prefers love to prophecy, 
but even to such things as excel prophecy. Love is of more 
advantage to our neighbour, than faith and hope by themselves : 
comp. greater, xiv. 5. And God is not called faith or hope 
absolutely, whereas He is called love. 


1. AiiixiTS, follow after) This word implies more than ^riXovrt, 
emulously desire, here, and in ver. 12, 39, xii. 31. — fi&Wov, 
rather) in preference to tongues. Paul here does not now any 
longer speak expressly of knowledge, for it, in respect of the 
other gifts, coincides with prophecy, ver. 6. 

2. Tw ©Ep, to God) alone, who understands all tongues. — 
axouei, hears) i.e. understands. — irnlifLari, in spirit) ver. 14, — 
IMMSTripm, mysteries) which others may rather admire, than learn. 
The article is not added. 

3. Oho&o/u,^v, edification) Two principal species are added to 
this genus ; ifapaxk^aig, exhortation, takes away sluggishness ; 
•sapa/jixidla, consolation takes away sadness. 

4. ''EauTov, himself) understaiiding the meaning of what the 
tongue speaks. — ixxXrjfflav, the church) the whole congregation. 

5. TKuigeaig, with tongues) The Corinthians chiefly cultivated 
this gift ; and Paul does not consider them as doing wrong, 
but he reduces it to order : see ver. 12. — [MiiZoiv, greater) more 
useful, ver. 6. — Sitp/j,riv£\j£i) di& elegantly expresses the position of 
the interpreter between him, who speaks in an unknown tongue, 
and the hearer. If the very same person, who speaks in an 
unknown tongue, also acts as interpreter, then the very same 
person in a manner comes in between himself and the hearer ; 
according to the different point of view in which he is regarded., 


— ri ixxXtigla., the Church) seeking [ver. 12] edification ; may 
receive it in consonance with this [viz. with seeking]. 

6. ' H £» affoxaXu'4'E;, ri h yvudii, rj h 'Trpoprjrilcfj 5) h diSay^rij either 
in revelation, or in knowledge, or in prophecy, or in doctrine) 
Here are four kinds of prophecy broadly so called; the two 
former refer to the person himself, who rejoices in the gift ; the 
two latter at the same time show more of a leaning towards the 
hearers.^ On the difference of prophecy (which corresponds to 
revelation) and of knowledge (with which doctrine agrees) see 
xii. 8, 10 : and on the whole subject, below at ver. 26, etc. 
Prophecy has relation to particular points, formerly not well 
understood, to mysteries to be known finally [and only] by 
revelation. Doctrine and knowledge are brought from the com- 
mon storehouse of believers, and refer to things obvious in the 
matter of salvation. 

7. AuXJj — xiSapa, a pipe — a harp) Two of the chief musical 
instruments ; not only the pipe, which is, as it were, animated 
by the breath of the piper, but also the harp. — roTg <pd6yYoig,'in 
the sounds) The ablative case comp. by, ver. 9.' — vZg yvueSnaziTai, 
how shall it he known) how shall pipe be distinguished firom pipe, 
and ha^p from harp ? There is one and then another soiind of 
one and the same instrument^ when it is directed to different 

8. Toip, for) This serves the purpose of a gradation ; for the 
higher confirms the lower step. — aSjjXov, uncertain) One sound 
of a, single trumpet summons soldiers to one class of duties, 
another sound to another class of duties. 

9. -T/i£?g, you) who have life [opp. to things without life\; 
comp. ver. 7. — iia, by) i.e. then, when you speak in an un- 
knovwi tongue. 

10. Todaura, f! ruj/o/) il rhyai (the Latin, verbi gratia, for 
example ; comp. xv. 37) makes roisaZra have the force of a cer- 
tain number. If men could ever have counted the number of 
voices, Paul would have set down the number here. — cxibh 
apciivov, none without signification) each one of them has its own 
power [meaning, ver. 11], dvm/Mv. 

11. BciplSapog, a barbarian) See Acts xxviii. 2, Note. 

' What Ernesti approves in Moldenliauer evidently agrees with thess 
views.— Bibl. Theol., T. viii., p. 673.— E. B. 

310 1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 12-16. 

12. nviu/idrav, of spirits) [of spiritual gifts]. Plural as ver. 
32, xii. 10. As there is one sea, and many seas, so there is one 
spirit, and many spirits; one trumpet gives many sounds. — 
vpos rrjv oixodofitiv, to edification) that the Church maybe as much 
as possible edified. 

13. Xlpodiu'xis^o') let him pray ; and he will do this with such 
fruit and effect, that the interpretation shall be added to the 
imknown tongue ; see the following verse. It is implied that 
this will be obtained by prayers. 

14. Ti ffVED/ia /iOD, 6 &s voijg fiov, my spirit — but my understand- 
ing) The spirit is a faculty of the soul, when it becomes the 
passive object of the Holy Spirit's delightftd operations ; but voD?, 
the understanding, is a faculty of soul, when it goes abroad, and 
acts with our neighbour :^ as also when it attends to objects 
placed beyond itself, to other things and persons, although its 
reasonings may however be concealed, aoro^^upos Xoyie/Mog (Ammo- 
nius) ; comp. ver. 20, note. So understanding, ver. 19 ; vnvf/^a, 
the inmost shrine of the understanding, roD vo6g, Eph. iv. 23 ; 
comp. Heb. iv. 12 : vous from v'soi, on account of its agitation or 
movement :^ comp. Alexand. Aphrodit., 1. 2, vepl -^vxvi, f. 144, 
ed. Aid. — axap'ffog, without fruit) It has firait, but does not 
bring it forth. Respecting this word, see Matt. xiii. 22. 

15. npotfEuf o/4.a;, I will pray) with the voice ; the first person 
singular for the second person plural. — -vf/aXS, / will sing) with 
the voice, or play on an instrument. 

16. 'Em/) if that be done with the spirit only. — eiXoyrjarig, thou 
shalt bless) The most noble kind of prayer. — 6 ava-rrXripay Thv roVov 
roj idiuTou, he thatflleth the place of the unlearned) This expres- 
sion is not a mere paraphrase of the word unlearned, but com- 
prehends all, who, how much soever they may excel in gifts, did 
not at least understand the tongue, in which the person was 
speaking, any more than an unlearned man; and therefore Paul 
puts him more to shame, whom he here shows to be wrong. It 
is a common phrase among the Hebrews, he Jills the place of his 
fathers, i.e.,-he shows himself worthy of his ancestors. — irug IpiT 
Th afiriv, how shall he say amen) This was their usual practice even 
at that time ; not only the unlearned, but all the hearers spoke, 

' i.e. ■jTvevfix is passive, when said of man : i/oS?, active. — ^Ed. 
' Rather from the same root as ■yi/Znai, and noscere. — Ed. 


giving their assent to Jiim who blessed. And so also, those who 
could not speak much adopted the words of others, and declared, 
that they with their understanding assented to it. — T/ Xeym, 
what thou sayest) Not only ought he to know, that 'thou hast 
said nothing evil, but also what good thou hast spoken, 

18. 'E.'vxapigTa, I give thanks) Paul uses thanksgiving and 
vpokpaviiav,^ anticipatory precaution against the charge of 
egotism, when he is to speak his own praises, — vdvruv, more than 
you all) more than you individually or even collectively, — u/aSc, 
than you) Frequently, those, who are less accompHshed are more 
proud and act with greater insolence, 

19. Tiiwi XijoMi, jive words) A definite for an indefinite 
number ; the two thousandth part of ten thousand : comp. Lev. 
XKvi. 8. 

20. 'ABeX<po!, brethren) The vocative put at the beginning has 
an agreeable force, — rjj xanlt^- tchTs (pfisi) Ammonius makes this 
seasonable observation : " voug is covert reasoning, aorostf upo; 
Xoyigfiihs ; but (pphig impHes GOOD thoughts,'' u'l ATAQAI didvoiai. 
Nor does xaxla denote malice [badness], but vice, or whatever is 
opposed to virtue. — vrimd^irs, he ye children) vri'Tna^ai, similar to 
the forms a}i//,a,^!a, *u^pa^w. — Ttkiioi, perfect) and therefore deter- 
mining the true value of every thing according to its use, 

21. No/iw, in the law) comprehending also the prophets, — h 
sTepoyXutHiSoig xal h y^tiXieiv sTspoii) Is. xxviii. 11, LXX. dioi (pavXiS- 
/iov ^iiXioiv Slit, yXwggrig iTipag, eTipoyXuasoig ; masculine or neuter. 
The paraphrase accommodating the text of Isaiah to this pas- 
sage of Paul may be as follows : This people do not hear Me, 
though I speak to them in the language, to which they have been 
accustomed; I will therefore speak to them in other tongues, 
namely, of the enemies that are sent against them ; but even then 
they will not listen to me, comp, Jer, v, 15, Since God is said 
to speak in the tongues of enemies, the parity of reasoning holds 
good from )them to the gift of tongues, — olS' o'Jnas elgaxovSovTai 
/iou) Is. xxviii, 12, xa! om riSiXrigccv axouiiv, And they would not 

22. E/s gn[jkiTov) for a sign, by which unbelievers may be 
allured and hear [give ear to] the word ; but ouS' o!)™?, not even 

^ See Append. 

812 1 COKINTHIANS XIV. 23, 24. 

thus do they hear [alluding to Isa. xxviii. 12, see last note]. — e/'tf/V, 
have their existence) The accent has the effect of making the word 
emphatic. — sj Si cr^ofujrs/a, but prophecy) namely, is for a sign, or 
simply is ; comp. vi. 13. — roTg meTsvovm, to them that believe) 
This must be taken as an instance of the figure Amplificatio ; ^ in- 
asmuch as prophecy makes believers of unbelievers ; the speak- 
ing tongue leaves the unbeHever to himself [still an unbeliever]. 
The expression of Paul is indefinite. Unbelievers, generally, 
when tongues fall upon them, continue to be unbelievers, but 
prophecy makes believers of unbelievers, and gives spiritual 
nourishment to them, that believe. 

23. "OXjj eV/ rh aM, the whole into one place) That was a rare 
occurrence in so large a city. — eleixiugi Si, and there come in) as 
strangers or even from curiosity. — SSiurai, unlearned) men who 
have some degree of faith, but do not abound in gifts. There 
follows by gradation, or unbelievers, who did not so readily come 
in, and yet were not debarred. In this verse Paul speaks in the 
plural, in the following in the singular. Many bad men, when 
together, prevent one another from believing by their bad con- 
versation ; individuals are more easily gained. — on fiahish, that 
ye are mad) For they will not be able to distinguish that earnest- 
ness from madness ; hence they wiU speak to yom: prejudice ; 
comp. Acts ii. 13. 

24. UavTig, alt) one by one, ver. 31. — ilscKSr], there come in) 
We have an example of this at 1 Sam. xix. 20, 21. — amerog, one 
that believeth not) To this word we refer is convinced, comp. 
John xvi. 9. — ISiurj^g, an unlearned person) to this word we refer 
is judged: comp. ii. 15. That conviction of unbelief, and that 
judgment of unlearned rudeness is accomplished by the power of 
this very prophecy, although this be done without application to 
individuals. And these are two successive steps ; the third fol- 
lows, the secrets, etc. 

24, 25. 'EX6y;)^Era/ utJ vdvfuv, avaxpinrai wJ Tavrm (xal oDrw') 

1 See Append. The taking of the denomination of a thing, not so much 
frpm what it now is, as from what it is about to be. As here, " Prophecy is 
a sign to those who thereby are made believers." This seems Bengel's 
meaning. — Ed. 

2 ABD corrected later, Gfg Vulg. omit xod ovtu. The later Syr. and some 
later uncial MSS., support the words with Rec. Text Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 25, 26. 313 

rii x^wirra, Ttj; xapdlas aurou pci\iip& yhirccr xal o'uTiii vieiiv svl vpoidiTiiv 
irpoSKmri6ii tSi ®iu, avayyeXkiniv 'in o &ihg ovnog h ii/in sdri) The first 
xal o'iiTu is spurious ; for the present of the verb y'lnrai indicates 
that this clause, rd xpu'TrrSc, — yivirai, is more closely connected with 
the preceding words, where the discourse runs in the present 
tense, than with the following, which have the fiiture vpoexuv^ffsi. — 
MO vavToiv, by all) partly speaking, partly assenting. 

25. Ta xp-oisrdi, Tjj; xapilac airoO, the secrets of Jiis heart) all the 
inmost thoughts of the heathen's heart, which hras never expe- 
rienced such feelings, and has 'now for the first time become 
acquainted with itself and makes confession concerning itself : 
for the unbeliever is here principally intended. The unlearned 
man is added by the way, on account of his case being not alto- 
gether dissimilar. Any one with the lowest degree of faith be- 
fore entering an assembly of that kind knew, that God is truly in 
believers. — avrov, of him) the unbelieving stranger. — ipavspa y'm- 
rai, are made manifest) Dan. ii. 30 at the end. — ourw) so, at last. 
— TEiTiliv, falling down) a public declaration on the part of those, 
who feel and experience in themselves the power of the word, is 
generally made too sparingly in our times. — a-TrayyiXkm, declar- 
ing) spontaneously, clearly, expressly announcing this fact either 
in the Church, or even out of it; elsewhere : comp. on this word, 
Greg. Paneg. § 123 cum Annot.— 6V/, that) comp. Dan. ii. 46, 47. 
A most conclusive argument for the truth of religion, fi-om the 
operations of God on godly men. — oi/rws, indeed) He will confess, 
that you are not mad, but that God is truly in you, and that He 
is the true God, who is in you. 

26. "'Exagrog, every one) The public assembly was at that time 
more fruitful, than in the present day, wherein- one individual, 
whatever may be the state of his mind, must fill up the time 
with a sermon. — ■^ot,>.//,hv 'iyji) has a psalm, in habit of mind or in 
actual fact, either a little before, or only now : comp. ver. 30. 
Extemporary hymns were given to them by the Spirit. Indi- 
viduals had a psalm, wherewith to praise God, or a doctrine to 
be imparted to his neighbour ; or a tongue, by which they might 
speak every one to himself. The word 8%?;, has, repeated, ele- 
gantly expresses the abundance of the gifts, which had been di- 
vided. — amxaXv^Mv, revelation) by which God communicates 
something to man ; Gal. ii. 2, prophetical revelation, ver. 30, 29. 

S14 1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 27-32. 

— ip//,rivi!a,v, interpretation) by which one man may interpret an 
unknown tongue to another. — olxoSofj^nv, edification) the best rule. 

27. E'/Ti, If) He now more particularly explains how all 
things may be done for edification. — rig, any man) Merely one 
person ought never to have spoken in an unknown tongue ; but 
if one did speak, one or two should have followed to vindicate 
the abundance of the Spirit.^rfiETs, three) may speak. — ava, /iepog) 
by a division of the times or even of the places of speaking. 

28. Eav di firi fi, but if there be not) Either he himself, who 
spoke in an imknown tongue, might have interpreted, ver. 13 ; 
or another. — giydroi, let him be silent) who speaks in an unknown 
tongue. — iavTa xal rffl &iSj, to himself and to God) ver. 4, 2. — 
XaXeiroi, let him speak) privately. 

29. Xlpo<p'fjra,i h), but let the prophets) An Antithesis to those who 
speak in an unknown tongue. Prophecy, strictly so called, is 
opposed to revelation, ver. 6 ; prophecy, used in a wider sense, (as 
well as revelation) is opposed to knowledge : ibid. Again, com- 
prehending knowledge, it is opposed to tongues, ver. 4. — Xahiinagav, 
let them speak) supply a,v& /jt^ipog, one by one, ver. 27. — o'l aXkoi, 
the rest) viz., of the prophets. — diaxpiviraigav, decide \_ judge]) even 
by word of mouth. 

30. KaSri/jbeviji) while he sits, listening. — i 'jtfuTog, the first) who 
formerly spoke. 

31. Kad' ha, one by one) so that one person may always give ■ 
way to another. — Taurs? /iccvSamei, all may learn) by conversing, 
inquiring, speaking, listening : all, being prophets. A man 
learns by teaching : he learns by speaking, and asking questions, 
ver. 34, 35. [iliawy continue to be foolish and languid in spiritual 
things, because they almost never speak about such things. — V. g.J 
— '!rapa-A,aXSivrai, may be comforted) Sometimes the speaking of 
another produces in us more awakening effect, sometimes our own. 

32. Kai) and indeed; so xal, 2 Cor. v. 15 ; 1 John iii. 4. — 
'nibiiara vpoipriTuv, the spirits of the prophets) The abstract for the 
concrete, the prophets, even while they are acted upon (under 
the Di^'ine impulse). — vpoiptiraig, to the prophets) He does not say, 
to the spirits of the prophets. — uirordsssrai, are subject) not that a 
prophet would for the sake of another deny or cast away the 
truth of his prophecy ; 1 Kings xiii. 17, etc. : for the word of 
prophecy is above the prophets, ver. 37 ; but that he should not 

' 1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 33-37. SI 5 

demand that he alone should be heard, but should do his en- 
deavour to hear others also, while they are speaking, and should 
learn from them, what communications they have received [from 
God] in preference to himself : subjection is shown by keeping 
silence and learning,^ ver. 34, 35, [1 Tim. ii. 12]. Every act of 
teaching involves a degree of absolute authority [authentiam] : 
the^/ are subject, he says ; not merely they ought to be subject. 
The Spirit of God teaches the prophets this. 

33. 'Xls, as) This concluding clause is very like that of the next 
portion, ver. 36.^ 

34. A/ yumoiig, the woman) Paul uses the same expression, 
1 Tim. ii. 11, 12, and yet it was expedient, that this should be 
written especially for the Corinthians ; comp. note at xi. 16.— 
■j/iSiv h raTg exxf^riglaig) in your church assemblies ; when there are 
men present, that can speak. — lviriTpa<!rTai) it is committed [^per- 
mitted, Engl. Vers.] — virordssi(f6ai, to be subject) so as to submit 
their own, will to that of another. Gen. iii. 16. The application 
(desire) of the woman is to her husband npWD, and that too as 
to her lord. — xal) also ; comp. ix. 8, note. 

35. MahTv, to learn) by speaking. — ^sXoueiv, they wish) This is 
the figure^ occupatio. — idlovg) their own, rather than others. — 
ivipoiTaroieav) let them ash. It was the exclusive privilege of the 
men to put questions in the assembly. — h Ixxkrigic^ in the as- 
sembly either civil or sacred. — XaXiTv, to speak) either in teaching 
or asking. 

36. n, ri) Latin an — an ? [which is used in the second part of 
a disjmictive interrogation] You, Corinthians, (likewise you, 
Romans) are neither first nor alone. But women are also else- 
where silent. 

37. Jlpofn'^ni, a prophet) The species ; spiritual, the genus. 

1 This is the translation according to the printing ofthe London Ed., 1855; 
but according to the Tubingen Ed., 1773, and the Berlin Ed., 1855, which 
were afterwards consulted, the translatipn is as follows : — " But not to de- 
mand that he alone should be heard, but to endeavour to hear others also, 
while they are speaking, and to learn from them what they have received 
more than he himself, is the subjeotion of a man who is silent and is 
learning." — T. 

^' In both alike there is an appeal to the. usage of other churches. — Ed. 

5 See Append. Anticipating a reply or objection which might be made 
by a supposed opponent. — T. 

316 1 CORINTHIANS XIV. 38-40.-XV. 1, 2. 

The former endowed more than the latter with eloquence.— £«- 
■yivoxsxsToi, let Mm perceive lacknowledgel) Paul does not allow the 
question now at last to be raised, whether he be writing correctly. 
— roZ Kupwu) of the Lord) Jesus. 

38. E/ d's Tig ayvaeT, But if any man he ignorant) So that he has 
not the capacity to perceive {jxcknowledgel. If any one knows 
not, he says, or pretends not to know. This is an argument 
which would have weight with the Corinthians, who were very 
desirous o{ knowledge. — aymlra, let him be ignorant) which means, 
we cannot cast away all things for the sake of such a man ; let 
him keep it to himself. Those, who are thus left to themselves, 
repent more readily, than if you were to teach them against 
their will. 

39. "ngre, Therefore) the summing up. — ^jjXourf, emulously 
desire) This is more than, forhid not. 

40. UxisxfifJ'omi, decently) which applies to individuals. — xara 
ra^iv, in order) in turns, [after one another.] 


1. Tmpll^o), I make known [I declare'\) construed with r/w, what, 
ver. 2 : comp. Gal. L 11. Paul had formerly made known the 
gospel to the Corinthians, but he now informs them at greater 
length, in what way, according to what method, on what founda- 
tion, and by what arguments he preached it to them. It had 
been formerly doctrine, it now becomes reproof, which severely 
stigmatizes ayvciialav, their ignorance, at ver. 34. — to ivayysXiov, the 
gospel) concerning Christ, chiefly of His resurrection. A pleasing 
appellation, by which he allures the Corinthians, and a concilia- 
tory preface, by which he holds them as it were in suspense. — 
irapiXa^iTi, ye have received) The preterite. [This receiving in- 
volves an everlasting obligation. — V. g.] — Iffr^xars, ye stand) i.e. 
ye have obtained a standing-place, [you have taken your stand.] ' 
It is present, in sense. 

2. "iiliZech, ye are saved) The future in sense, ver. 18, 19. — s/ 

1 COKINTHIANS XV. 3-5. 317 

xarsp^srt, if ye keep) If here implies a hope, as is evident from 
what follows, unless, etc. 

' 3. 'Ev 'jrpdiToig, among the primary things) The things, which 
are of greatest importance, ought to be taught among the first 
things. ruWKID, the LXX., h rrpumg, i.e. in old time ; 2 Sam. xx. 
18 : but, first, in Deut. xiii. 9, and so here. — -jrapiXd^ov, I received) 
from Christ Himself, what I have spoken is no fiction, 2 Pet. i. 
16. — oV;, that) Paul says that he had declared among the first 
points of faith, not only the resurrection of Christ, but also the 
resurrection of the dead, which flows from it ; and the Corin- 
thians believed in these doctrines, before they were baptised in 
the name of Christ, who was crucified for them, and so also died 
and rose again, i. 13 : comp. Heb. vi. 2.- — ii'jrsp, for) a very effec- 
tive expression, which means, for taking away our sins, Gal. i. 
4 ; 1 Pet. ii. 24 ; 1 John iii. 5. So inrip, Heb. v. 3 ; comp. 
Tit, ii. 14 ; Luke i. 71-74 ; 2 Cor. v. 15. — a/j^apriSiv, sins) on 
account of which we had deservecj death, ver. 17. — ypa<pa,i. Scrip- 
tures) Many things are said in Scripture respecting the death of 
Christ. Paul puts the testimony of Scripture before the testi- 
mony of those, who saw the Lord after His resurrection. 

4, 'Erapjj, He was buried) Matt. xii. 40. [Here the burial of 
Christ is more closely connected with His resurrection, than with 
His death. Assuredly, about the very moment of His death, the 
poioer of His life incapable of dissolution exerted itself, 1 Pet. iii. 
18 ; Matt, xxvii. 52. The grave was to Christ the Lord not the 
destined receptacle of corruption, but an apartment fitted for enter- 
ing into life, Acts ii. 26. — V. g.] — lyriyiprai, was raised again [rose 
again]) This enlarging on the resurrection of Christ is the more 
suitable on this account, that the epistle was written about the 
time of the passover ; ch. v. 7, note. We must urge the weight 
of the subject of the resurrection, inasmuch as it is one which^is 
made light of in the present day under various pretexts. — xaTo. 
T&s ypapcis, according to the Scriptures) which could not but be 

5. K;ip9s, of Cephas) Luke xxiv. 34. — Sudexa, twelve) Luke 
xxiv. 36. It is probable that Matthias was then also present. 
Photius in his Amphilochia and others read 'ivSixa,.^ 

' ''EiUij, in vain — a melancholy term, Gal. ii. 2, iii. 4, iv. 11. — Vg. 

*D corrected later, G/ff. Vulg. and MSS., alluded to in Augustine, 


6. "EmiTo,, after that) advancing, to a greater number, — sirdva 
'jrevTaxoeloig, more than five hundred) A remarkable appearance. 
Paul puts himself behind all these.— o/ ■ttXs/ous, the greater part) 
About 300 at least ; a'l ^rXs/ous, the majority were providentially 
preserved in life so long for the very purpose of bearing testi- 
mony [as they had obtained an authority akin to that of the 
apostles. — V. g.] ; comp. Jos. xxiv. 31. — /nsvougiv, remain) in life. 
The opportimity of thoroughly sifting these witnesses remained 
unimpaired [undiminished.] Andronicus and Junius may be 
presumed to have been of that number, Rom. xvi. 7. — xal, also) 
It was not of less importance to bring forward these as witnesses. 
They had died in this belief. — exoi/jj^Sriffav, have fallen asleep) as 
those, who are to rise again. 

^ 7. naeiv, hy all) More seem here to be called Apostles than 
the twelve, ver. 5 ; and yet the term is used in a stricter sense 
than at Eom. xvi. 7. 

8. "E(r;^aroi' &i ■TTcivrav) and last of all, or rather, after them all, 
in order to exclude himself. Also after Stephen, Deut. xxxi. 
27, 29. — igy^arov ToZ Savdrov /iou, x.r.x., after my death. [The 
appearances, that afterwards followed are not excluded by this ex- 
pression, Acts xxiii. 11. — ^V. g.] — iidiripil rSi Jptr/ju^ar;, as by the 
abortion [one born out of due ime]) The Lxx., sxrpufia. Num. 
xii. 12. The article is emphatic. Paul apphes to himself alone 
this denomination in reference to the circumstances of the ap- 
pearance, and in reference to the present time of writing. What 
ixrpufjba, an abortion, is among children, he says, I am among the 
apostles ; and by this one word he sinks himself lower than in 
any other way. As an abortion is not worthy of the name of 
man, so the apostle declares that he is not worthy of the name of 
apostle. The metaphor, is drawn from the same idea from which 
the term regeneration is used, 1 Pet. i, 3 [Begotten again — ^by the 
resurrection of Jesus, etc.] ; il in uevipii somewhat softens the 
phrase : as if ; he shows that this ought not to be pressed too 
far. — 7(,^ijl6i, by me also) This word is elegantly placed at the end 
of the period. 

9. ''E'kd-)(i6T0i) in Latin Paulus, minimus. — Sg, who) Thelan- 

Photius, and Jerome, read tiiitx.a.. But AB Orig. 1, 434e read SaSsxw. — 
* laxu/Ss), James) the Less. — V. g. 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 10-18. 319 

guage increases in strength. — idiu^a, I persecuted) Believers 
even after repentance take guilt to themselves for the evil, which 
they have once perpetrated. 

10. XdpiTi, by grace) alone. — o ti/jji, what I am) i.e. an apostle, 
who saw Christ. — ou xsi/ij, not vain) Paul proves the authority of 
the gospel and of his testimony to it ty its effects. — AurSiv, than 
they) This word is referred to ver. 7. — ■rairwv, all) individually. — 
euv ifiDi, with me) The particle with is suitable because he says, 
/ laboured : comp. Mark xvi. 20. 

11. Kjjfuffifo/AEi', we preacli) all the apostles with one mouth. — 
kmeTihean, ye believed^ Faith once received lays the foundation 
for subsequent faith : and its first firmness not only obhges 
[binds] those wavering, but also often retains them. 

12. E/') if [sinc6], an affirmative particle. — irug, how) The con- 
nection between the resurrection of Christ from the dead and 
the resurrection of the dead was extremely manifest to Paul. 
Those, indeed, who held a resurrection in general as a thing 
impossible, could not believe even in the resurrection of 
Christ. — Tins) some, no doubt, of the Gentiles, Acts xvii. 32. 

13. E; hi, but if) He now begins a retrospect, and enume- 
rates all that he alleged at 3—11. i 

14. 'K.evh — XEH5, vain — vain) contrary to what you yourselves 
have acknowledged, ver. 11. — xivri, without reality, difiers fi-om 
ILaraia,, vain, ver. 17, without use. 

15. Yiudo/jLaprvpig, false witnesses) It is not lawful to declare 
concerning God what is not so ; although it may seem to give 
glory to Him. False witnesses are, for instance, traders, who, 
for the sake of their gain, give fictitious accounts of earth- 
quakes, inundations, and other great calamities, which have 
happened in distant countries, and lead souls otherwise not too 
credulous to thoughts and conversations concerning divine judg- 
ments, good in the proposition (thesis), but erroneous in the 
supposition (hypothesis) on which the proposition rests. 

17. ' A/j^apTiaig, in your sins), even those of blind heathenism ; 
ver. 34, [deprived of the hope of life eternal. — V. g.J 

18. ' A.-jrii'KovTo, perished) they were, they are not. Paid speaks 
conditionally : the heathen denying the resurrection might, if 
that supposition were true, regard the dead just the same as if 
they had never been. Nor was there here any necessity for 

320 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 19-22. 

Paul distinctly to express, what it is for a man to be in 
" his sins. 

19. E/', if) The statement of those topics which are discussed 
at ver. 20, etc., precedes this verse and ver. 18 : and in this 
verse, there is a statement of those topics, which are treated of 
at ver. 29-34. — Iv, in) h, as far as concerns, i.e. if our hope in 
Christ revolves so as to be fixed wholly within the bounds of 
this present life, only, i^ony. — ^w>j, life) Scripture does not readily 
call this life, life ; oftener, it calls it aima,, the age : here it is 
spoken of after the manner of men, as Luke xvi. 25. — {jXirixon; 
ee/ih, we have hoped) we have believed with joyful anticipation of 
the future. — IXumTifoi, more miserable) the comparative degree 
is here in its strict sense : for if it had the force of the superla- 
tive, the article would have been put before it : We are more 
miserable than all m,en : the rest, viz. all other men, are not 
buoyed up with false hope, and freely enjoy the present hfe ; 
we, if the dead rise not, are foohshly buoyed up with false hope, 
and through denying ourselves and renouncing the world, we 
lose the certain enjoyment of the present life, and are doubly 
miserable. Even now Christians are happy, but not in the 
things, by which the happiness of other men is maintained ; and, 
if we take away the hope of another life, our present spiritual 
joy is diminished. Believers have immediate joy in God and 
therefore they are happy ; but if there be no resurrection that 
joy is greatly weakened. This is the second weighty considera- 
tion ; the first is, that the happiness of Christians is not placed 
in worldly things. By both of these weighty considerations, 
happiness from the hope of the resurrection is confirmed. 

20. Kuv/, now) Paul declares, that his preaching is not in 
vain, that their faith is not worthless, that their sins are taken 
away, that the dead in Christ are not annihilated, that the hope 
of Christians does not terminate with this life. — a'lrap^ri, the 
first fruit) viz. hea or wv being. The mention of the first 
fruits admirably agrees with the time of the passover, at which, 
as we have observed above, this epistle was written ; nay more, 
with the very day of Christ's resurrection, which was likewise 
the day after the Sabbath, Lev. xxiii. 10, 11. 

21. Ka!) also, iviidri yap, for since, has here its apodosis. 

i 22. lia.vTt; a-rohrjgHovgiv, all die) he says, die, not in the prete- 


rite, as for example, Eom. v. 17, 21, but in the present, in order 
that in the antithesis he may the more plainly speak of the 
resurrection, as even still future. And he says, all. Those who 
are in the highest degree wicked die in Adam ; but Paul is here 
speaking of the godly, of whom the first fruits, a'^ta-^yri, is Christ, 
and as these all die in Adam, so also shall they all be made 
alive in Christ. Scripture everywhere deals with believers, and 
treats primarily of their resurrection, 1 Thess. iv. 13, 14 : and 
only incidentally of the resurrection of the ungodly. — h rffl Xpieru, 
in Christ) These are the emphatic words in this clause. The 
resurrection of Christ being once established, the quickening of 
all is also established. — ^MOTo/ij^^ifovra/, the^/ shall be made alive) 
He had said ; they die, not, they are put to death ; whereas now, 
not, they shall revive ; but they shall be made alive, i.e. imply- 
ing that it is not by their own power. 

23. "Exaeroc —\ — MTE/ra) In this verse we must thrice 
supply sot/ or s/V/. In ver. 24 is must likewise be supplied. — ■ 
7a,yiJ.ari) in order divinely constituted, raijg, however, is the 
abstract ; rayfi^a, the concrete. The conjugate, b-rr'sTa'^iv, occurs 
in ver. 27. — amafyji, first fruits) The force of this word com- 
prehends the force of the word apyii beginning, to which the end 
corresponds as its opposite. — 'i'TriiTo, — ilra) "'Emira is more dis- 
junctive; s'lra more copulative, ver. 5, 6, 7. "ETrs/ra, afterwards, 
Latin, posterius, the comparative being opposed to primum, 
' first,' ver. 46 ; of which first the force is contained in first 
fruits, in this passage : siVa, afterwards, is used in a more 
absolute sense. The disjunctive power of the 'imira, and the 
copulative power of the iTra is clear in ver. 5, 6, 7. For the 
twelve are joined with Cephas by I'lra ; The five hundred are 
disjoined [from the Twelve and Cephas] and James from these; 
but the Apostles are coupled to the last named person by i/'ra,. 
Therefore those, who are introduced by iirnTa, are put in between, 
as it were, by parenthesis. But here ver. 23 the matter seems 
to be ambiguous. If we make a twofold division, we may either 
insert Christ and those who are Christ's into the one member of 
the division, and ri riXog, the end, into the other ; or we may 
put Christ alone [by Himself] as the principal person, and join 
to the other side those who are Christ's, and afterwards rh riXog 
the end. By the former method, Christians are tbs appendage 


322 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 24. 

of their head ; by the latter Christ everywhere retains His pre- 
rogative, and all the rest of persons and things are heaped to- 
gether in one masst By the former method, a comma is put in 
the te-xt after ■/j/iarli^ by the latter also a colon ; and so ilra, re- 
tains a more absolute sense, and yet its copulative power more than 
the 'iicitra. Paul describes the whole process of the resurrection, 
with those things that shall follow it, and therefore he renders 
the resurrection itself the more credible. For this resurrection 
is necessarily required to produce this result, that God may be 
aU in all. — o/' roO yjngrox), those who are Christ's) A pleasant 
variety of cases, Polyptoton, Xpierhg, Xpiifrou. Christians are, so 
to speak, an appendage to r^s a'^afyjn, the first fruits. The 
ungodly shall rise at the same time ; but they are not reckoned 
in this blessed number. — h rtj '7rapouel(f, at His coming) then it 
shall be the order of Christians [their turn in the successive 
order of the resurrection]. They shall not rise one after another 
[but all behevers at once] at that time. Paul does not call it 
the judgment, because he is speaking of and to behevers. 

24. Efra, afterwards) after the resurrection of those who are 
Chrises ; for He, as King, will consummate the judgment be- 
tween the resurrection and the end. — rh riXog) The end, viz., 
of the whole resurrection. This is the correlative to the first 
fruits. In this end all orders [referring to " every man in his 
own order"] will obtain their completion [consummated develop- 
ment] : 1 Pet. iv. 7 ; Rom. vi. 22. This noun contains the 
force of the verbs, delivered up [ver. 24] and destroyed [ver. 26]. 
See how great mysteries the apostle draws from the prophetic 
syllables IV and P3, Ps. ex. 1, viii. 6. Gr. ci^pig, until, and 
TcivTot, all things. Therefore even the words of Scripture are 
inspired by God, komnjura. For all Scripture words rest upon 
the same principles as these [The same reasoning is applicable 
to all Scriptm'e words']. — 'irav — 'irav) when : — namely, when. 
The former is explained by the latter ; and the first part of the 
following verse is to be referred to the former ; the second part, 
to the latter. So soon as the Son shall have delivered up the 
kingdom to the Father, the Father will destroy all authority^ 

^ This is the punctuation of Lachmann and Tischendorf. The former, 
however, puts a (^nmma between «Aof and Stxu : the latter does not Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 24. 3^3 

and the deliverance of the kingdom into His hands takes place, 
that all authority may be swept away. — vapahSj rnv ^aaiXsiav, 
shall have delivered up the kingdom) The Father will not then 
begin to reign without the Son ; nor will the Son cease then to 
reign without the Father ; for the divine kingdom both of the 
Father and of the Son is from eternity and will be to eternity. 
But the apostle is here speaking of the mediatorial kingdom of 
the Son, which will be delivered up, and of the immediate [i.e., 
without mediation] kingdom of the Father, to which then it will 
give place. In the meantime, the Son manages the afiairs, 
which the Father has put into His hands, for and by His own 
people, for the elect, by the instrumentality of angels also, and 
in the presence of the Father and against His enemies, so long 
as even an effort of these last continues. The Son will deliver 
up the kingdom to the Father, inasmuch as the Father gave it 
to the Son, John xiii. 3. The Father does not cease to reign, 
though He has appointed the Son to be king ; nor does the Son 
cease to reign, when He deUvers up the kingdom to the Father ; 
and by the very circumstance, that it is said, not that it is to be 
abolished, but to be delivered up to the Father, it is signified, that 
it itself also is of infinite majesty. But the glory before the 
foundation of the world will remain, after the kingdom has been 
delivered up : John xvii. 5 ; Heb. i. 8 : and He will not cease 
to be king according to His human nature, Luke i. 33."^ If the 
citizens of the New Jerusalem shall reign for ever and ever, 
Eev. xxii. 5 ; how much more will God and Christ reign 1 — rSi 
0tSi xal i:a.rpl, to God even the Father) God js here regarded in 
a twofold point of view. He is considered, both as God and as 
the Father in respect to Christ, John xx. 17 ; even in His state 
of exaltation, Eev. iii. 12, 21 : and in respect to believers. Col. 
iii. 1 7. He is considered as God, towards [in relation to] His 
enemies, xarapy^etj [shall have put down] shall have abolished) 
viz., God even the Father, of whom it is also said (until) He put 
(3^, ver. 25) and He ha.s subjected [hirira^iv, ver. 27]. In a 
similar manner, the subject is changed to a different one [from 
God to Christ] in the third person, ver. 25 and 29 [the baptized 

1 S. R. D. Moldenhauer on this passage refers to it the passage in Luke ; 
comp. Dan. vii. 14. He very often agrees ivith Bengel : for example, ver. 32, 
49, etc.— E. B. 

a^i 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 25, 26. 

for the dead — the dead — they, i.e., the former]. — -rSffav apx'^" "«' 
■ragav k^oveiat xa,l S!im/iiv, all rule and all authority and power) 
Rule and authority are also said of the powers of men, Tit. iii. 1 
[principalities and powers] : but oftener of those of angels, Col. 
i. 16 : and that too in the concrete, to denote their very essence 
[substances] : here however they are in the abstract, as /3a<r/- 
'keiav, concerning the kingdom of the Son: for the essences of 
angels will not be destroyed. ' Afxr\ denotes rule; subordinate 
to this are i^ovala, authority, magistracy, and Suva/ng, an army, 
forces. — s^ouela and dvvafug are more closely connected as is seen 
by the fact that they have the one epithet, all, in common [The 
one iraaav qualifies both s^ouslav and buva/nv; though ap^fiv has a 
separate •Traaav]. Here not only rule, authority, forces of 
enemies, are signified, ver. 25, such as is death, ver. 26 ; but the 
all intimates that the rule, authority, etc., even of good angels 
shall cease. For when the king lays down His arms, after His 
enemies have been subdued, the soldiers are discharged, and the 
word xarapyi?]!, to put down, is not an inapplicable term even to 
these latter : xiii. 8 ; 2 Cor. iii. 7. 

25. AsT, He must) for it has been foretold. — aMv, He) Christ. — ■ 
^amXiiiiiv, reign) mi, reign Thou in the midst of Thy enemies, 
Ps. ex. 2. — &xi"^ "" ""} wJiiiQ There will be no further need of 
the mediatorial reign. — Sri, He hath put) viz. the Father. — Tai/ras, 
all) Paul brings in this, to prepare for a transition to what fol- 
lows. — Toig i^6po-ji, enemies) bodily and spiritual, supply His, 
from that expression. His feet, to wit, the Son's : but it is now 
elegantly elliptical ; since Christ has long ago destroyed these 
enemies, in so far as they were the enemies of Christ ; Pie will 
destroy them [their destruction is still future], in so far as they 
are our enemies. The remaining part of His victory bears the 
same relation to His triumph already achieved, as any frontier 
or corner does to the whole extent of any human monarchy 
which has been subdued. 

26. "Eaxaroi, the last) A pregnant announcement. Death is 
an enemy ; is an enemy, who is destroyed ; is the enemy, who 
is destroyed last of all; last moreover, that is, after Satan, 
Heb. ii. 14 ; and, after sin, ver. 56. For they acquired their 
strength in the same order ; and Satan brought m sm, sin pro- 
duced death. Those enemies have been destroyed; therefore 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 27. 325 

also death is destroyed. It may be said, Does not the same prin- 
ciple hold good as to all the enemies alike ? for in so far as all 
the others have been destroyed, death has been also destroyed, 
2 Tim. i. 10, therefore inasmuch as death remains, the other 
enemies still remain, and therefore death is not destroyed last. 
Ans. Christ, in so far as He formerly engaged with His enemies, 
first overcame Satan by His death ; next sin, in His death ; 
lastly death, in His resurrection ; and in the same order, in 
which He destroys His enemies, He delivers believers from 
their power. Again, it may be said, how is death destroyed last, 
if the resurrection of the dead precedes the destruction of all 
RULE ?" Ans. The resurrection is immediately followed by the 
judgment, with which the destruction of all rule is connected ; 
and the destruction of death and hell immediately succeeds this. 
The order of destruction is described, Eev. xix. 20, xx. 10, 14. 
Moreover the expression ought to be taken in a reduplicative 
sense. The enemies will be destroyed, as enemies. For even 
after all this, Satan will stiU be Satan, hell will still be hell, the 
goats will still be accursed. They will indeed be first destroyed, 
before death, the last enemy ; not that they may altogether 
cease to be, as death shall ; not that they may cease to be what 
they are called, namely Satan, hell, accursed ; but that they 
may be no longer enemies, resisting, and able to oppose, for 
they will be completely subdued, rendered powerless, taken cap- 
tive, visited with punishment, put under the feet of our Lord. 
The destruction of all eule ought not to be reckoned as the 
destruction [i.e. annihilation] of enemies ; moreover the destruc- 
tion of the power of our enemies according to Eev. xix. 20 is 
accomplished even before the destruction of death, which the 
destruction of all authority and of all rule straightway follows. 
The good angels are also then to obtain exemption from service. 
— cx^phi, enemy') Death, an enemy; therefore it was not at first 
natural to man. Those, who denied the resurrection, also denied 
the immortality of the soul. The defence of the former in- 
cludes the defence of the latter. — y-aTafyiTrai, is destroyed) The 
present for the future. — 6 (dvang, death) Hell is also included in 
the mention of death, so far as it is to be destroyed, ver. 55. 

27. Ilavra yap, for all things) not even excepting death. The 
Psalm [viii.] might seem by this syllable, ?3, all things, merely 

326 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 28. 

to indicate animals and stars, which it expressly names ; but the 
apostle teaches us, that it has a much more extended applica- 
tion. Good tilings are made subject to Him in a most joyous 
condition ; had things in a most sorrowful one : for these latter 
axe destroyed, and are made His footstool. — i-jrera^iv, subjected) 
viz. God even the Father; comp. at imrayriv, Eph. i. 22 ; Phil, 
iii. 21 ; Heb. iL 8 ; 1 Pet. iii. 22. He will subject all things, in 
His own time ; He has already subjected them, because He hath 
said it. — lirh toih vdbag avrou) not only enemies, but also all other 
thuigs are put under His feet, Eph. i. 22. This phrase is a 
synecdoche ; all things are made subject to Him : and those 
things, which oppose themselves to Him, and do not wish to be 
subject, are altogether thrust down under His feet, as a footstool. 
There is a clear distinction between the expressions being put 
under His feet and being given into His hands. The former how- 
ever need not be understood in so harsh a sense as the expres- 
sion might seem to imply : otherwise, there would be no room 
for the exception of Him, who subjected them. — I'/ifri, saiifi) viz. 
the prophet, Heb. ii. 6. — brfkov, manifest) For the Father is not 
subject to the Son ; but (de, ver. 28) the Son is subject to the 
Father. The apostle with great power and wisdom points out 
the sum [the main issue] of all things, from the Psalm. 

28. 'Tirorayri, shall be subjected) so that they shall remain for 
ever in subjection. — t6ti) then finally. Previously, it is always 
necessary to contend with enemies. — -/.ai, also) — aurhg. He him- 
self) spontaneously, so that it denotes the infinite excellence of the 
Son ; and besides, as we often find, it signifies something volun- 
tary ; for the Son subordinates Himself to the Father; the 
Father glorifies the Son. The name, " God even the Father," 
and " the Son," is more glorious than the title ' King.' This 
1-atter name will be absorbed by the former, as it had previously 
been derived fi-om the former. — o hili, the Son) Christ, according 
to both natures, even including the divine ; and this we may 
learn, not so much from the circumstance that He is here called 
the Son ; comp. note on Mark xiii. 32, as that He is expressly 
considered in relation to the Father. Nor, however, is the Son 
here spoken of, in so far as the Father and the Son are one, 
which unity of essence is here presupposed ; but in respect of 
the dispensation committed to Him, inasmuch as the Father 

1 COKINTHIANS XV. 28. 327 

has rendered all things subordinate to Him. — vmrayrieiTai, shall 
be made subordinate) for this word is both more proper and more 
becoming than shall be subjected. The word is one very well 
adapted for denoting things most widely different. For the 
subordination of the Son to the Father is manifestly one thing, 
of the creatures to God is another. The Son shall be made 
subordinate to the Father in such a way as He had not formerly 
been ; for in the mediatorial kingdom, the brightness of the 
Son had been in a manner separated from the Father; but 
subsequently the Son shall be made quite subordinate to the 
Father ; and that subordination of the Son will be entirely 
voluntary, an event desired by the Son Himself and glorious to 
Him ; for He will not be subordinate as a servant, Heb. i. 14 ; 
comp. the foregoing verses ; but as a Son. [So also in human 
affairs there is not only the subordination of subjects, but also of 
sons, Luc. ii. 51 ; Heb. xii. 9. — ^V. g.] — woTaynarai is therefore 
in the middle, not in the passive voice. My goodness, says He, 
Ps. xvi. 2, is not independent of Thee, O Jehovah [Engl. Vers., 
extendeth not to Thee.'\ Hesshusius remarks. The subjection and 
obedience of the Son towards the Father, do not take away the 
equality of the power, nor produce diversity in the essence. The 
Son in all eternity, acknowledges with the deepest reverence that 
He was begotten from eternity by the Father ; He also acknow- 
ledges that He has received the spiritual kingdom from the Father, 
and has been constituted Lord of the whole world by the same. 
He will show to the whole creation His most holy reverence, sub- 
jection, and filial love, so that all honour may be rendered to the 
eternal Father. But herein there is no derogation to the divine 
honour of the Son ; since the Father Himself wills that all men 
should honour the Son, as they honour the Father. John v.. 
Exam. p. 10. — 'hot, r\ ©eJs 'Xavra, h iraai, that God may be all in 
all) Here something new is signified, but which is at the same 
time the consummation of all that has gone before, and ever- 
lasting. All things (and therefore all men) without any inter- 
ruption, without any creature to invade His prerogative, or any 
enemy to disturb, will be made subordinate to the Son, and the 
Son to the Father. All things will say : God is all to me. This 
is TiXo;, this is the end and consummation. Further than this, 
not even the apostle can go. As in Christ, there is neither 

328 1 CORINTHIANS TV. 29. 

Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, barbarian, 
Scythian, bond nor free, but Christ is all and in all. Col. iii. 11. 
So then there will be neither Greek nor Jew, etc., nor princi- 
j)ality [rule : ver. 24], power, etc., but God will be all in all. 
God is esteemed as nothing in the world by ungodly men, Ps. 
X. 4, xiv. 1 : and with the saints many things prevent Him 
from being alone all to them ; but then He will be all in all. 

29. "Eirii Ti 'KoiriaouBiv o'l iSa-rr/^o/isvo; ute^ tuv vexpSiv; el oktag 
vixpol oiix lyeipovrai, ri xal ^WTeriZ^ovTai virip auruv ; rl xa! ^/J,iig xiv- 
Suvi-jo/j,ev maav &poLi ;) We shall first say something on the point- 
ing of this verse.^ Many rightly connect, and have long been 
in the habit of connecting this clause, e/ okui vixpot oux, syilpovrui, 
with what follows ; for the particle Ite/ alone exhausts the force 
of the same clause in the first part of the verse. El begins the 
sentence, as in ver. 32, it does so twice ; and often in ver. 12, 
and those that follow. Hence the pronoun aurHv is to be re- 
ferred to nnpot? Furthermore, of the baptism for (over) the 
dead, the variety of interpretations is so great, that he who 
would collect, I shall not say, those different opinions, but a 
catalogue of the different opinions, would have to write a dis- 
sertation. At that time, as yet, there were neither martyrdoms 
nor baptisms over sepulchres, etc., especially at Corinth ; but 
baptism over sepulchres, and baptism for the advantage of the 
dead came into use from a wrong interpretation of this very 
passage ; as fire was used among the Egyptians and Abyssinians 
in the case of the baptized, from Matt. iii. 11. Often, when' 
the true interpretation is nearer and easier than we think, we 
fetch it from a distance. We must mark — I. The paraphrase : 
Otherwise what will they do who are baptized for (super) the dead ? 
If the dead rise not at all, why are they also baptized for the dead ? 
and why also are we in danger every hour ? H. The sense of 

' Lachm. and Tischend. punctuate as Bengel. Eec. Text puts the ques- 
tion not after mxpuu, but after iyiiponeti ; thus connecting this clause with 
what precedes, instead of with what follows. — Ed. 

* The Germ. Ver. repeats the noun tSi/ pixpuv, instead of the pronoun at 
the end of the verse, and differs from the margin of both editions. E. B. 

AuTav is the reading of ABD corrected later, Ofg Vulg. Memph. later 
Sjr. Origen. TsJ* uiKpuu of Rec. Text is only found in later Uncial MSS. and 
Syr. Version alone, of the oldest versions. — Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 29, 329 

the phrase, jSavrit^tg^ai i/vip ruv vixpZv, to be baptized for (over) 
the dead. For they are baptized for (over) the dead [super 
mortuis], who receive baptism and profess Christianity at that 
time, when they have death set before their eyes, who are likely 
every moment to be added to the general mass of the dead, either 
on account of the decrepitude of age, or disease, or pestilence, 
or by martyrdom ; in fact, those who, without almost any enjoy- 
ment of this life, are going down to the dead, and are constantly, 
as it were, hanging over the dead ; they who might say v D''"i3p> 
the graves are ready fgr me. Job xvii. 1. III. The first part of 
the verse is of a milder character ; but the last part which 
begins with if after all, has also an epitasis [an emphatic ad- 
dition. Append.] expressed in its own protasis by after all, and 
in the apodosis by the even [r! %«;] : and these two particles 
correspond to each other ; and the same apodosis has an 
anaphora [the repetition of the same words in the beginnings of 
sections], joining its two parts by why even. IV. We must 
mark the connection of the subject under discussion. With 
the argument respecting the resurrection of Christ, from which 
our resurrection is derived, Paul connects the statement of two 
absurdities (indeed there are more than two, but the preceding 
absurdities are repeated, though they have been already suf- 
ficiently refuted by former reasonings) which would arise, if 
there be no resurrection of the dead, if Christ have not risen : 
and in the meantime, having disentangled the argument con- 
cerning Christ, ver. 20—28, he refutes those two absurdities by 
a discussion of somewhat greater length, which draws the sinews 
of its strength from the argument concerning Christ. The 
latter absurdity (for this has its relation to the argument more 
evident) regarding the misery of Christians in this life, he set 
forth at yer. 19, and now discusses at ver. 29 in the middle, and 
in the following verses ; if after all : and in like manner he 
stated the former concerning the ' perishing' of the Christians 
that are dead, at ver. 18, and now discusses, or repeats, or 
explains it in the first part of ver. 29. V. The force of the 
apostle's argument, which in itself is both most clear and most 
urgent. VI. The propriety of the several words consistent 
vfith themselves, a) What shall they do ? is future, in respect 
of eternal salvation, i.e., such persons being baptized, viall be 


disappointed, their efforts will be vain, if the dead sleep the 
eternal sleep. /3) The term baptism continues to be used in its 
ordinary meaning ; and indeed in this epistle Paul has made 
more mention of baptism than in any other, ch. i. 13—17, x. 2, 
xii. 13. y) The preposition wip with the genitive might be 
thus also taken in various senses ; of the object simply, as the 
Latins use super, with respect to, about, so far as it concerns ; 
with this meaning, that they may put the dead before them with- 
out consideration of the resurrection ; or the words may be used 
of paying as it were a price, viz., that they should account the 
dead as nonentities ; or of obtaining as the price for their trouble, 
viz., that they should be gathered to the dead for ever : but we 
maintain the propriety with which uirip denotes nearness, hanging 
over [such propinquity as that one hangs immediately over] 
anything, whence Theocritus speaks of aeipodiXov rhv vvip yag, the 
asphodel (king's spear) that grows on the ground. Idyl. 26. 
Lexicographers give more examples, especially from Thucydides. 
So they are baptized over [immediately upori] the dead, who 
mil be gathered to the dead immediately after baptism : and 
then over the dead is said here, as if it were said over the sepulchre, 
as Luke xxiv. 5, with [Engl. Vers., among'\ the dead, i.e., in the 
sepulchre. Nor is it incredible, that baptism was often ad- 
ministered at funerals. S) The term dead is used in its ordinary 
sense of the dead generally, as the article also requires, taken 
in as wide a sense as the resurrection, i) The adverb iXoii, 
after all, is used by a Corinthian who is supposed to be led on 
by Paul, and who had rather peevishly opposed the resurrection, 
not reflecting on the loss of the advantages even in this life, 
which result in baptism : and e/ oXais is employed in the same 
way as i^ubfi SXoig in Chrysost. homil. 5, c. Anomoeos : Not- 
withstanding, though man differs little from an angel, since there 
is nevertheless [after all] some difference Qvsib^ oXu; krl ti fiLsgoi), 
we know not accurately what angels are. Q xal is not redundant, 
but strengthens the force of the present tense, ^■avrlZpvTai, what 
do they do who are baptized^ in antithesis to the fdture, ri 
■roirieoiiei, what shall they do ? Comp. xal, 2 Cor. i. 14, xi. 12 ; 
Phil. iii. 7, 8, iv. 10. Paul in fact places those who are bap- 
tized for the dead, as it were at the point of death, and shows 
that no reward awaits them either for the future, if they denied 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 30, 31. 331 

the resurrection, or for the past. Paul seems to confute those 
who denied both the resurrection of the body and the imnior-_ 
tality of the soul. The vindication of the former is a sufficient 
and more than sufficient vindication of the latter. This is 
an example of the gwyxaTcilSaaig, condescension of Scripture, which, 
out of regard to the weak and simple, does not enter into that 
subtle controversy, but lays hold of the subject at that part of 
it, which is easier to be proved, and yet also carries along with 
it the proof of the more difficult part, jj) The two clauses be- 
ginning with rl admirably cohere : with a gradation from those 
who could only for a little enjoy this life [i.e., those baptized at 
the point of death] to (us) those who could enjoy it longer, if 
they had not had their hope fixed in Christ. — niKpol, ,dead) 
Throughout this whole chapter, in the question, whether [dead 
men rise at all], Paul speaks of dead men, ttxpoug, without the 
article ; afterwards, when this question Bas been cleared out of 
the way, in the question how, ver. 35, etc., he uses the article ; 
but Tuv in this verse has the meaning of the relative [rSiv viKfuv, 
those who are dead already spoken of, ver. 12, 13, 16]. 

30. 'H/i£/5, we) apostles, iv. 9. 

31. ' Amhri6-/.u, I die) Not only by reason of the danger which 
was always set before him, 2 Cor. i. 8, 9, xi. 23, but also by a 
continual dying itself [mortification.] This agrees with the 
whole discourse. — vij r^v b/iSTspav v-ahyriSn^ ^'j t-^a h XpiHTSj 'IjjiTou 
rSi Kvplui ri/j,S!iv, by your glorying, which I have in Christ Jesus our 
Lord) In swearing or making an asseveration, if a human being 
is appealed to, then that person is used, which is preferred as 
more worthy, and therefore sometimes the third. Gen. xlii. 15, 
16. — vri r^v vyhiav ^aptiui, by the health of Pharaoh ; sometimes 
the first, 2 Sam. iii. 35. — rdSi soirieai i/,ai 6 ^sog xal raSs vpoihiri, 
God do so to me and more also : comp. ibid. ver. 9., but generally 
the second, 1 Sam. i. 26, ^^ ^ ■^'jx'i """j f'^'^V ^^V ^oul live : ibid. 
iii. 17, rdde itoifinai <soi 6 hihg xal rdds 'jrpodSeiri, God do SO to thee, 
and more also. So Paul here appeals to the very enjoyable con- 
dition of the Corinthians, even as to spiritual life, in opposition 

1 The vocative dhT^cpol reckoned among the better readings in the margin 
of both Ed., and received by the Germ. Ver., is here thrown out. — E. B. 

Lachm. reads aSsAipoi, with AB Vulg. But Tisck omits it with D (A) 
Gfsf Origen.— Ed. 

332 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 32. 

to his own death, -which he bore for [in order to give them] their 
glorying [rejoicing, Engl.] comp. iv. 8 ; 2 Cor. iv. 12, 15 ; Phil, 
i. 26 ; Eph. iii. 13 ; and therefore he brings it forward to stir 
up the Corinthians themselves. They did not attend to this, 
who wrote ri/iirepav for h/j^iTtpav} The first person indeed follows, 
nv £%a), but in the singular number ; and riv is to be referred not 
to vfiiTipav Ka-liyrtaiv, but to xalyriaiv ; for so relatives are some- 
times wont to be used, Gal. i. 6, 7 ; Eph. ii. 11 ; where that 
which is called circumcision is concrete, and there is added, how- 
ever, in the flesh made hy hands, which can only agree with the 
abstract, 1 Tim. vi. 20, 21 ; 2 Tim. i. 5. Paul shows that it is 
not without good cause that he dies daily, but that he is a par- 
taker of the glorying of the Corinthians, 2 Cor. iv. 14. 

32. E; Kara, avSpoi'irov i6ripiofj,d^ri(fa h''E(pieui, ri f/,oi to o(piXo5 ; e; 
vexpoi' ovx lyiipovrai, (pdyia/J.iv xat ma/Jiev, ahpiov yup d'irohfiex.b/j.iv, if 
after the manner of men, I have fought with wild beasts at Ephe- 
sus, what advantageth it to me ? if the dead rise not, let us eat and 
drink, for to-morrow ice die) This clause, if the dead rise not, is 
now for a long time properly connected with the words that 
foUow ; for in the foregoing, the formula, after the manner of men, 
is equivalent to it in force : that is, if, after human fashion, for 
a human consideration, with the mere hope of the present life, 
not in the hope of a resurrection to be expected on Divine 
authority,! have fought with beasts at Ephesus, etc. — Uripio/j^d^rjsa, 
h 'E^sgiij, I have fottght with wild beasts at Ephesus) This one con- 
test Paul expressly mentions, not only because it was a very 
great one, but also, because it was very recent. He was still at 
Ephesus ; xvi. 8 : and there, before this epistle was written, he 
had been exposed to extraordinary danger, which seems to be 
the same occasion as that described. Acts xix. 29, 30 ; 2 Cor. i. 
8 ; wherefore he calls it a fight with wild beasts, in which his life 
was in jeopardy ; corap. iv. 9 : as Heraclitus of Ephesus had 
been in the habit of applying the term wild beasts, 'hripia, to the 
Ephesians four hundred years before : comp. Tit. i. 12 concern- 
ing the Cretans and Epimenides. — (pdyufiiv — a-rnhnayioiiiv, let us 
eat — we die) So the LXX., Isa. xxii. 13, that is, let us use the 
good things of the body and of the present life. This is a 

' 'r/iitTipau is the reading BD (A) Gfg Vulg. 'UfiiTtpau is the reading 
of A, Orig. 2,710a.— Ed. 

1 COKINTHIANS XV. 33, 34. 333 

Mimesis or the imitation of a supposed opponent's wicked manner 
of speaking. 

33. Mil vXameh) in the Middle voice. — iphipoveiv) they corrupt. 
Its conjugate coriviption, is found at ver. 42. He uses the well- 
known sentence of Menander in a sublimer sense, and opposes 
it to the Epicurean creed, ver. 32 ; presently after, at ver. 34, 
he was about to apply a more weighty stimulant. [T/ie multi- 
tude of wicked sayings and vicious proverbs in Ivwman life is indeed 
very great, by which a vast number repel things however sacred and 
salutary and endeavour to defend their own wantonness and hypo- 
crisy. Scoffs of that kind were also common among the Israelites, 
Ez. xi. 3, 15, xii. 22, xviii. 2. — V. g.] — riSn, manners) Good 
manners [principles] are those, with which a man passes from 
things that are fading to things that are eternal. — y^prieric) good 
or even easy, light [pliant dispositions] : see Scap. on this word, 
col. 1820. Comp. Rom. xvi. 18. — xaxat, evil) opposed to faith, 
hope, love. On the other hand, good communication [conversa- 
tions] as for instance concerning the resurrection, puts an end 
to gluttony and depravity of manners. 

34. 'Exv^'^an) An exclamation full of apostolic majesty : shake 
off lethargy or surfeiting, ver. 32, so the LXX., ixv^-^l^ari ol /j,i6votiTi;, 
Awake, ye drunkards, Joel i. 5. He uses milder language, watch 
ye, in the conclusion, xvi. 13. — dixdiug, to righteousness) that 
righteousness, which is derived from the true knowledge of God. 
The antithesis is, sinning in this ver., and corrupt manners, ver. 
33. — xai /in a/iapTuviTi) The Imperative after an imperative has 
the force of a future (John vii. 37, note) and ye shall not sin, 
either by an error of the understanding, or by evil communica- 
tions [conversation] or by corrupt manners. Those, who place 
sin in the will alone, and not in the understanding, are in error, 
and therefore commit sin. Arguments calculated to rouse are 
added to those used as proofs, as Gal. iv. 12, note : for Scripture 
instructs the whole man. — ayvaielan, ignorance) ayvunia is both 
ignorance, 1 Pet. ii. 15, and forgetfulness, 3 Mace. v. 24 : xard 
■jrav ayvueicf, xixparrifiivog. To have ignorance, [To labour under 
ignorance] is a more significant phrase than to be ignorant,^ and 

1 The former implies an habitual state of ignorance under which they 
labour. To be ignorant, may be but temporary, and restricted to one point. 

S34 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 35, 36. 

includes in it the antithesis to knowledge, which in other respects 
was so agreeable to the Corinthians. — • ©sou, of God) and there- 
fore also of the power and works of God, Matt. xxii. 29. — Tin^, 
some) This word softens the reproof. — hrpoirnv, shame) The 
Corinthians claimed for themselves great knowledge. Ignorance 
and drowsiness are a disgrace, and from these they must awake. 
— u/i/P, to you) who are either ignorant, or have among you those 
that are ignorant. It is however at the same time the dative 
of advantage. — Xiyoij I speak) boldly. He speaks more se- 
verely than at the beginning, when treating of another sub- 
ject, iv. 14. 

35. T/'s) some one, who dares deny the fact itself, because he 
is ignorant of the manner, in which it is accomplished, inasmuch 
as death has been so great a destruction, and it is asserted that 
the resurrection will be so glorious. — Se, but then) An Epitasis 
[Emphatic addition.] — ipx""'^'^'; do they come ?) The Kving are 
said to remain, ver. vi. The dead to have gone away, a.'jriXSovTig ; 
Chrys. de Sacerd., p. 494 : and to return, Ps. xc. 3 ; Eccl. xii. 
7. But when they revive, they come ; and they are said rather 
to come, than to return, on account of their complete newness [of 
their resurrection state and body] : see the verses following ; 
comp. Acts i. 11, note. Paul, writing to the Corinthians who 
had doubts as to the question, whether [there is a ftiture resur- 
rection at all], so treats of the question how [it is to be], as to 
express the identity of the falling [dying] and the rising body 
somewhat more faintly, as it were, and more sparingly than he is 
wont to do on other occasions. 

36. "Afipov, Thou fool) The apostle wonders, that any one could 
have any difficulty ,on this subject, he considered it as a thing so 
certain. This also appertains to the shame [which their ignorance 
of God reflected on them], ver. 34. To that man inquiring about ■ 
the way [how are the dead raised 1] of the resurrection, and the 
quality of the bodies rising [with what body do they come ?] he 
answers first by a similitude, 36-42, at the middle ; then, with- 
out a similitude, ver. 42, etc. In the similitude, the protasis 'and 
apodosis admirably correspond to each other : and the question 
is concerning the ivay of the resurrection in the protasis, ver 36 ; 
in the apodosis, ver. 42, it is sown, etc. : then concerning the; 
quality of the bodies, in the protasis, ver. 37-41 : in the apodosis, 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 37-41. 835 

ver. 43. — <sv) thou thyself, silly fellow. — ewilpug, sowesi) in the 
field. A copious allegory follows. — ou ^woTo;E«-a/, is not quickened) 
to a new sprout. — iw f/,^ a«^av>j, unless it die) Paul completely 
retorts the objection [converts the very objection into an argu- 
ment] : death does not prevent quickening, but goes before it, as 
the prelude and prognostication, as sowing precedes the harvest. 

37. Ou rJ dZ/iba r6 yivrjgo/itvov, not the body that sliall he) viz., the 
body that is beautifal, and no longer bare grain. 

38. 'O he Qsh;, but God) Not thou, O man ; not the grain itself. 
— aiirffi, to it) to the grain. — ^^IXjjcs, He hath willed) The preterite 
in respect of creation, Gen. i. 11 : or at least because willing is 
before giving, — ixdgrtjj, to every one) not only to the seed of fruits, 
but also to that of animals. A gradation to the following verse. 
— "diov, its own) suitable to the species, peculiar to the individual, 
produced from the substance of the seed. This peculiarity is 
further explained in the following vepse. 

39. Ou •s-ao-a, all not) This is a universal negative. Every kind 
of flesh is different from the others. Paul shows, that terrestrial 
bodies differ from terrestrial, and celestial from celestial, ver. 41 : 
but in such a way as to make each of these refer to the further 
illustration of the difference of the body from its seed, and of 
celestial bodies from' those that are terrestrial ; for in the apodosis 
he lays down nothipg respecting the degrees of glory, but leaves 
it as it were in an enigma to be considered by wise men, while 
he accounts it sufficient to have openly asserted the glory of the 
resurrection bodies. — aXXri Mfuirm, one hind of flesh of men) He 
elegantly omits the yvord flesh, when he places the fleshof brutes 
in opposition to that of man, xrrjvri here is applied to all quadni- 
peds ; for fishes and birds are opposed to them. — '%^uwv, of fishes) 
Therefore those, who eat fishes, eat flesh, and that too the more 
sumptuously, as it is a delicate variety. 

40. 'Emvpdvm,. CELESTIAL bodies) The sun, moon, stars. — 
iiciyiia, terrestrial bodies) vegetables, animals. — iTip^, bi, but is one) 
Concerning the glory of terrestrial bodies, comp. Matt. vi. 28, 
29 ; 1 Pet. i. 24. 

41. 'Airrip yap, for one star) For intensive. Not only have 
the stars a glory differing from that of the sun and moon, 
but also, what is more to the point, one star often surpasses 
another star in brightness. There is no star, no glorious 

33S 1 COKINTHIANS XV. 42-45. 

body that has not some decided point of diflference from 

42. OuTc^, thus) This word relates to the protasis already begun 
at ver. 36. — t-ireipiTai, is sown) a very delightful word instead of 
burial. — h <pSopS, in corruption) The condition not only of the 
dead body but of the mortal body is denoted. 

43. 'El/ ari/iicf, in dishonour) in nakedness, ver. 37, to which is 
opposed glori/, which is as it were a garment put on, ver. 53, 49. 
— girelpiTai b aehnia, is sown in weakness. The figure is con- 
tinued ; but in the reality itself, a transition is made, that simili- 
tude being now finished, to a new part of the answer, of which 
this is the proposition [the statement to be elucidated] : There 
is a natural and there is a spiritual body. The expressions, 
in power, ver. 43, and a spiritual body, ver. 44, are akin to 
one another, Luke i. 17 : just as incorruption and glory, ver. 
42, 43. 

44. Yvy^/xhv, animal [natural] body) which, consisting oi flesh 
and blood, ver. 50, is wholly moulded [given form and fashion to] 
by the animal soul. — 'Kn'JiJ,aTixh,spiritual)vihicfa is wholly moulded 
by the spirit. — xai) and so consequently. 

45. Tiypa-TTTai, it is written) Gen. ii. 7, LXX., lyivm 6 avSpcoirot 
■c'li -^u^v '(,oJeav, man became a living soul. Paul adds other 
things in accordance with the nature of the contraries [the things 
antithetical to the former.] — irparog) that is, the first ; for the 
last is in antithesis to it ; but in ver. 47, vpurog means the former 
of the two ; for it is in antithesis to biunpog, the second : and each 
is there considered, as a model of the rest, i 'leyaTug, the last, in 
like manner as o Siunpog, the second, points to Christ, not to the 
whole human race in its perfect consummation. — ^'A^a^) A 
proper name here ; but it is presently after repeated by antono- 
masia.^ — ■■l^uxii'jlife — soul) Hence ■4/u;^/xJv living, animal, [natural] 
ver. 44. — o 'isxo^rog, the last) Job xix. 25. pHK, the same as he 
who is called iiKJ, as is evident there from the parallelism of the 
double predicate. Christ is last ; the day of Christ is the last 

day, John vi. 39. [Clurist is a Spirit, 2 Cor. iii. 17. — V. g.] 

^uomiovv, quickening) He not only lives, but also makes alive. 

' Append. The substitution of a proper name for a common name, or vice 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 46-49. 337 

46. Ou *pw5-ov,) not ilie first. — rh vnuiiaTiKh, the spiritual) body. 
This verse refers to ver. 44, ver. 45, making as it were a paren- 
thesis, to which ver. 47 afterwards corresponds. — 'imira, after- 
ward) This should be carefully noticed by those, who so dispute 
about the origin of evil, as if all things should have been not 
only good at the beginning, as they were, but also such as they 
will be at their consummation. 

47. 'OirpSiTOi ttvSpwjros, ex yijs, yoMc; a diiinpoi, 6 Kupio; £^ ovpavov^ 
the first man is of the earth, earthy ; the second man is the Lord 
from heaven) We have here an exact antithesis. The first man^ 
sx y7ji,yiz. uv, since he is of the earth, is %o/xos, earthy, affected in the 
same way as a heap of earth (^ous) x'^'^'^j accumulated, and then 
scattered : the reason of this is, because he is sprung from the 
earth. This is the protasis ; the apodosis follows, in which it 
would not have been appropriate to say, the second man, from 
[of] heaven, heavenly ; for man owes to the earth his obligations 
for this, that he is earthy ; but the Lord does not owe His glory 
to heaven, inasmuch as it was He Himself who made heaven 
what it is, and by descending from heaven, presented Himself to 
us as the Lord. Therefore the order of the words is now 
changed, the Lord, from heaven \Lord coming before from heaven; 
whereas earthy, the antithesis to Lord, comes after of eartli]. 
The. word Lord signifies the same thing in the concrete, as glory 
does in the abstract (Germ. Herr, Herrlichheit, Lord, Lordship), 
whence it is properly opposed to earthy, ver. 43; Phil. iii. ,20, 
etc. : and from this glory is derived the incorruptibility of Christ's 
flesh. Acts ii. 24, 31. In this way the received reading is de- 
fended, and the various readings, although ancient, which are 
mentioned in the Apparatus, are withdrawn.^ 

49. Ka/ xadchi, and even as) From the former state Paul infers 
the latter. — iipopiea/j,ev, we have borne [worny) as a garment. — rriv 
tix6m,.the image) This not only denotes the resemblance, but also 
the dependence. — ^opeaufnv xal rfiv eSxova, rou ivoupavlciv, let us bear 
Iwear'] also the image of the heavenly) Tertullian says : Let us 
bear; not we shall bear, preceptively, not promissively. Nay, 

1 BCD corr. later, G Vulg. g (these last three add oipaviosyfomit 6 Kvptog. 
Rec. Text retains the words, with A (according to Tisch., but Lachm. quotes 
A against the words), Marcion (according to Tertullian) both Sjr. Versions. 
Origen, 2,559rf supports them. But in 4,302(^ he rejects them.— Ed.. 


338 1 COKINTHIANS XV. 60, 51. 

(popka/iiv, let us bear, and yet in the way of promise.^ The sub- 
junctive renders the expression modal and conciliatory, by which 
Paul (comp. ver. 53, must) expresses the divine appointment and 
Mth assentidg to it. Comp. the subjunctive James iv. 13, 15, 
Topiuiui/ji-sSa, x.T.X. Later copies have made it, (popsgo/i^v ; and 
there is the same variety in the copies of Origen against Celsus, 
as Sam. Battier observes in Biblioth. Brem., Class vi., p. 102, 
etc., who approves of the reading tpopigoiiLiv out of Maximus, 'inpl 

50. Sap f xa.1 aJfi^a, flesh and blood) An abstract phrase, [mean- 
ing man, as far as the circulation of the blood quickens his flesh. — 
V. g.J as (pSopa, conniption. The one is applied to those, who 
live in the world, the other to the dead. Both of these must 
become altogether different from what they have been previously. 
The spirit extracted from the dregs of wjne does not so much 
differ from them, as the glorified man from the mortal man. — 
^ocgiXilaii 01OU, the kingdom of God) which is altogether spiritual, 
and in no respect merely animal [natural]. A great change 
must intervene, until man is made fit for that kingdom. — ou duv- 
avrai, cannot) This is a Syllepsis ° of number, for it denotes the 
multitude of those, who are flesh and blood. — olds — xXripovoz/^iT, 
nor — obtain^ by inheritance) It is not said, cannot receive by in- 
heritance. Flesh and blood are farther distant [from the inherit- 
ance], than corruption itself; and it is evident from its very 
nature, that corruption cannot obtain this inheritance, although 
it is certainly the way to incorruptibility, ver. 36. The meaning 
of the present may be gathered from ver. 52 at the beginning. 

51. 'T/iTv, you) Do not suppose, that you know all things. — 
Xfi/w, / say) prophetically : xiii. 2 : 1 Thess. iv. 15. — ■jravrig //.h 
ou x.oiiiriSne6iJ,i6a., iravrig hi ak\ayria6fLi6a, we shall not all sleep, but 
we shall all be changed) The Latins' read with general consent ; 
" Omnes quidem resurgemus, sed non omnes immutabimur," 

^ Tisch. reads q)opsm^eii with B (judging from silence) both Syr. Versions. 
But Lachm. as Beng., (po^iaa/^su with ACD(A)Gfff Vulg. Orig. 1,5916c, 
2,26b, Iren. Cypr. Hilar.— Bd. 

2 See App. The sing, subject had gone before. But the plural was 
mentally intended. — Ed. 

3 So D(A) corrected later, d/ Hilary 91,315, and Latin MSS. in Jerome 
1,810c, read Trams uvaaTiiirifctSa, oil iraini; Ss a.'hr.oi.yiisoft.t^a,. ^Ed. 

1 CORINTHIANS XV. 51, 339 

We shall indeed all rise, but we shall not all he changed, and Ter- 
tullian and Rujinus and others besides follow this reading. 
And yet the Latin translator does not seem to have read the 
Greek different from our Greek copies, but to have expressed 
the sense, as he indeed understood it, rather than the words. 
For this is his common practice in this epistle, as when xii. 10 
and 28, he translated yXaiseuv, words, and on the other hand 
xiv. 10 (puvuv, tongues, he seems therefore to have translated oJ 
xoif/,ri6n<f6[ji£6a, as if it had been o5 /iEnoD/isv xoi/j^riSiiiTii, that is, we 
shall rise again. Hence it followed, that he presently after sup- 
plied not, for the sake of the antithesis, as he had suppressed not, 
chap. ix. 6 : and here also Tertullian follows his footsteps. 
Moreover from the Latin the word am^iugofx,iv has been fabri- 
cated in the Veles. and am(irr}g6/ji,i^a (a word which Paul does not 
use in this whole chapter) is a correction by the first interpolator 
of the Clar. MS. Some of the Greeks have •ravrEs //,(v oh xoi/^ri- 
6ri<s6/j,iSoi,, aXX' oil vdiiTig aXXaynao/jiiiot, ; whence from /isv ou, f/^h ovv 
was easily produced. Indeed in this verse the apostle wished to 
deny nothing whatever concerning the change, but to af&rm it, and 
to bring forward the mystery. The reading of the text remains, 
which is not unknown even to the Latin copies, quoted by 
Jerome from Didymus.' Moreover each of the two clauses is 
universal. All indeed, namely we, from whom the dead are 
presently after contradistinguished, shall not sleep ; but all, even 
we the same persons, shall be changed; the subject of each of the 
two enunciations is the same : comp. -iras oix, taken universally, 
xvi. 12; Rom. ix. 33; Eph. v. 5; Rev. xxii. 3; Acts xi. 8. 
The expression does not so much refer to the very persons, who 
were then alive, and were waiting for the consumrflation of the 
world, but to those, who are to be then ahve in their place, ver. 
52 at the end, 1 Thess. iv. 15, note. — aXkayneisj.i^tf., we shall be 

^ Tisch. reads vanii ou xoifiyi^naofteSa, 'x-avrss Se «?i?i«y)i(n)|«s^«, with B (from 
its silence), some Greek MSS. mentioned in Jerome 1,794c, 810c, also 
MSS. of Acacius and Didymus in Jerome 1,795c, 7996, both Syr. and Memph. 
Versions, Orig. 1,589/', and quoted in Jerome 1,804c. Lachm. reads irauru 
[><.£»] xoifiYi^naofii^x, ou ■jrauns Si oKXayntrii^ida, with CG^, Orig. 2,552hc, 
also Greek MSS. mentioned in Jerome 1,794c, 810c, also Didymus men- 
tioned in Jerome l,795(i, and in 1,7986, Acacius, bishop of Cssarea, who 
mentions it as the reading of very many MSS. A reads oi Taint; fih 
KotfiriS. w iroiVTi; Se «>iA»y. — Ed. 

cHi) 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 52-55. 

cJianged) While the soul remains in the body, the body from 
being animal [natural] will become spiritual. 

52. 'Ev aTo/Lijj, in a moment) Lest it should be considered 
hyperbolical, he adds a more popular phrase, in the twinkling of 
an eye. An extraordinary work of divine omnipotence ! Wlio 
then can doubt, but that man even at death may be suddenly 
freed from sin ? — eaXmyyi, at the trumpet) The frill description of 
the trumpets is reserved for the Apocalypse ; yet some things 
may be gathered from Matt. xxiv. 31 ; 1 Thess. iv. 16, concern- 
ing the last trumpet ; and this epithet is expressed here, as one 
that takes for granted the trumpets, that have preceded it; either 
because the Spirit has inspired Paul with an allusion, which an- 
ticipates the Apocalypse, or because Scripture long before 
teaches, that some trumpets, though not definitely enumerated, 
are before the last. Is. xxvii. 13 ; Jer. li. 27 ; Zech. ix. 14 ; 
Heb. xii. 19 ; 2 Esdr. v. 4: or especially in relation to the 
trumpet at the ascension, Ps. xlvii. 6, comp. Acts i. 11 : for one 
may be called the last, where two only are referred to, ver. 45; not 
to say, where there is only one [sounding of a trumpet], without 
another following. Rev. x. 7. — eaX'Trisii yap) for the Lord [Engl. 
V. the trumpet] sliall sound by His archangel, 1 Thess. iv. 16. 
The trumpet was formerly used on feast days for the purpose of 
assembling the people. — and immediately. — afiaproi, incor- 
ruptible) Strictly speaking, one would think, that they should 
have been called immortal ; for incorruptibility will be put on 
by means of the change, ver. 53 ; but incorruptibility includes 

53. ToCro,) this itself our present corruptible state. — a,<p6a,pe!a.v, 
incorruptibility) by that transformation. 

54. "Orau de — aSavaelav, but when — immortality) The frequent 
repetition of these words is very delightful. — toVe, then) not be- 
fore. The Scripture, is sure, therefore the resurrection is sure. 
— xarimdri 6 ^avaros elg vTxog, death is swallowed up in victory) 
Is. XXV. 8, LXX. — xarlwEn o idmroi leybeag, it was swallowed up 
at one instantaneous draught : comp. Rev. xxi. 4. — elg vTxog, 
Heb nnb, which the Lxx. not here but elsewhere often translate 
j/s ^rxos, unto or in victory. 

55. IIoD (foil, idnare, rh xevrpov; tou eov, a&ri, ro v/kos;) Hos^ xiii. 
14, LXX. — ToD i} hixri (w'zjj) tftu, ddmn; 9o\JTh xhrpov ffo-j, ^dr} ; Heb. 


b\ti& ^3^p ^HK niD Ti-in \1N, t.e., where are thy plagues, death ? 
where, grave, is thy destruction'? — See by all means, Olearii 
diss, inaug. on Redemption from hell. In this hymn of victory, 
where signifies that death and hell were formerly very formid- 
able : now circumstances are changed, eararos, death, and 
^bm, hell [the unseen world beneath], are frequently used pro- 
miscuously ; but yet they differ, for the one ciin never be sub- 
stituted for the other : Hell is in fact opposed to heaven ; death, 
to life, and death precedes ; hell is more profound ; death receives 
the bodies without the souls, hell receives the souls, even without 
the bodies, not only of ^he wicked, but also of the godly, and that, 
before the death of Christ, Gen. xxxvii. 35 ; Luke xvi. 23. 
Therefore they are mentioned in connection with each other ; 
and it is said in gradation, death andhell: comp. Eev. xx. 13, 14, 
vi. 8, i. 17 : and in these passages it is evident, that the word 
grave cannot be substituted for hell. Furthermore, because the 
discussion here turns upon the resurrection of the body, there- 
fore hell is only once named, death often, even in the following 
verse. — rJ xhrpov, the sting) having a [pZa^we-causing or] pestilen- 
tial [Heb. " Where are thy plagues ?"] poison. Paul transposes 
the victory and the sting ; which is more agreeable not only to 
the gradation of the Hebrew synomyms, but also makes a more 
convenient transition to the following verse, where sting and 
strength are kindred terms. A stimulus or goad is a larger 
xhrpov ; comp. Acts xxvi. 14 ; a sting or prick [aculeus] is a less 
xivTpov; sometimes they may be used promiscuously, when we 
overlook the quantity \i.e., a quantity of less aculei is tantamount 
to a stimulus or stimuli] ; we may even kick against \heprichs in 
thorns. — osSji, hell, [grave, Engl. V.]) It does not here denote 
the place of eternal punishment, but the receptacle of souls, which 
are again to be united with their bodies at the resurrection. 
There is nothing here said now any longer of the devil ; comp. 
Heb. ii. 14 : because the victory is snatched out of his hands, 
earlier than out of those of death, ver. 26. — wxo;) LXX. i'r/.n or 
v'mri : Paul sweetly repeats vTxo; ; comp. the preceding verse. 
The rarity of the word is well suited to a song of victory. 

56. 'H a/iaprla, sin) If there were no sin, there could be no 
death ; comp. Hos. xiii. 12. Against this prick no one could have 
kicked by his own strength ; no one could have sung that song 

342 1 CORINTHIANS XV. 57, 58, 

of triumph, where, etc. The particle but indicates this fact. — 
wii^az, the law) threatening death for sin ; without the law sin 
is not perceived ; under the law sin has dominion ; Kom. 
vi. 14. 

57. Tea be 0£ffi %a/"s, hut thanks he to God) It had not been of 
our accomplishment [in our power to effect]. — be, but) Although 
both the law and sin, and death and hell, opposed us, yet we 
have overcome. This is .the sentiment ; but the mode or n^og, 
[expression of feeling] is added, thanks be to God. — rSi dibovn,^ 
who gives) the present, to suit the state of behevers.^ — rh vTxos, the 
victory) a repetition, suitable to the triumph : death and hell had 
aimed at the victory. — X/j/o-roD, Christ) in the faith of whom, we 
[being dead], dying to the law, have obtained life, ver. 3 and fol- 
lowing verses. 

58.^ ' Aya'ztirot, beloved) The true consideration of the things, the 
last of all, kindles his loye towards the brethren. — hSpaToi, [stead- 
fast] stable) do not ye yourselves turn aside from the faith of the 
resurrection. — a/^sraxlvriToi, immoveable) be not led away by others, 
ver. 12. So Col. i. 23. — h rffl 'ipyoj nxj Kvplou, in the work of the 
Lord) Christ, Phil. ii. 30. It is called generally, the wori which 
is carried on for the sake of the Lord. Its more particular defi- 
nition depends on the circumstances of each particular text.— 
ildoreg, knowing) He is now sure of the assent of the Corinthians. 
— oiix 'isTi xivhg, is not vain) i.e., is most profitable. They were 
trying to make it in vain, who denied the resurrection. Paul 
mildly refutes these men even in the conclusion [as well as be- 

' A(SoVt; is read by ABCG^. But D (A)/ Vulg. So'm.— Ed. 

2 Nevertheless both the margin of the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Ver., prefer 
the reading So»t;, and therefore the past tense. — B. B. 

* "Ciari, therefore) A grave error had to be refuted in this passage : and 
yet he does not neglect to subjoin the exhortation. — V. g. 

1 CORINTHIANS XVI. 1, 2. 343 


1. Aoy/a;, collection) A plain [not figurative] term well adapted 
to the commencement of this subject, ver. 2 : it is called a bless- 
ing,^ 2 Cor. ix. 5. — !ig Tois aylovg, for the saints) He ■would rather 
call them the saints than the poor ; and he does so both because 
this appellation is suited to the importance of the object and 
fitted for obtaining it. — disra^a, I have given order) by apostolic 
authority, which was familiar to the Galatians. — VaXarmi, of 
Galatia) He proposes the Galatians as an example to the Cor- 
inthians, the Corinthians to the Macedonians, the Corinthians 
and Macedonians to the Eomans : 2 Cor. ix. 2 ; Eom. xv. 26. 
There is great force in examples. 

2. Kar& fjblav, on the first day) The Lord's day even already at 
that time was peculiarly observed. On the Sabbath the Jews 
and Christians met together ; next day the latter engaged in 
the duties peculiar to themselves.. The Sabbath is used by 
Synecdoche [see Append.] for the weelc ; usually the form of ex- 
pression is fi [ila ga^jSartav, the one, i.e., the first day of the week ; 
but here the article is not used, in order that xard:, may retain 
its distributive meaning. The advice is easily put in practice. 
When men give once for all, not so much is given. If [when] 
a man every Lord's day has laid by something, more has been 
collected, than one would have given at once. — 'ixcxerog, every 
one) even those not very rich. — ■Trap' lauroi, by himself) apart, that 
it may appear, what he himself lays by ; whether others lay by 
more sparingly or more liberally than he does. The Corinthians 
had not yet a common treasury in the Church. — riS'ina, let him 
lay by) at the public meeting. — Srigatipl^m, in store) plentifully, a 
pleasant word, 1 Tim. vi. 19. — ilobZrai, it may be convenienty 
according as one's mind is willing and one's means are easy. It 
is a matter of Christian prudence to put in practice, according as 

' iiiMy'iK, a figurative term for bounty; -whereas here the plain term 
Jioy/tt is used. — Ed. 

2 So Vulg. " Quod ei placuerit." 3ut Engl. Ver. "As God hath prospered 


your circumstances enable you, what is inculcated at Eccl. ix. 10, 

1 Sam. X. 7. — Sm i^n, tJiat not) This is by way of anticipation [oc- 
cupatio*],that they may not think it necessary to have a collection 
also at that time, and in like manner there is boldness of speech, 
as much as to say, / will certainly not pass you over. — ora> sX6a, 
when I ccrnie) It would neither be pleasant for Paul nor for the 
Corinthians to do this in his presence. Now, says he, you will 
act the more generously ; then, we shall attend to other matters. 
— Xoyiai, gatherings, collections) This term, a less agreeable one, 
advises them not to delay. 

3. Ous av hoii.i[La,(snri) whomsoever, when I am present, you shall 
approve, as faithful. — il Ic/ffroXSn rourous mjj.-^ia, them will I send 
with letters) in your name. The antithesis is, Paul himself, ver. 4 : 
comp. &I&., Eom. ii. 27 ; 2 Cor. ii. 4. — rnv x^fh hiiZiv, your liber- 
ality) a gracious term, and therefore frequently employed. — 

2 Cor. viii. 4. 

4. "A^iov, worthy) meet, if it shall be worth while for me to carry 
it myself. He invites them to be liberal. — xifi^i, that even I) a 
just estimate of one's self is not pride, 2 Cor. i. 19. Paul men- 
tions himself in the first place. — aijv i/jloI, with me) so that all 
suspicion may be obviated, 2 Cor. viii. 20, 21. 

5. 'EKiuso/iui 3e, but I will come) He had said ver. 2^ when I 
shall have come. — orav Maxidotlav) In this one passage an error 
in a single accent was discovered in the smaller edition, after a 
new preface had been written to it ; and we are forced to men- 
tion this only on the ground, that the aiSrmation of that preface, 
in respect to our edition being correct even to the smallest point, 
may be consistent with itself. — disp^o/^^'h -^ pass) we have here 
the figure Ploce,^ of which the antithesis follows, to pass through, 
to abide, ver. 6. Wherefore we must not press the present tense. 
He was not yet in Macedonia, but he was thinking of it, 
ver. 8. 

6. Tv^ov, perhaps) He speaks very familiarly. — ou i&v, whither- 
soever) For ihe sake of modesty he does not express how far he 
may be thinking to go, Acts xix. 21. 

7. "Apri, now) after so long delay heretofore. — lav o Kbpiog Im- 

^ See App. 

' See Append. The same word twice used, once in the sense of the word 
Itself, and again used to express an attribute of it. 

1 CORINTHIANS XVI. 8-12. 345 

Tfivri^ if the Lord permit) a pious qualification. The destina- 
tions of the saints have some degree of Hberty, which the divine 
goodness in various ways both precedes and follows. 

' 8. 'Ev'Ef iffifi, At Ephesus) Paul was at Ephesus : comp. ver. 19, 
respecting Asia. 

9. &\ipa., a door) It is the part of a wise man to watch oppor- 
tunities. — anif)yi, has been opened) at Ephesus. — iiiyuXri xai mp- 
ync, great and effectual) He was about to take advantage of so 
great an opportunity for some weeks ; comp. ch. v. 7, note. — 
avTixiifisvoi, adversaries) whom I must resist. Often good, and, 
its contrary, evil, flourish vigorously at one and the same 

10. As, now) An antithesis between Paul himself and his 
substitute, Timothy.^ — afo^ois, without fear) This will be the 
case, if no man shall have despised him. If some despised Paul, 
how much more readily would they depise the youthful native 
of Lystra. — Kupiov, of the Lord) Christ. — spydt^irai, worheth) It 
is right that this work should be performed without fear. This 
constitutes the foundation of true respect to the, ministers of the 

11. 'Aurov, him) a young man, Ps. cxix. 141, veunpo; iyu t'l/u 
xai' ESOTAENflMENOS, I am rather young and am despised. 

— d3i\<pSiii, tlie brethren) who likewise are looking for him ; or 
else, who are likewise to come.' 

12. no>.X(i irapixakiea, I strongly urged [greatly desired]) Paul 
was not afraid of the Corinthians preferring Apollos, who was 
present with them, to himself. Apollos, when Paul sent this 
epistle, was not present, for he is not mentioned either at ver. 19 
or at ch. i. 1. — /ura, ruv aSeXipuv, with the brethren) ver. 17. 
These are different from those at ver. 11. — oix ^n SiXr}/ji.a, the will 
was not) An expression as it were impersonal ; where the matter 
is considered, as to be or not to be the object of the wish [will], 
without expressing, whose will it is ; wherein however the 
standard is the will of God ; comp. Matt, xviii. 14. So also 

' The Germ. Ver., after the margin of 2d Ed. has the reading iimpk-^ri. 
The Gnomon in this passage follows the former decision. — E. B. 

"Ei7iTpi\pri is the reading of ABC^ Vulg. "E.mrps'jrii is that of D (A) O ; 
so Rec. Text. 

2 Tifi.6ho{, Timothy) was the bearer of this epistle. — ^V. g 

84G 1 CORINTHIANS XVI.. 13-18. 

the Greeks use the verb SiXa, Acts ii. 12. — orav ilzaipni'O, when 
he shall have convenient time) The convenience indicated is not 
carnal convenience, but that which follows the will of God. 

13. TptiyopiTrt, watch) The conclusion exhorting chiefly to 
faith and love [This is the sum of all those things, which either 

Timothy or Apollos thought should he inculcated on the Corin- 
thians. — ^V. g.] — h rrj rriSTii, in the faith, ch. xv. 2, 11, 14, 17. 

14. 'El/ aya'irri, in love) viii. 1, xiii. 1. 

15. ToTs ayioig, to the saints) The Dative is governed by iiaxo- 
viav, ministry. To the saints of Israel, for they were the first 
fruits of Achaia. — eauroij;, themselves) spontaneously [These were 
the very persons, who had come from Corinth to Paul, ver. 17. — 
V. g.] The more voluntary the service in difficult circumstances, 
the more agreeable and praiseworthy. 2 Cor. viii. 16, 17 ; 
Is. vi. 8. 

16. Kai, ye also) in turn. — imrdggrigk, ye submit yourselves) 
corresponding to 'ira^av, they addicted themselves. — euvspyouvTi, 
[that helpeth with] that worketh with) others. — xo'jriSivri, that 
laboureth) by themselves. 

17. Xatpco, I rejoice) Paul in respect of God, gives thanks, when 
he might have said, I rejoice; ch. i. 14, but when he writes to men, 
he says, I rejoice or I rejoiced, instead oi I give thanks; Phil. iv. 10; 
Philem. ver. 7 : comp. Acts x. 33 ; 3 John v. 3. Now again 
the deputies of the Corinthians had departed ; and yet he says 
in the present tense, T rejoice ; for a pleasant remembrance of 
them remained, and the present is supposed to accord with 
the time of the reading of the epistle at Corinth. — Sripava, of 
Stephanas) This person seems to have been the son of that 
Stephanas, whose house is mentioned, but not himself at ver. 15. 
— -jgriprii/ja, [that which was lacking] the deficiency) So far as 
you had been awanting to me, and were not yourselves able to 
refresh me in my absence. 

18. ' Aveixaugav, they have refreshed) True brethren, although 
inferior, do not come or are present in vain. Such is the re- 
freshment of the saints. — rh i//,ov vnv/^ia, my spirit) 2 Cor. vii. 13. 
— %ot,l rh i/iuv, and yours) in regard to me : 2 Cor. vii. 3. — Imyt- 
vdgxiri, acknowledge) The Antecedent [acknowledge] for the 
Consequent [Give them a kind reception], so iibhai, to know, 
1 Thess. v. 12. He who does not do so, is said to be dyvw/ioii/ 

1 CORINTHIANS XVI. 19-24. ^i7 

19. TloXXoi, much) for especial affection, Acts xviii. 2, 1. — 
AxiXa,; xal UpiixiXXa, Aquila and Priscilla) Elsewhere this 

woman is mentioned first. In the epistle to the Corinthians, she 
is put last ; comp. xiv. 34. — xa?' oTxov, in their house) This couple 
afterwards set up a church also in their house at Rome ; Kom. 
xvi. 5. 

20. 'Ed (piXfj/jiaTi aylui, with a holy kiss) in which all dissensions 
might be swallowed up. 

21. Tfj ifijfj xiipi, with mine own hand) He therefore dictated 
aU the rest of the epistle. 

22. "E/ r/s ou, if any man not) Paul loves Jesus, do ye also all 
love Him. — (piXif) loves with the heart : kisses virtually by his 
conduct : the corresponding word to <piXiT is (piXruian, with a kiss, 
ver. 20 ; for (piXeTv is used in the sense of kissing, Luke xxii. 47 ; 
and to kiss is used for to love, Ps. ii. 12. — rhv Kvpiov, the Lord) 
He is to be preferred even before all the brethren, nay even before 
Paul and Apollos. — ^Vw a.vdkij,a, [ijapav aSd, let him he anathema 
Maranatha) So far from wishing him health [saluting him], I 
would rather bid him be accursed. The words Maranatha add 
weight to the anathema ; and this phrase, expressed in an idiom 
faniihar to the Jews indicates, that he who loves not Jesus wiU par- 
take with the Jews, who call Jesus anathema with bitter hatred, 
xii. 3, in that curse most righteously falHng upon themselves, 
for he uses this language to soften the odiousness of the phrase 
[by Euphemism] instead of the expression, if any man hate Jesus. 
Map&v aSa, i.e. the Lord cometh; fj,ap&,v in Syriac, our Lord, or 
simply the Lord. Hesychius says, /iapamSA, 6 Kupiog riXhv, x-r-X. 
As in French monseigneur is the same as seigneur., Mccpav a6d 
seems to have been a frequent symbol [watchword] with Paul, 
the meaning of which the Corinthians had either already known, 
or now, when they were to be seriously affected by it, might 
leam from others. 

23. 'H %af/s, grace) This is the salutation set forth at ver. 21: 
at ver. 22, the unworthy are excluded ; comp. 2 John v. 10, 11. 

24. 'H d/a*^ fiou fji,iT& -rduruv i/x,Siv h XpifrSi I^tfou, My love he 
with you all in Christ Jesus) The Apostle embraces in Christ 
Jesus with love, which had been divinely kindled, not only those 
who had said they were of Paul, but all the Corinthians. In 
the Alexandrian copy alone, /iou is omitted ; but this little word 


evidently agrees with the beginning and end of this epistle.' 
There was afterwards added, sypacpn "'''o ^I'ki'jr'tm, it was written 
from PJdlippi. But it was written at Ephesus, as ver. 8 proves; 
perhaps, however, it was sent from Philippi, ver. 5, because the 
deputies of the Corinthians had accompanied Paul thither. At 
least, Aquila and Priscilla, who are spoken of at ver. 19, were 
at Ephesus (Acts xviii. 19) ; thence there was a road to Corinth 
above Phihppi. I do not refuse a more convenient way of re- 
conciling these two statements ; comp. Ord. Temp., p. 282, lin. 
4 and 9, and the end of the page 281. 

1 Mou is read in BCD (A) Gfff Vulg. But A omits it.— Ed 




I. TiadXog, Panl) While Paul repeats his admonitions, he 
shows his apostolic love and eropyn, fatherly affection to the 
Corinthians, who had been dutifully [devoutly] affected by the 
severity of his former epistle; and for the rest, as he had written 
therein about the affairs of the Corinthians, so he now writes 
about his own, but with a constant regard to the spiritual benefit 
of the Corinthians. But the thread and connection of the whole 
epistle is historical; other topics are introduced as digressions. 
See the leading points, at ver. 8, 15; ii. 1, 12, 13; vii. 5; viii. 1; 
X. 1; xiii. 1, concerning the past, present, and future. Whence 
we have this connected view [sjoiopsis] of the epistle. There is 
in it — 

I. The fescKiPTiON, ch. i. 1, 2. 

n. The Discussion [handling of his subject.] 
1. We were greatly pressed in Asia : 
but God consoled us : 

for we act with sincerity of mind ; even in this that I 
have not already come to you, who are in propriety 
bound to obey me, 3-ii. 11. 

350 2 CORINTHIANS I. 3, 4. 

2. I hastened from TeoAS to Macedonia, whicli is near you : 

keeping pace with the progress of the Gospel, whose 
glorious ministry we worthily perform, 12-vii. 1. 

3. In Macedonia I received joyfd tidings of you, 2-16. 

4. In this journey I became acquainted with the liberality 

of the Macedonians. Wherefore it becomes you to 
-foUow that example, viii. 1— ix. 15. 

5. I am on my way to you, armed with the power of Christ. 

Therefore obey, x. 1-xiii. 10. 

m. The Conclusion, 11-13. 

Tifidhog ahtXfoi, Timothy, our brother) When Paul writes to 
Timothy himself, he calls him son ; when writing of him to the 
Corinthians and others, he calls him brother. — r>) ixxXnel(f roS 
eeou, to the Church of God) This has the force of a synonym 
with the word saints, which follows. 

3. EiXoyjjT-os, blessed) An elegant mode of introduction, and 
suited to the apostolic spirit, especially in adversity. — 6 •xuTrip ruv 
oixripfiuv xal ®ebg iradrti "^rapaxXiiesoig, the Father of mercies and 
God of all consolation) Mercies are the fountain of consolation : 
comp. Eom. xii. 1 : 'jrapaxaXiTv is zusprechen, to console. The 
principle of exhortation and consolation is often the same ; con- 
solation is the proof [the evidence] of mercies. [And Paul makes 
mention of mercies and help, before he mentions afflictions. — V. g.J 
He exhibits his mercies in the very midst of calamity ; and the 
calamity of the saints is neither contrary to the Divine mercy, 
nor does it beget suspicion against it in the minds of the saints : 
afterwards it even affords consolation; therefore ■irdsm, of all, is 

4. Tl&sri- 'Ttderi, in all, i?i all) He who has experienced one 
kind of affliction is pecuharly qualified to console those in the 
same circumstances ; he who has experienced all is able to con- 
sole men under aU kinds of affliction, Heb. iv. 15. — SXl'^n, in. 
tribulation) The antithetic words on the one side are 'jraSTJ/aara, 
adversities [the sufferings], and 6Xi-<]^ig, distress [straitness] of 
mind ; of which the one is implied in the signification of the 
other — and on the other side, earnpla,, salvation ; and •jrapdxXneig, 
consolation ; of which the one is in like manner implied in the 

2 CORINTHIANS 1. 5, 6. 351 

signification of the other. The frequent occurrence of these 
words will be greatly relished, but only by the experienced. 
[How great need is there of experience ! how ill-qualijied a guide 
is he, who is without it! — V. g.] Adversity is treated of 
from ver. 8; cohsolation from ch. vii. 2, etc. Paul speaks gene- 
rally of comfort at the beginning ; he, however, refers especially 
to that, which he derived from the obedience of the Corinthians. 
— aurof) we ourselves. 

5. ToD XpiSroZ, I'lg rj/j,ar dia XpiBTov, rj/JiSiv, of Christ towards (in) 
us; ours by Christ) The words and their order are sweetly inter- 
changed. — Tai^fnara- -TrapaKkrisig, adversities (sufferings); consol- 
ation) The former are numerous ; the latter is but one, and yet 
exceeds the former. — olirws, so) There shines forth brightly from 
this very epistle, as compared Avith the former, a greater amount 
of consolation to the Corinthians, who had been deeply impressed 
with the first epistle, consolation being extremely well suited to 
their circumstances, after the distresses which had intervened ; 
and so there shines forth brightly in it the newness of the whole 
inner man, increasing more and more day by day. 

6. E/Ve dk 6XiP6//,£6a,, x.r.X., and, whether we be afflicted, etc.) 
The meaning is this, sits de 6Xi^6fiii6a {iXilSofisSa) msp rrjg i/iSiv vapa- 
KXfjssdig xai eiiirrjpiag' sin TapaxaXou/isia (irapa.xa'kou/iiia) virsp xrX, 
and whether we be afflicted (we are afflicted) for your consolation 
and salvation; or whether we be comforted (we are comforted) for 
your consolation, which operates in enabling you to endure the 
same adversities which we also endure, and our hope for you is 
stedfast ; knowing that as you are partakers of the sufferings (ad- 
versities), so also of the consolation. As in Phil. i. 16, 19, ^XZ-v}//; 
and eurtjpia are opposed to each other; so here 6'Ki-\'i{, the afflic- 
tion of the ministers of the Gospel, and the consolation and 
salvation of the Corinthians, are opposed to each other, in the 
same way as the death of the former [the ministers] and the life 
of the latter [the Corinthians], iv. 12. Furthermore, as though 
consolation and salvation of the Corinthians depend on the afflic- 
tion of the ministers of the Gospel ; so the consolation of the 
Corinthians, and the hope of the ministers in their behalf, 
depend on the consolation of the ministers. The participle 
knowing depends on the verbs, we are afflicted, and we are com- 
forted, understood. Thus the members of this period are con- 

352 2 CORINTHIANS I. 8, 9. 

sistent with one another, of which the various transpositions are 
noticed in the Apparatus} We shall now explain some of these 
words in particular. — i'/ti, whether) sometimes we are more sen- 
sible of adversities, sometimes of consolation. — u/iSn, your) The 
communion of saints, cultivated in the heart of Paul, Titus, the 
Corinthians, and other Churches, is admirably represented in 
this epistle, ii. 3, iv. 15, vi. 12, vii. 7, 13, ix. 12. These hearts 
were, so to speak, mirrors reflecting the Hkenesses of each other ; 
comp. Phil, ii. 26, 27. — -TrocpaxXfigniig, consolation) in the soul. 
— e(drr}piai, salvation) in fact [in reality]. — rjjg mpyovfihrii) 
in the Middle voice, iv. 12 ; Rom. vii. 5. — tojv airuv) the same, 
in point of number. The adversities [sufferings] of Paul were 
the same as those of the Corinthians, who were in the heart of 
Paul : vi. 12 ; and the fruit of those sufferings redounded to 
their advantage, although they [the sufferings] had prevented 
him from coming to Corinth. A mutual participation [in suffer- 
ings and consolation] is declared. — 'Kae-'/oihiv, xa/ ;i iXm's, we suffer, 
and the hope) Hope is usually joined with the mention of afflic- 
tions and patience, ver. 10 ; Eom. v. 3, 4, xv. 4. — /Ss/Sa/a, is 
stedfast) It obtained stedfastness through adversity. 

8. 'Ell TYi 'Agicf, in Asia) 1 Cor. xv. 32, note. The Corinthians 
were not ignorant of that affliction, which had befallen him in 
Asia ; but Paul now declares its magnitude and its advantageous 
result. [_The whole epistle presents a journal of his travels ; but 
most excellent precepts are interwoven with the narrative oj them. 
— ^' §•] — ^'"''^P ^^'■'"■f^"} above ordinary strength. — IfaTopjj^jji/a;, 
that we despaired) He affirms here, what he denies in another 
respect, iv. 8 ; for he is speaking here of human, there of Divine 

9. 'AWa, but) i.e. nay ; supply, for this reason we ourselves, 
etc. ; that not, etc. — H avoxpi/jLo.) Hesychius says, a.v6xpifi,a, xard- 
■/.pif/,a, ■vJ/^poK. amxplveiv, to pass sentence on one condemned, to 
consider him as dead. The antithesis is trusting. Simonius 
takes a different view. — aXX' sirl, but in) illustrating the wonder- 

' BD (A) Gfg Syr. later, place eite -a 1^,^60, vxip t^j vftuv ■ 
Ji^ffsai; x«) auryipia,; after vTcip ifiaii, and before eiSotes. AC Vulg. Syr. 
Memph. omit xai aurvipicc;, (Many MSS. of Vulg. have the et Salute), and 
place the rest of the -words before t^j htpyovfiii/n;. Rec. Text without good 
authority, places the words before xai i eA«-(f Ed. 

2 COKINTHIANS I. 10-12. 363 

ful nature of faith in the greatest difficulties, which seem to have 
no means of escape. — iyilpovn, who raiseih) 1 Cor. xv. He had 
written at great length on the resun'ectibn of the dead ; he now 
repeatedly touches on the same doctrine, and, taking for granted, 
that its truth is admitted by the Corinthians, urges its bearing 
upon their practice. 

10. PvsTai, delivers) The present, in respect of this affliction, i.e. 
whilst we are in a state of death, we are delivered. — fiXmxafiiv) 
we have obtained hope \we have trusted^. — puesrai, He will deliver) 
that I may be able to go to you. 

11. iMWiToijpyobvTm, you helping with) \iiroiipyi7\i is from Ipyov, a 
work : 'ipyov, the work of effectual help, belongs to God ; ivovpyiTv, 
to help suhordinately, belongs to the apostles ; emwrovpyiTv, to help 
suhordinately along with, belongs to the Corinthians. — xai) you 
also, not merely others. — '1% •xoXkuv •rpoeiii'xSiv, in many respects 
[But Engl. Vers. "By the means of many persons"]) icpoau-jrov, 
face, respect [point of view.] In respect, viz., of the past, present 
and future. He has delivered, delivers, will deliver. We do not 
translate it, of many persons, for that is included in the words, 
iia itoXXuv, by many. — to ei; rjfias yapiSjito) the assistance, which is 
vouchsafed to us by grace. — hia, •roWZv su^apigrfjOri) thanksgiving 
may be given by many, ■^(apiisij.a, and ixi'^apieria are correlatives ; 
iv. 15. — •I'Trip u/iSiv,^ for you) Just now he had said, /or us, in re- 
spect of prayers ; now, he says, for you, in respect of thanks- 
giving. The fruit redounded to the Corinthians. Nor was it 
necessary, after e/'s riiJMi, again to say, hntip rnjMt? 

12. Tap, for) The connection is : We do not seek in vain and 
we promise to ourselves the help of God and the prayers of godly 
men. — xau^rimg, glorying [rejoicingj) even in adversity and against 

^ Tji iiiiau — ivxitqiarniYi, that tlianJcsgimng might he poured forth hy 
prayer). He who enjoys the communion of saints, will never want an 
opportunity for prayer ; although he should have nothing remaining in re- 
lation to himself, for which he should feel any anxiety — [i.e. the concerns of 
his fellow-saints will always afford him ample subject for prayer and praise.] 
-V. g. 

^ Therefore the reading ijft,uii, at the end of the verse, is disapproved by 
the margin of both Ed., and seems to have slipped inadvertently into the 
Germ. Ver.— E. B. 

' All the oldest MSS. and Versions have iifiuv. Only a few MSS. of 
Vulg. have vohis. — Ed. 


354 2 CORINTHIANS I, 13-17. 

our adversaries. — rr,; guvuS^siu; nixw, of our conscience) ■whatever 
others may think of us. — k'TtXirnn, in simplicity) aiming at the 
one mark in the most direct way. — i'lXixpm'ic^^) in sincerity, with- 
out the admixture of any foreign quality. — oiJx h, not in) The an- 
tithetic terms are, fleshly wisdom, and the grace of God, who 
wisely directs His own people, ver. 17, 18. — h rp K6g//,ifi) in the 
world which is wholly deceitful [as opposed to godty sincerity 
and simplicity.] — ■irepiigor'spciig, more abundantly) ii. 4. 

13. " AXka) other things, contrary. — 'ypd,(po/j,iv, we write) in this 
epistle. He appeals to a present thing. — amYivtiexiTi, ye read) 
in the former epistle. — Jj xa/, or even) liriymgig is more than 
avaymeii;. — ews rsXous, even unto the end) of my course, comp. ver. 
14, at the end, and 1 Cor. iv. 5 : whence it is evident that regard 
to the day of the Lord is not excluded. 

14. 'AffJ fiepotii, in part) The antithesis, even unto the end, 
is in the preceding verse. 

15. Taur?i, in this) of which ver. 12 treats at the beginning. 
— irpinpov, before) We have frequent mention of this intention 
in the former epistle ; it is construed with I was minded. — dsvTipav, a second benefit) They had had their first benefit [exhibited 
by Divine help ; ver. 12] at the first visit of Paul : comp. thy first 
love, Eev. ii. 4. He had designed a second benefit for them at 
his second visit. Grace is in itself one ; but in being had [in the 
having of it], there is a first, second grace, etc. : comp. John i. 
16. [Of His fulness have all we received, and grace for grace.J 

16. Ilpo'7rt/^<p6r}mi, to be brought on my way) to commit myself 
to you to be escorted [conducted] forward. 

17. Trj sXa,(ppicf,, lightness) by promising more than I performed. 
— ri) or? [an? the second part of a disjunctive interrogation]. — 
xaTo, gapxa, according to the flesh) Paul gives them to understand 
that, if he were to consult according to [to listen to the sugges- 

' The 2d Ed. prefers the reading tl7,ixpiuelif 0eov, which was left doubtful 
by the earlier Ed., and it is received without hesitation by the Germ. Ver. 
Emesti interprets the sincerity of God to be, such as God desires and ap- 
proves. Heumann, to be, such as God Himself works and produces. — See 
Bibl. th. ,T. II. p. 496.— E. B. 

ABCD (A) have the toS before SeoD. Rec. Text, with G and Origen., 
omit ToS. ' Kyiornri is the reading of ABC Memph. Origen. But «T7i(>r»T< 
of D (A) Cfg Vulg.— Ed. 

2 COKINTHIANS I. 18. 355 

tions of] the flesh, he nrast rather have come, than not ; for they 
who consult according to the flesh, endeavour by all means to 
make the yea of the promise, whatever may occur, to appear in 
the fulfilment, for the purpose of maintaining their consistency 
{whether good or evil may result from it. — ^V. g.j But the 
Apostle was neither inconsistent, nor carnally consistent : either 
of which might have been suspected by persons under the influ- 
ence of prejudice against him. He had made a conditional pro- 
mise, and afterwards he delayed his visit for an important reason, 
which had occurred to prevent it. — rJ ml xai rh ou) See App. 
Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Simple yea and nay^ is quite ap- 
proved of by Paul in the following verse, in which he denies the 
yea and nay, concerning the same things ; but he affirms it, ver. 
17, concerning different things. The word p, should be, is em- 
phatic ; as it may be said, for example, of an unsteady [incon- 
sistent] person. You can never be sv/re of finding either his " It 
is," or his " it is not," to he as he says — ^that is, no one can trust 
his word ; or as if it were to be said of a consistent man, ffis 
" It is," and his " It is not," always hold good. 

18. Xlierhg, faithful) The categorical statement impHed is this, 
" Our doctrine is sure." The mode [or expression of feeling, as 
opposed to a naked, categorical statement, see Append, on 
modalis sermo^, however, is added : God is faithful, pW: 
comp. amen, ver. 20. — Ss, but) The antithesis is between his 
intention of travelling to see them, and the doctrine itself. The 
external change of that intention for good reasons infers 
no inconsistency in the doctrine. In the mean time, Paul 
shows, that those who are light [fickle] in external mat- 
ters are wont to be, and to appear to be, light also in things 
spiritual. — -jrphi) with, to ; with (towards) you, is an antithesis 
to withme, ver. 17. — ovx lyinn ml xa; ou, was not made yea and 
nay) Contradictories have no place in Theology. 

' Although this reading is declared to be not quite so good in the margin 
of 2d Ed., yet, with the previous concurrence of the Gnomon, it is intro- 
duced into the Germ. Ver. — E. B. 

AH the old authorities,, excepting the Vulgate, support the double y»\ and 
m ; even the Fuld. MS. of the Vulg. as corrected by Victor of Capua, has 
"Est, est, non, non," and so agrees with the weightiest authorities (est, est = 
»«!, no] ; non, non — ov, oi.) — Ed. 

356 2 CORINTHIANS I. 19-21. 

19. 'O y&f) roD ©sou u'lhg, l^eoug Xpidrhs, for the Son of God, 
Jesus Christ) who is the principal subject of our discourse. 
We should observe the joining together of the three appella- 
tions, thereby showing forth firmness ;^ as also their position in 
the natural order ; for the first is evidently not the same as the 
third. — xal S/XouavoD, and Silvanus) Luke calls him Silas ; Acts 
XV. 22 note. — aXka. vat) hut yea pure and unmixed, on our part 
and yours. — b avrSi, in Himself) Christ preached, i.e. our 
preaching of Christ became yea in Christ Himself. So the 
reason assigned [aetiologia, see Append.] in the following verse 
is in consonance. All the promises in Christ are yea. There- 
fore truly also the testimony concerning Christ Himself is yea in 

20. ''Evayyikiai) promises, declarations. — rh val — rh afi^iv, yea 
— amen) The words yea and amen agreeing together, stand in 
pleasant antithesis to the words yea and nay, ver. 19, which are 
at variance with each other : yea by afiSrmation ; amen, by an 
oath ; or yea in respect of the Greeks ; amen in respect of the 
Jews ; comp. Gal. iv. 6 note ; for yea is Greek, amen is Hebrew; 
or yea, in respect of God who promises, amen in respect of be- 
lievers ; comp. 1 John ii. 8 ; yea in respect of the apostles, amen 
in respect of their hearers. — tOj &ea irphg fio'^av \to the glory of 
God'\ to God for His glory) For the truth of God is glorified in 
aU His promises, which are verified in Christ. — ir/>Js bo^av, to the 
glory) iv. 15. — ll r^fiZiv, ly us) construed with there is, again to be 
understood. For whatever may be the number of [as many 
soever as are] the promises of God, there is in Him the Yea, and 
in Him the Amen [every promise has its yea and amen, i.e. its 
fulfilment in Him]. To the glory of God (is that Yea and Amen) 
by us. The yea is re-echoed by us. 

21. "O bi ^i^aiuv, now He who confirmeth [establishethj) The 
Son glorifies the Father, ver. 19 : whilst [autem, de] the Father 
in turn glorifies the Son. — ^ijSaiSiv, confirming) that we may be 
firm in the faith of Christ. The term sealing corresponds to 
this word ; the one is firom Christ and His anointing ; the other 
from the Spirit, as an earnest. That is sealed, which is con- 
firmed as the property of some one, whether it be a property 

' For " union is strength." — Ed. 

2 CORINTHIANS I. 22-24. 367 

purchased, or a letter, so that it may be certain, to whom it 
belongs ; comp. 1 Cor. ix. 2. A trope^ abstracts from the per- 
sons and things from which it is taken. — jj/^as, us) apostles and 
teachers. — guv v//,ii, with you) He speaks modestly of himself. — 
I'lg XpiSTov xal ^fisag, in [into] Christ, and hath anointed) Con- 
jugate words. From the oil here, we derive strength, and a 
good savour, ii. 15. All things tend to the yea; ils Xpigrbv, in 
faith in [towards] Christ. 

22. ' AppaBSiva, earnest) ch. v. 5. dppa^uv. Gen. xxxviii. 17, 
18, is used for a pledge, which is given up at the payment of a 
debt ; but elsewhere for earnest money, which is given before- 
hand, that an assurance may be afforded as to the subsequent 
full performance of the bargain. Hesychius, appa^uv, '!rp66i>ua,. 
For the earnest, says Isid. Hispal., is to be completed [by paying 
the balance in full] not to be taken away : whence he who has an 
earnest does not restore it as a pledge, but requires the com- 
pletion of the payment. Such an earnest is the Spirit Himself, 
Eph. i. 14 : whence also we are said to have the first fruits of 
the Spirit, Rom. viii. 23. See Eittershusii, lib. 7, sacr. lect. 
c. 19. 

23. 'Eyii di, but I) The particle but forms an antithesis : 7 
was minded to come, but I have not yet come. — rk Qihv, God) the 
omniscient. — ImxaXoiJ/iai, I call upon) The apostle makes oath. 
— M, upon) a weighty expression. — ■^ux'i''} soul) in wliich I am 
conscious of all that passes within myself, and which I would 
not wish to be destroyed. — (puSo/jLimg, sparing) a term of large 
meaning ; therefore it is presently after explained : He is able 
to spare, who has dominion ; he also spares, who causes joy rather 
than sorrow. It confirms this force of the [in his] explanation, 
in that he says, not for that^ we have dominion : not, seeing that 
we have not [i.e. because we have not] dominion. — ilg Kopithv, to 
Corinth) This is elegantly used for to you, in using words show- 
ing his power. If face to face with them, he would have had to 
act with greater sternness:' for his presence would have been 
more severe. Comp. Exod. xxxiii. 3 ; Hos. xi. 9. Therefore the 
apostle had sent Titus before him. 

24. Kupiivo/isv, we have dominion) It would have been a 

* See Append., on tropus. ' On the ground that. ' 2 Cor. x. 10, 11. 

358 2 CORmTHIANS U. 1, 2. 

serious matter for the apostle to have used even his lawful author 
rity ; and therefore he calls it to have [exercise] dominion ; comp. 
1 Cor. ix. 17, note, respecting such a mode of speaking. — ttjs 
vlgTius, over iAe/aiiA) The faithful are freemen. — swipyot, fellow- 
workers) not lords. — %«? as, of joy) which flows from faith, Phil, 
i. 25. The antithesis sorrow, ii. 1, 2. — rfi ■k'hsth, hy faith) Eom. 
xi. 20.— ItfriixaTE, ye stand) Ye have not fallen, although there 
was danger of it. 


1. "Expim di £/i,a,uTi/j, But I determined for myself) so far as I 
myself am concerned, for my own advantage. The antithesis is, 
to you in this ver. : comp. i. 23. — 3i, but) This is an antithesis to 
not as yet, i. 23. — irdXiv, again) This is construed with come ; not 
with, come in heaviness {sorrow) : he had formerly written in 
heaviness, he had not come. — h Xuiri), in heaviness (sorrow) two- 
fold ; for there follows, for if I make you sorry, and, if any one 
have caused grief [sorrow, ver. 5.] This repetition (anaphora') 
forms two antithetic parts, the discussion of which elegantly cor- 
responds to each respectively, / wrote that you might know [ver. 
4] ; I wrote that I might know, ver. 9 ; [the joy] of you all ; 
[overcharge] you all, ver. 3. 5. / 

2. Av-irSi, I make you sorry) either when present with you, or by 
letters. — xa/ rig JoTA, and who is) The if has an apodosis consisting 
of two niunbers, and who [xal ris], and I wrote [_xai 'iypa-^oi^ : ioth, 
and, i.e. as well, as also. — ibfpahm [n, that maketh me glad) hy 
the sorrow of repentance. — el /x,ij, unless) It affords me no pleasure 
to have struck with sorrow by my reproofs the man, who now 
gives me joy by his repentance. I would rather it had not been 
necessary. — o Xua-ou/ifi/oj, he, who is made sorry) He indicates the 
Corinthians, but more especially him who had sinned. — 1§ l/tou, 

' See Append. The frequent repetition of the same word to mark the 
heginnings of sections. 

2 CORINTHIASfS n. 3-7. 359 

by me) ap' av, from whom, in the following verse. These particles 
differ thus : avh [coming from, or on the part of] apphes to some- 
thing more at large; Jg [out of, by means of], to something 
more within ; comp. ui. 5 ; 1 Thess. ii. 6. 

3. Kal 'iypa-^a,, and I wrote) He shows that he had this inten- 
tion at the time, when he sent his first epistle, in which he had 
promised a visit, an intention which he explains at ver. 1. — ao' 
S>ti, from wlwrn) as from sons. — on, thai) The joy of Paul itself is 
desirable not for his own sake, but for the sake of the Corin- 

4. 'Ex yinf, for out of)l wished to stir you up before I went 
to you, that afterwards it might not be necessary. Anguish of 
heart produced tears, mwcA anguish produced many tears. The 
Corinthians might have seen the marks of tears on his letter, if 
he himself wrote it — a proof of anguish. — ou ha), not so much 
that, etc. The fruit of sorrow is not sorrow, but the fruit of love 
is love. — XvffriS^Ti, you should be grieved) He is easily made sorry, 
who is admonished by a friend himself weeping. — djv aydirriv, 
love) The source of sincere reproof and of joy derived from it. — 
yvSiTi, you might know) according to my faithful admonition. — 
vipmeoTepug ilg u/iSs, more abundantly to you) who have been par- 
ticularly commended to me by God, Acts xviii. 10. 

5. Tls, any) He now speaks mildly ; any one and any thing, 
ver. 10. In both epistles Paul refrained from mentioning the 
name of him, of whom he is speakiag. — o\ix s/ii XsXivjixiv, he hath 
not grieved me) i.e.. He has not made me lastingly grieved 
[I am not now so disposed towards hun] dxx' dirh /iepov;, only 
in pari) he has occasioned me sorrow. — ImlSapui, be heavy 
upon [overcharge^ a weightier expression, than / make sorry, 
ver. 2. 

6. 'ixamv) Neuter, in place of a substantive; it is sufficient for 
such a one, so that no more can be demanded of him :■ Ixaiov, a 
forensic term. It is the part of Christian prudence to maintain 
moderation. A considerably long time intervened between the 
writing of the two epistles. — iT/n/i/a, reproof) In antithesis to 
forgive, as also, to comfort, ver. 7. — rSv vKuovm, by many) not 
merely by those, who ruled [the bishops and ministers.] The 
Church at large bears the keys. 

7. Xapigagdai) This word has the meaning of an indicative, 

360 2. CORINTHIANS II. 8-12. 

whence he is rather forgiven ; and the indicative is a very mild 
fonn of exhortation : xii. 9 ; Matt. xxvi. 18, note. 

8. Kvpudaif to conjirrn) the xD^os is connected with love, not 
with sorrow. The majesty of the ecclesiastical government and 
discipline consists in love. It is this, which reigns. Dp. LXX., 
xvptiv<s6ai, Gen. xxiii. 20 ; Lev. xxv. 30. 

9. Ka) 'iypa-^a) not only I write, but / also did write. — 
Tr]\i dox.i/j,nv, the proof) whether you are genuine, loving, obedi- 
ent sons.^ — iig -iravTa, in all things) in reproof [ver. 6], and in 

10. T/, any thing) He speaks very gently of the atrocious, but 
acknowledged sin. — yctpiZiek, ye forgive) He has no doubt, but 
that they wiU. do what he wrote at ver. 7. — xa/ kydi, I also) He 
modestly subscribes assent to the act of the Corinthians, and re- 
gards himself, as it were in the same category with them. — s'/ n 
xi')(afii<si/,ai, if I forgave envy thing) The matter is limited by if any 
thing, in order that Paul may show his willingness to follow up 
the forgiveness granted to the sinner by the Corinthians. From 
the present / forgive, the past immediately results, / have for- 
given, while Paul is in the act of writing these things. — 5;' u/^Sf, 
for your sakes) namely, I forgave. — h -jrpoedmo Xpigrou, in the pre- 
sence [but Engl. Vers., person'] of Christ) in the face of [before] 
Christ, 1 Cor. v. 4. — ha /ifi -rXiovmrTiSSifiiv, lest we should be de- 
frauded [lest an advantage be gained over us.]) The loss of a 
single sinner is a common loss ; therefore he said for your sakes. 
— vvi roZ 'Sarava, by Satan) to whom Paul delivered or was about 
to deliver the sinner ; 1 Cor. v. 5. Satan not only devised to 
destroy the flesh, but the soul : and he seeks an opportunity of 
doing a very great injury by means of sorrow. 

11. Ou y&p, for not) True ecclesiastical prudence. Those who 
have the mind [referring to vou; contained in vofi/x^ara] of Christ 
are not ignorant of hostile devices and attempts, vorj/^ara and 
ayvoiTv are conjugates. 

12. Kai) even although [Engl. Ver., and]. Paul would have 
willingly abode at Troas. — 6{/pag, a door) Nevertheless Paul did 
not sin, in departing, inasmuch as it remained free to him to do 
so. — anm, rest) His spirit first began to feel the want of it, then 

1 See Tit. i. 4. 

2 CORINTHIANS II. 13-16. 3C1 

the flesh, vil. 5. He was desirous of knowing how the Corin- 
thians had received his former epistle. — r^S •jmbfLan, in spirit) He 
perceived from this, that it was not imperatively necessary to 
avail himself of that door. — T/Vov, Titus) who was about to come 
from you. 

13. E/'s Maxiioviav, to Macedonia) where I would be nearer and 
might be sooner informed [wAai was the fruit of my former epistle 
to you. — V. g.J — These topics are continued at vii. 2, 5 : and a 
most noble digression is here introduced in respect to events, 
which had in the meantime occurred and sufferings which had 
been endured by him elsewhere : the benefit of which he makes 
to flow even towards the Corinthians, whilst he hereby prepares 
the way for a defence against the false apostles. 

14. TO hi QiSi, but [now] to God) Although I have not come 
to Corinth, I did not remain at Troas ; nevertheless there is no 
want of the victory of the Gospel even in other places: The modal 
expression is added [Append, on Modus, i.e. with expression of 
feeling, not a mere categorical proposition] ; Thanhs he unto God, 
— 'xdwon, always) The parallel follows, in everyplace. — Spia/iffsuovri 
iifiag) who shows us in triumph, not as conquered, but as the 
ministers of His victory ; not only the victory, but the open 
'showing' of the victory is denoted: for there follows, Who 
maketh manifest. The triumph forcibly strikes the eyes ; the 
savour, the nostrils [sense of smell.] — tjjv hg[t.ri]i, the savour) The 
metaphor is taken from all the senses to describe the power of 
the Gospel. Here the sight (of the triumph) and its savour occur. 
— auroD, of Him) of Christ, ver. 15. — (pavtpojJvTi, who maketh mani- 
fest) a word, which often occurs in this epistle, and refutes the 
suspicions of the Corinthians [towards the apostle.] So 1 Cor. 
iv. 5. 

15. Euoidia.) a sweet savour, i.e., powerful, grateful to the godly, 
offensive to the ungodly. The savour of Christ pervades us, as 
the odour of aromatics pervades garments. — iv) in the case of. — 
gu^o/i'moi;- affoXXu^EKo/j, in them, who are saved; in them, whoperish) 
To which class each may belong, is evident from the manner in 
which he receives the Gospel. Of the former class he treats, iii. 
1-iv. 2 ; of the latter, iv. 3-6. — d'xoX'Kufiivoig, in them that are 
perishing) iv. 3. 

16. 'Oe/ifi davarou, the savour of death) They reckon us [and 

362 2 COBINTHIANS II. 17. 

our Gospel message] as a tting dead ; hence they meet with 
death as the natural and just consequence. — olg di, whilst to the 
former) who are being saved. This verse, if we compare the 
antecedents and consequents, has a chiasmus.'^ — xa! •jrpbg raZra 
Tig ixavog ; and who is sufficient for these things ?) Who ? i.e. but 
few, viz., we. This sentiment [idea] is modestly hinted at, and 
is left to be perceived and acknowledged by the Corinthians ; 
comp. the next verse. Paul asserts at considerable length both 
his own sufficiency QxavorriTa) and that of the few in the follow- 
ing chapter, and repeats this very word, ver. 5, 6, of that ch., so 
that his adversaries seem either expressly or in sense [virtually] 
to have denied, that Paul was sufficient. 

17. o! nXXol, the many) so xi. 18. C^^n, 1 Kings xviii. 25. 
The article has force ; the many, most men, ao(r/j,oi, void of savour : 
comp. PhU. ii. 21. — nairnXiiiovTig [cauponantes]) corrupting [adul- 
terating for gain] ; men who do not make it their aim to show 
forth as much virtue [as much of the power of the Gospel] as 
possible, but to make gain by it. These men speak of Christ, 
but not as "from [of] God," and "in the sight of God." xa- 
wrfkoi, [caupones], vintners, select their merchandise from diffe- 
rent quarters ; they adulterate it ; they manage it with a view 
to profit. The apostles deal otherwise with the word of God ; 
for they speak as of God, and as of sincerity, and so as to ap- 
prove themselves unto God. icikovvng, adulterating, iv. 2 [Engl. 
Vers., handling deceitfully'], is a synonymous expression, and also 
l///!rope{isff6ai, to make mercJiandise of, 2 Pet. ii. 3. — !§ sl'kmpmiag, 
of sincerity) We give our whole attention to [our whole aim is] 
the word of God by itself. — aXX' wg ix, but as of) a gradation 
[ascending climax], but being repeated; as is explanatory.^ — 
xaTivuiiriov — XaXov/iiv, in the sight of God — we speak) So decidedly, 
ch. xii. 19. We always think, that God, from [sent by] whom 
we speak, is present to the speakers ; we do not care for men. — 

1 See App. 

^ The Germ. Ver. , however, omits both the particle a; before e| iAiupmlas 
and the particle dxh before wf ix Qtov, although the omission has by no 
means been approved of by the margins of both Ed. — E. B. 

ABCD (A) read the a; after aXTi' (or aAXsi in B), in the first seXTi' «f : G^ 
Vulg. Memph. Iren. omit it. In the second «aa' us, ABCD (A) support 
the aAx'. G^ Vulg. (Puld.), later Syr. Iren. omit it.— Ed. 

2 COKINTHIANS III. 1-3. 363 

ill, in) Our discourse, which we hold in Christ, is given and 
directed from above. — XaKoiJ/isv, we speak) We use the tongue 
the power belongs to God. 


1. 'Ap^o/iiSa, do we begin f) A just reproof to some of those 
who had so begun. — vdXiv, again) as was formerly done in the 
first epistle ; so, again, ch. v. 12. — gwigrdveiv, to commend) after 
the manner of men ; xii. 19, by mentioning transactions that 
took place elsewhere. — ei nn) unless. A particle expressive of 
conciliation \rnorata\. Is it thus and thus only that we are 
equal to the task of commending ourselves [i.e., by mentioning 
transactions that took place elsewhere], if we do not need [with- 
out needing] also letters ? Some read fi.^ — ring, some) of many, 
ii. 17. In this respect also, he shows that he utterly differs 
from the false apostles. They did need letters of recommen- 
dation. — If ii/iSiv, from you) to others. This then was the 
practice at Corinth. 

2. 'Ell rats xapSiaig fiiMuv, in our hearts) Your faith was written 
in our heart, in which we carry about it and yourselves — a 
faith everywhere to be known and read. It was reflected from 
the heart of the Corinthians to the heart of the apostle. — indvruv, 
by all men) by you and others. This is an argument for the 
truth of the Gospel, obvious to all, to be derived from believers 
themselves [iv. 2 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 25]. 

3. ^aviptit/imi, manifested) construed with ifiiT;, ye, ver. 2. 
The reason assigned [aetiologia, see Append.] why this epistle 
may be read. — XpieniJ — i<p' fi/j,uv, of Christ — 'by us) This explains 
the word our, ver. 2. Christ is the author of the epistle. — Sia- 
MvnkTda) The verb iiaKonoi, has often the accusative of the 
thing, viii. 19, 20 ; 2 Tim. i. 18 ; 1 Pet. i. 12, iv. 10. So 
Paeanius, rnv [ija^n^ diaxovou/nvo;, directing the battle, b. 7, Metaphr. 

' So CD(A)Gfg Vulg. (" aut numquid"). But AB (judging from sUence 
ace. to Tisch : But Lachm. quotes B for i') read ii fc^ as Eec. Text. — Ed. 


Eutr. The apostles, as ministers, Sinxovow, presented the epistle. 
Christ, by their instrumentality, brought spiritual light to bear 
on the tablets of the hearts of the Corinthians, as a scribe 
applies ink to paper. Not merely ink, but parchment or paper 
and a pen are necessary for -writing a letter ; but Paul men- 
tions ink without paper and a pen, and it is therefore a synec- 
doche [one material of writing put for all. See Append.^ T4 
/j^'sXav does not exactly mean ink, but any black substance, for 
example, even charcoal, by which an inscription may be made 
upon stone. The mode of writing of every kind, which is done 
by ink and a pen, is the same as that of the Decalogue, which 
was engraved on tables of stone. Letters were engraved on 
stone, as a dark letter is written on paper. The hearts of the 
Corinthians are here intended ; for Paul was as it were the 
style or pen. — ou //^eXavi, not with ink) A synecdoche [ink for any 
means of writing] ; for the tables in the hands of Moses, divinely 
inscribed without ink, were at least material substances. — 
^wvroj, of the living) comp. ver. 6, 7. — Xiilmig, of stone) ver. 7. — 
vXa^l Tiapdias eccpjiivaig, in fleshly tables of the heart) Tables of 
the heart are a genus ; fleshly tables, a species ; for every heart 
is not of flesh. 

4. UevolSrieiv, trust) by which we both determine and profess 
to be such as are here described. The antithesis is, to faint, iv. 
1. — di& Tou XpiSTov, throicgh Christ) not through ourselves. This 
matter is discussed, ver. 14, at- the end, and in the following 
verses. — vphg tov Qihv, toward God) This is discussed, ver. 6, 
and in the following verses. 

5. ' Aoyieaeiai, to devise \to thinlc^^ to obtain by thinking, 
much less to speak or perform. There seems to be here 
something of a mimesis [allusion to the words of the per- 
sons whom he refutes. Append.] For they do not think, 
whom God moves : i.e., they frame or work out nothing by 
their own thinking, 2 Pet. i. 21. — W) anything ; even the least 

6. Ka;, also) An emphatic addition [to the previous assertion. 
Epitasis. Append.] He has given sufficiency to us, even the 
sufficiency of ministers of the New Testament, which demands 

' Eirftiii, we are) even yet at this very hour. — V g. 

2 CORINTHIANS III. 7-10. 865 

much more in order to realize it [than ordinarj' sufficiency]. — 
ri/Loic S(a,x6vou;, us ministers) Apposition. — TtaivTj;, new) An anti- 
thesis to old, ver. 14. — ou, not) of the New Testament, i.e., not of 
the letter, but of the spirit, see Rom. vii. 6, and the following 
verses, with the annot. — ypafi/iarog, of the letter) Even while 
Paul wrote these things, he was the minister not of the letter, 
but of the spirit. Moses in that his peculiar office, even when 
he did not write, was yet employed about the letter. — ■rviu/j.aToe, 
of the Spirit) whose ministry has both greater glory, and re- 
quires greater ability [sufficiency]. — airoxrilm, kills) : the letter 
rouses the sinner to a sense of death ; for if the sinner had 
life, before the letter came, there would have been no need of 
quickening by the Spirit. With this comp. the following verse, 
of death. 

7. "H iiaxovia, the ministry) which Moses performed. — hrsru- 
trai/iiiiri) LXX. xtxoXa/i/i'svri, Ex. xxxii. 10. — X!6oig, in stones) 
There were then two different tables, not of one stoae. Ex. 
xxxiv. 1 : engraven in stones, is an explanation of this clause, in 
letters.^ — iyivfiSri h So^cj,, obtained glory [was glorious]) yhofiui, 
I become, and tlfil, I am para/], ver. 8, are different. — /iri blvae- 
6ai aTivlgai) Ex. XXxiv. 30, lpo/3^^»j(rai' iyyisa,! aurOj. — Moiueiug, of 
Moses) engaged in the duties of his office. 

8. "Egrai) shall be. He speaks as looking from the Old 
Testament point of view to the New. Add, hope, ver. 12 
[which similarly looks from the Old Testament stand-point to 
the New]. 

9. Karaxpieiu;- hxaioswm, of condemnation; of righteousness) 
The glory of God shines back more brightly by the latter, than 
by the former. The letter condemns ; condemnation imposes 
death as the punishment. The Spirit, along with righteousness, 
brings life. — 5o|a, glory) The abstract for the concrete, for the 
sake of brevity. 

10. OuSs dido^aerai, was not even glorified [had no glory]) The 
limitation immediately follows, in this respect. The greater 

' h -/pxfifiKffii/, in letters. Eng. Ver. written, etc., at the beginning of 
ver. 7. 

So AC, and ace. toLachm. G (but Tisch. makes G support ypaiifiari)fg 
Vulg. Orig. 1, 708/: 3, 498c : 4, 448a. But B and D(A) corrected later. 
ypififCKTi. — Ed. 

866 2 CORINTHIANS III. 11-14. 

light obscures the less. — rJ diSo^ae/ihov, that which was glorified) 
So Lxx., Ex, xxxiv. 29, 35, 'pp, BidS^aiTui. 

11. A/a 3o|»js' £v 5o^»), marked by glory ; in glory) The particl0g 
are properly varied [the distinction is lost in Engl. Yers., glorious 
— glorious]. Supply is. — rh [i/evav, that which remains) The bia- 
xovla, ministry, itself, does not remain any more than whatever 
is in part [as for instance, knowledge], 1 Cor.- xiii. 10 ; but the 
Spirit, righteousness, life remain ; therefore the neuter gender 
is used. 

12. 'EXTiSa, hope) He spoke of trust, ver. 4 ; he now speaks 
of hope, as he glances at that which remaineth, ver. 11. — ■ 
irapprjelcf) a plain and open manner of dealing. 

13. Kal oil, and not) supply we are, or we do. — xoiXu/i/ia, a veil) 
so LXX., Exod. xxxiv. 33. — vphg rh /ijj) ^pos \according as, 
because that] denotes congruity. Comp. Matt. xix. 8 : [w^og rijn 
ex'kTipoxa.phia.v, by reason of, because of the hardness of heart, by 
reason of the fact] : for rh >i5 anvleai, the not being able to look 
stedfastly, took place before the veil was put on, but subsequent 
to the splendour of Moses [" the glory of his countenance"], 
ver. 7 : wherefore, there, uien is used [because their not being 
able to look stedfastly at him was subsequent to and the conse- 
quence of his glory.] What is affirmed of Moses is wholly 
denied by Paul respecting the ministers of the New Testament, 
namely, the putting on of a veil, lest the Israelites should look 
upon them. Often something is inserted in the protasis, which 
in the proper application is intended to belong to the apodosis. 
So in ver. 7 we have wste /i^ hLvaaiai armlgai ; here, -Trphg rh /ji,ri 
arsvlgai. Here to wit the act is denied, not the power. The 
power was wanting to all [the IsraeKtes] in the case of Moses ; 
to some [viz. to them that are lost, iv. 3] in the case of the 
apostles. — elg TO riXog tou xaTapyovfihov, to the end of that which 
is abolished) Paul turns the words to an allegory. That, 
which is abolished, has its end in Christ, ver. 14, at the end : 
Rom. X. 4, the law tends to and is terminated in Him, 

14. 'AXK' i-ffciipii6ri, but were hardened) but is opposed to the 
phrase to look stedfastly. — rJ aM).the same, as in the time of 
Moses. — I*/, upon) i.e. when they read, and although they. read. — 
avayviieti, reading) pubhc, frequent, perpetual. Paul makes a 

2 CORINTHIANS III. 15, 16. 367 

limitation. The veil is not now on the face of Moses, or on 
his writings ; but on the reading, while they read Moses, and that 
too in such a way as not to admit Christ ; it is also upon their 
heart, ver. 15. — (Lsm, //,ri avaTtaXwrrTo/jLivov) remains lying upon 
them, so that it is not indeed taken away [so that the veil is not 
even lifted off']. — on, because it is not done away, save in Christ. 
[But Engl. Ver. "which veil is done away in Christ."] — 
This is a statement introductory to the things which follow. — 
xampyeTrai, is abolished [done away]) the Old Testament ; comp. 
ver. 7, 11, 13. He does not say, has been abolished, but is 
being abolished in respect of those, that are about " to turn to 
the Lord." 

15. 'AXX' sws, but until) But is opposed to the phrase is not 
taken away. — ^w'xa) This is the only place, in which Paul uses 
this adverb. It seems to have readily occurred from his recent 
reading of the Lxx., Ex. xxxiv. 33. — amyivuKSMrai Muianc, Moses 
is read) and that too, studiously, without seeing Christ therein. 
The antithesis follows, but when it shall have turned to the 

16. 'Hv/xa S' av — 'TTipiaiptTrai rh xdXv/i/ia, but when the veil is 
taken away) This is a paraphrase on Ex. xxxiv. 34, jjwxa &'av 
iide'jfopsiiro Mcoueris ivavri Kupiov XaXeni avTSi mpiripiiri) rh ptaXu/i/ia. 
But when Moses went in before the Lord to speak to Him, the veil 
was taken away. Therefore i}\i'ix.a., meaning not if, but when, 
evidently affirms, as in the preceding verse, and frequently in 
the LXX., nvixa i&v, fjvlxa, &v. Gen. xxiv. 41, xxvii. 40 ; Ex. i. 10, 
xxxiv. 24 ; Lev. vi. 4, x. 9 ; Deut. xxv. 19. ijw'xa S an, Ex. 
xxxiii. 8, 22, xl. 36. — imirpi-^ri, shall he turned) namely their 
heart. The truth is acknowledged by repentance, 2 Tim. ii. 25. 
The method, not of disputation, but of conversion, is to be ap- 
plied to the Jews. — irphs Kupiov, to the Lord) Christ, ver. 14. A 
distinguished appellation, iv. 5. — mp/oupiTrai) vipiaipou/iai is pas- 
sive. Acts xxvii. 20, and in the lxx.. Lev. iv. 31, 35 ; but 
middle, very often in the lxx., and that too in the very passage 
to which Paul refers. The antithesis of ver. 15 and 16 shows, 
however, that here the signification is passive. The veil lies 
[xeTrai, ver. 15] ; the veil is taken away. The present, is [that 
moment, and by that very fact] taken away, is emphatic [not as 
Engl, shall be taken away.] 

368 2 CORINTHIANS III. 17, 18. 

17. 'O hi Kipioi rh •rvivfid idriv, but the Lord is iJiat Spirit) The 
Lord is the subject. Christ is not the letter, but He is the 
Spirit and the end of the law. A sublime announcement : 
comp. Phil. i. 21 ; Gal. iii. 16. The particle but, or now, shows 
that the preceding is explained by this verse. The turning 
(conversion) takes place [is made] to the Lord, as the Spirit. — 
o5 Sk rh itniJiMa Kuplov, and where the Spirit of the Lord is) Where 
Christ is, there the Spirit of Christ is ; where the Spirit of 
Christ is, there Christ is ; Eom. viii. 9, 10. Where Christ and 
His Spirit are, there is liberty : John viii. 36 ; Gal. iv. 6, 7. — 
sxif) there, and there only. — iXivSipla) liberty, opposed to the 
veil, the badge of slavery : liberty, without such fear in looking, 
as the children of Israel had, Ex. xxxiv. 30. 

18. 'H//,iTg &£ iravTif, but we all) we all, the ministers of the New 
Testament, in antithesis to Moses, who was but one person. — 
aiiaxexa,Xv/j,/ji,eviij 'TrpoauTifi) our face being unveiled with regard to 
men ; for in regard to God, not even Moses' face was veiled. 
The antithesis is hid, iv. 3. — nji/ do^av, the glory) divine majesty. — 
Ktiplov, of the Lord) Christ. — xaroirrpif^ofLevoi) The Lord makes 
vs mirrors, xaroTrplt,^, puts the brightness of His face uito our 
hearts as into mirrors : we receive and reflect that brightness. 
An elegant antithesis to evrirvTrai/jbhri, engraved [ver. 7, the minis- 
tration of death — the law — engraven on stones^ : for things which 
are engraven become so by a gradual process, the images which 
are reflected in a mirror are produced with the utmost celerity. — 
rfiv aurriv) the same, although we are many. The same expres- 
sion [lively reproduction] of the glory of Christ in so many 
believers, is the characteristic mark of truth. — ilxom, the image) 
of the Lord, which is all glorious. — /jiiTa//,of(poi/ji,ida, we are 
transformed) The Lord forms by quick writing (ver. 3) His 
image in us ; even as Moses reflected the glory of God. The 
passive retains the accusative ; as in the phrase, diddgxo/j,ca ul6v. 
— dm do^ni ik do^av, from glory to glory) from the glory of the 
Lord to glory in us. The Israelites had not been transformed 
from the glory of Moses into a similar glory ; for they were 
under the letter. — xaSdmp, even as) an adverb of likeness : 
comp. ver. 13. As the Lord impre^es Himself on us, so He 
is expressed to the life by us. He Himself is the model ; we 
are the copies [images], — d'Trh Kuplou ftviviiaroi) from [by] the 

2 COKINTHIANS IV. 1-3. 869 

LorcEs (viz. Christ's, ver. 14) Spirit. This refers to ver. 17, but 
where the Spirit of the Lord, etc. If there were an apposition 
Paul would have said, ari Kxiphu roD •xniiianc. Elsewhere the 
Spirit of the Lord is the mode of expression ; but here the 
LordJs Spirit, emphatically, 'a-jto is used as in i. 2, and often 
in other places. 



1. Tnv diaxoviav raurriv, this ministry) of which iii. 6, etc. — 
xaSiis nkirjSrifi-iv, as we have received mercy) The mercy of God, by 
which the ministry is received, makes men active and sincere. 
Even Moses obtained mercy, and hence he was permitted to ap- 
proach so near, Exod. xxxiii. 19. — ouk — aXX', not — but) A double 
proposition ; the second part is immediately brought under our 
consideration by chiasmus i^ the former from ver. 1 6. Where- 
fore ovx sxxaxov/iiv, we faint not, is there repeated ; we admit of 
no serious falling off in speaking, in acting, in suffering. 

2. 'A*6C7ra/i£^a) Hesychius : aveivd/aeSa, a.'rippi'^dfiiSa,- d^rs/Vavro, 
Ta/uinjtfaiTo, airsra^aiiro [bid farewell to], we have renounced, and 
wish them to be renounced. — ra xpwjra rris aig')(y\/rii, the hidden 
things of shame \dishonesty'^ shame, having no regard to the 
glory of the Lord, acts in a hidden way : we bid farewell to such 
a mode of acting (to be discontinued), Rom. i. 16. The antithesis 
is by manifestation, which presently follows, and we speak, v. 13. 
— h iravoupyicf, in craftiness) This is opposed to sincerity; crafti- 
ness s&eks hiding-places ; we do not practise it. — ^jjSe boKowng, 
not corrupting [not handling deceitfulhf^ — Tr\ (panpiiiau, by mani- 
festation) comp. iii. 3. — r^s dKnhia;, of the truth) according to 
the Gospel. — sauroOs, ourselves) as sincere. — irphg) to. — waaav) all, 
every, concerning all things. — ameibriffiv, conscience) ch. v. 11 ; not 
to carnal judgments ; iii. 1, where the carnal commendation of 
some is by implication referred to and stigmatised. 

3. E/' di, but if) precisely the same as in the time of Moses. — 
tal ten, even is) even strengthens the force of the present tense 

1 See App. 
VOL. Ill A A 


in is. — ro ivayysXm, the Gospel) which is quite plain in itself. — 
iv, in) so far as it concerns them, that perish; so, ev i/io> ^dp^apog, 
as far as I am concerned, a barbarian, 1 Cor. xiv. 11. — h nTg, 
in the case of them) not in itself. — avoXXv/i^hoig, that parish) 
1 Cor. i. 18. 

4. 'Ev oTg, as concerns whom, [in whomj) — 6 hhg rou aiuvog tou- 
rou, the god of this world) A great, but awful description of 
Satan [corresponding to his great but awful work, mentioned here. 
— V. g.], comp. Eph. ii. 2, respecting the fact itself: and Phil, 
iii. 9, respecting the term. Who would otherwise think, that 
he could in the case of men obstruct so great a hght [as that 
which the Gospel affords] 1 But there is somewhat of a mimesis;^ 
for those that perish, especially the Jews, think, that they have 
God, and know Him. The ancients construed rou a'lumg toutou 
with run omierm, as if it were, the unbelievers of this world, in 
order that they might give the greater opposition to the Mani- 
cheans and the Marcionites." — roD almog rourov, of this world) 
He says, of this, for the devil will not be able always to assail. — 
irC^Xagi, blinded) not merely veiled [ch. iii. 14, 15]. — rSJv avisTm, 
of them who believe not) An epithet,* by supplying the relative 
pronoun exihm, of them ; for among those, that perish, are chiefly 
those, who, though they have heard, do not believe. The Gospel 
is received by faith unto salvation. — ilg ri fiij auydoai^) lest should 
shine. — rfv (puTig/ihs rod ivayyeAiou, x.t.X., the enlightening [illumina- 
tion] of the Gospel, etc.) He afterwards calls it the enlightening of 
the knowledge, etc. — (p<iiTie/ji,ig, enlightening, is the reflection or 
propagation of rays from those, who are enlightened, for the pur- 
pose of enhghtening more. The Gospel and knowledge are cor- 
relatives, as cause and effect. — r^s So'fjjs, of the glory) iii. 18, 
note. — sixiiv To\i &soiJ, the image of God) From this we may suffi- 
ciently understand how great is the glory of Christ, v. 6 ; 1 Tim. 

"■ See Append. Allusion to an opponent's words or sentiments. 

» Both which sects regarded matter as essentially evil and under the 
power of the devil, which the rendering, god of this world, seemed to sanc- 
tion Ed. 

3 Beng. would make it thus, The unbelkving lost, spoken of above. 

* The Germ. Ver. also exhibits the pronoun airo??, which is more highly 
esteemed in the margin of the 2d Ed. than in the larger Ed. — E. B. 

ABCD corrected, G Vulg./Orig. Iren. omit aiiTo7;. Except one passage 
of Origen there is none of the oldest authorities in support of it. Ed. 


vi. 15. He, who sees the Son, sees the Father, in the face of 
Christ. The Son exactly represents and reflects the Father. 

5. Oi, not) We do not commend ourselves, iii. 1 ; although 
they who perish think so. — yap, for) The fault of their blindness 
does not lie at our door. — Kvplov, doiXoug, the Lord; servants) An 
antithesis : we do not preach ourselves as masters ; comp. i. 24. 
— SovXous i/jLuiv, your servants) Hence Paul is accustomed to pre- 
fer the Corinthians to himself, ver. 12, 13. — 8/d 'itjeovv, for 
Jesus' sahe) The majesty of Christians is derived from Him. 

6. °Or(, because) He proves, that they were true servants. — 
&ihg, God) God — to shine, constitutes the subject ; then by sup- 
plying is (as in Acts iv. 24, 25) the predicate follows, [is He] 
who hath shone. — o s/Vwv, He who spake the word) who com- 
manded by a word LXX., eJVev, Gen. i. 3. — h gxonvg tpZig, light 
out of darkness) LXX., Job xxxvii. 15, p3s mirisai; Ix gnonug. 
A great work. — 'iXa/^'^iv, hath shone) Himself our Light ; not 
only the author of light, but also its fountain, and Sun. — xapdlaig, 
in our hearts) in themselves dark. — h rposdvu)'^ 'Iriaov Xpisrou, in 
the face of Jesus Christ) Who is the only begotten of the Father 
and His image, and was manifested in the flesh with His glory. 

7. Thv 6riaavphv toutov, this treasure) described from [beginning 
with] ii. 14. He now shows, that affliction and death itself, so 
far from obstructing the ministry of the Spirit, even aid it, and 
sharpen ministers and increase their fruit. — oerpaxlvoig, earthen) 
The ancients kept their treasure in jars, or vessels. There are 
earthen vessels, which yet may be clean ; on the contrary a 
golden vessel may be filthy. — exiisffiv, vessels) It is thus he calls 
the body, or Hie flesh, which is subject to affliction and death; 
see the following verses. — ri b-jrsp^oXri rrjg duvd//,ioig, the excellency 
of the power) which, consisting as it does in the treasure, exerts 
itself in us, while we are being saved, and in you, while you are 
being enriched ; ver. 10, 11. — fj, may be) may be acknowledged 

' Both the margin of the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Ver. hint that the name 
' Iwot/ is a doubtful reading ; and the same may be said of the reading ni 
Kvpi'ov, ver. 10.— E. B. 

AB Orig. 1,632/ omit ' Inirov. But C Orig. 4, 448c have it before X/>wto5 ; 
and D(A)Gr/5r Vulg. have it after Xpiarov. ABODG^ Vulg. Orig. Iren. omit 
Kvpiov in ver. 10. It is supported only by some later uncial MSS. and later 
Syr., etc. — Ed. 

872 2 COKINTHIANS IV. 8-10. 

to be, with thanksgiving, ver. 15. — rou 0iou, of God) not merely 
from God. God not only bestows power once for all, but He is 
always maintaining it [making it good, ensuring it to His 

8. 'Ev Tavrl 6Xi^6fievoi, while we are troubled in every respect [on 
every sidej) So vii. 5, in every, namely, thing, and place ; comp. 
always at ver. 10. — ST^i^Sfievoi, while we are troubled) The four 
participles in this verse refer to the feelings of the mind ; the 
same number in the following ver. to outward occurrences, vii. 
5, [Without were fightings ; within were fears.] They are con- 
strued with s%o/4£v, we have ; and in every member the first clause 
proves, that the vessels are earthen, the latter points out the ex- 
cellence of the power. — oO srevo^cijpoi/j.ivoi, we are not [distressedj 
reduced to straits) a way of escape is never wanting. — a-iropoiif/svoi, 
we are perplexed) about the future ; as, we are troubled, refers to 
the present. 

9. AioiKo/jiivoi, persecuted) xaTa^aWofievoi, cast down, is some- 
thing more [worse] than persecution, vi^., where flight is not open 
to one. 

10. XldvToTi, always) ad in the next verse differs fi"om this 
word, aavrori, throughout the whole time ; aii, any time what- 
ever [at every time] : comp. Mark xv. 8. The words, bearing 
about, we are delivered, in this ver. and in ver. 11 agree. — rjjn 
v'cxpugiv, the dying) This is as it were the act, life the habit. — rou 
KvploM, of the Lord) This name must be thrice supplied in this 
and the following verse, "^ and advantageously softens in this first 
passage the mention of dying. It is called the dying of the Lord, 
and the genitive intimates communion, [joint participation of 
Christ and believers in mutual suffering] as i. 5. — 'Iijo-oD, of Jesus) 
Paul employs this name alone [without Xpigrou or KvpUu accom- 
panying it] more frequently in this whole passage, ver. 5, than 
is his wont elsewhere ; therefore here he seems peculiarly to have 
felt its sweetness. — vipiipkpovTig, carrying about) in all lands. — ha 
xal, that also) Consolation here takes an increase. Just before 
[ver. 8, 9], we had, but, four times. — h rf eiiij-an ri/iuv (panpwdft, 
in our body might be made manifest) might be made manifest in 
our mortal [dead] flesh, in the next verse. In the one passage 

1 Comp. marginal note on ver. 6. — E. B. 

2 CORINTHIANS IV. 11-13. 373 

the noun, in the other the verb is put first, for the sake of 
emphasis. In ver. 10, glorification is referred to ; in ver. 9, pre- 
servation in this life, and strengthening : the word, our, is added 
here [Iv rp eiiiian rifiSiv], rather than at the beginning of the 
verse [Iv rS eu/ian without ^/iSJvJ] The body is ours, not so 
much in death as in life. May be made manifest is explained, 
ver. 14, 17, 18. 

11. 0/ tSivTig, we who live) An Oxymoron ; comp. they who 
live, ch. v. 15. The apostle wonders, that he has escaped so 
many deaths, or even survived others, who have been already 
slain for the testimony of Christ, for example, Stephen and James. 
We who live, and death ; life, and mortal are respectively anti- 
thetic. — nrapaiihoiMita, we are delivered up) He elegantly and 
modestly abstains from mentioning Him, who delivers up. Look- 
ing from without [extrinsicaUy], the delivering up might seem 
to be done at random, [whereas it is all ordered by Provi- 

12. ©ayarog, death) of the body \by the corruption (decay) of the 
outward man. — V. g.] — Z<a^, life) viz., that of the Spirit. 

13. TJ aurJ) the same, which both [David had and you have], 
comp. ver. 14. — xarii, according to) This word is construed with 
we believe and we speak. — imsnusa, Sih iXdXriea) So Lxx., Psa. 
cxvi. 10, Hebr. sTlgreuaa, on XaXnaoi. The one meaning is in- 
cluded [involved] in the other. Faith produced in the soul im- 
mediately speaks, and in consequence of speaking, it knows itself 
and increases itself. — XaXov/isv, we speak) without fear in the 
midst of affliction and death, ver. 17. 

14 EidoTis, knowing) by great faith, ch. v. 1. — ircipaer^ifei, shall 
present) This word places the matter as it were under our eyes 
[Hypotyposis ; a vivid word-picture of some action. Append.] 

15. Tap, for) The reason, why he just now said, with you. — 
irmra, all things) whether adverse or prosperous. — rj %a^;s, grace) 
which preserves us, and confirms youin life. — irXiovdeaffa-'xepiffffsieri) 
XlXiovd^oi has the force of a positive ; iripigmiu, of a comparative, 
Rom. V. 20. Therefore we must construe 81& with mpiggiigti. 
vXiov, the sanile as •ffX^fE5,is not a comparative. — bm) through [on 
account of] the thanksgiving of many, for that grace. Thanks- 
giving invites more abundant grace, Psa. xviii. 3, 1. 23 ; 2 Chron. 
XX. ],9, 21, 22. — eu^apterlav thanksgiving) ours and yours, ch. i. 

374 2 CORINTHIANS IV. 16-18.-V. 1. 

3, 4. — irepiegevgr!,) may abound to [be abundantly vouchsafedj us 
and you, this again tending to tbe glory of God. 

16. Aih oxix ixxa,xou/i,sv, for which cause we faint noi) ver. 1, 
note. — tgiw, the outward [man^ the body, the flesh. — bia<phipsrai, 
be wasted away \_perisKJ) by affliction. — avaxaitovrai, is renewed) 
by hope ; see the following verses. This new condition shuts 
out all xoiKia, infirmity [such as is implied in IxxaxoD/isv, faintness.^ 

17. TiapavTiKa, \but for a moment^) just now: a brief present 
season is denoted, 1 Pet. i. 6 [oXiyov apn, a brief season now.] 
The antitheses are, just now, and eternal; light, and weight: 
affliction, and glory ; which is in excessive measure, and in an 
exceeding degree. — xad' hmp^oXfiv, in excessive measure) Even that 
affliction, which is xa^ imp^aXfiv, in excessive measure, when com- 
pared with other less afflictions, i. 8, is yet light compared with 
the glory s/'j iimpjBoXriv, in an exceeding degree, A noble Oxy- 
moron. — xanpydtsTai) works, procures, accomplishes. 

18. 'SxcvovvTuv) while we look, etc. Every one follows that to 
which he looks as his aim [scopus from exomu.'] — /iri l3Xiv6//,iva, 
things, which are not seen) The term, aopara, things invisible, [im- 
capable of being seen] has a different meaning ; for many things, 
which are not seen [/i>j ^Xi'jrS/Mvoi, things not actually seen now], 
wiU be visible [oVara], when the journey of our, faith is accom- 
plished. — y&p, for) This furnishes the reason, why they look at 
those things, which are not seen. 


1. rAf, for) A reason given [setiologia] for this statement, 
affliction leads to glory [ch. iv. 17]. — ft svlyuog) which is on the 
earth : 1 Cor. xv. 47. The antithesis is, in the heavens. — ^^wv, 
ou/r) The Antithesis is, of [from] God. — olxla, roD ex^vous, the house 
of this tabernacle) The Antithesis is, a building, a house not made 
with hands. A metaphor taken from his own trade might pro- 
duce the greater interest in the mind of Paul, who was a tent- 
maker [Acts xviii. 3.] — xarakuSri, were dissolved) a mild expres- 
sion. The Antithesis is, eternal. — s'x"'"'"? '"'^ have) The present ; 

2 CORINTHIANS V. 2-6, 375 

straightway from the time of the dissolution of the earthly house. 
— a^sipomiriTov) net made with the hands of man. 

2. 'Ek rovrtfi, in this) The same phrase occurs, oh. viii. 10, and 
elsewhere. — ffrEra^o/iji', we groan) The epitasis^ follows, we do 
groan being burdened, ver. 4. — oixrirfifm, a dwelling-place, a domi- 
cile) oixia, a house, is somewhat more absolute ; oh^ritpm, a donfii- 
die, has reference to the inhabitant. — rJ J| olipavoZ) which is from 
heaven : If here signifies origin, as, of the earth, John iii. 31. 
Therefore this domicile (abode) is not heaven itself. — e'revSveasSai, 
[to have the clothing put upon us] to be clothed upon) It is in 
the Middle voice : 'hdu/ia, the clothing, Viz., the body : hence the 
expression, being clothed [ver. 3], refers to those living in the 
body; irnvhufLa, the clothing upon, refers to the heavenly and 
glorious habitation, in which even the body, the clothing, will be 
clothed. As the clothing of grass is its greenness and beauty, 
Matt. vi. 30, so the heavenly glory is the domicile and clothing 
of the whole man, when he enters into heaven. 

3. Eiys %al, if indeed even \if so 6e]) That, which is wished for, 
ver. 2, has place [holds good] should the last day find us alive. 
— ivSued/avoi, being clothed) We are clothed with the body, ver. 
4, in the beginning. — ou yu/ivot) not naked, in respect to [not 
stripped of] this body, i.e. dead. — thpiSritsSfiiSa, we shall be found) 
by the day of the Lord. 

4. Ka,} y&p, for even) The reason of the earnest desire [ver. 2.] 
— ffrsva^o/isi' jSapov/icvoi, we do groan being burdened) An appropri- 
ate phrase. A burden wrings out sighing and groaning. — 
ixdxieaeSai) to be unclothed, to strip off the body. Faith does not 
acknowledge the philosophical contempt of the body, which was 
given by the Creator. 

5. KaTspyagafiivo;, He that hath wrought or prepared us) by 
faith. — tig aWh rovTo, for this selfsame thing) viz. that we should 
thus groan, Kom. viii. 23. — xcx,i) also ; new proof [token to 
assure us] of our coming blessedness. — rhv appa^Sim, the earnest) 
ch. i. 22, note. — rou milfiang, of the Spirit) who works in us 
that groaning. 

6. &ccppo\jvreg) The antithesis is between Sappovireg oSn vavrorf, 

1 See App. Strengthening of the words abready used by something ad- 
ditional on their repetition. — Ed. 

876 3 CORINTHIANS V. 7-9. 

and Sappoij/iiv Ss xai iuSoxoZ/iiv /iaKXov, x.r.x. Its Own explanation 
is subjoined to each of the two parts : we are confident as well at' 
all times and during our whole life ; as also we are most of all 
confident in the hope of a blessed departure. — xa/) and, even. — 
hdjifiouvTer £xSr]/i,ov/j,iv) These two words here signify abiding 
[sojourning in a place] ; but ver. 8, where they are inter- 
changed, departure. — ixdri/ioufnv, we live as pilgrims absent from 
the Lord) In this word, there lies concealed the cause of confi- 
dence, for a pilgrim [though abroad yet] has a native country, 
whether he be about to reach it sooner or later, Heb. xi. 14. — 
avb rou Kvpiou, from the Lord ) Christ, Phil. i. 23. 

7. AiSt, Tigrius, by faith) Not to see, is nearly the same as 
being separated. — yap, for) This refers to a^rJ, from [ver. 6, 
absent from the Lord]. — ffsf/^raroD/isv, we walk) in the world. 
So 'TropiiieSai, Luke xiii. 33. — ou dia I'/dovg, not by what appears to 
the eye [Engl. V. sightj) The LXX. translate nsn», Effioj, vision, 
aspect, appearance} See especially Num. xii. 8 : iv e'iSei, xal ou 
6i ahiyiLaTuv, apparently and not in dark speeches ; likewise Ex. 
xxiv. 17. Faith and sight are opposed to one another. Faith 
has its termination at death in this passage, therefore sight then 

8. Ae, indeed) An epitasis [Repetition of a previous enuncia- 
tion with some strengthening word added ; Append.] ; comp. 
ver. 6, note. — sii5oxoO/i£v) we have so determined [we regard it as 
a fixed thing], that it will be well-pleasing to us. — Ic^jj^^ffa;, to go 
home) ver. 6, note. — -jrphg rh Kuplov, to the Lord) Phil. i. 23. 

9. A;i xal, wherefore also) that we may obtain what we 
wish. — ifii'KoTifiov/ji.iSa, we [labour'\ strive) This is the only (piXon/ila, 
or lawfiil ambition. — ihi, whether) construed with we may be 
{accepted^ well-pleasing. 

" ( hdrifiovvTe;, being at home) in the body. 
iixdriaoZvTig departing), i.e. out of the body. 

' Not the act or power of seeing (as ' sight' often means) : but the 
seen, what presents itself to the eye, the appearance seen. — Ed. 

' "Vulg. ff and Syr. Versions, Origen Lucif. 151 read Uhfi. she hhf. 
But most MSS. and/ have the order of Rec. Text. Ed. 

The margin of both Ed. has settled the reading ifrs exhfiovvTs; she 
hlnfiovm;, inverting the order, as -equal to the received reading of the text. 
But «/the critical note (App. Ed. 11. p. iv. nro. xiv. p. 896) be compared, the 


•^tudpsgroi, well pleasing) accepted especially in respect to the 

10. Toui yap vavras, for alt) when treating of death, the 
resurrection, and eternal life, he also thinks appropriately, of the 
judgment. The motive is herein assigned for that holy ambi- 
tion. — -xavTai iiii-as, that we all) even apostles, whether abiding 
as pilgrims here or departing. — f>avipoi6ijvai) not only to appear in 
the bodi/, but to be made manifest along with [as well as] all our 
secrets, 1 Cor. iv. 5. Even the sins of believers, which have 
been long ago pardoned will then be laid open ; for many of 
their good deeds, their repentance, their revenge directed 
against their sin, in order to be made known to the world, 
require the revelation of their sins. If a man has pardoned his 
brother an offence, the offence will also be exhibited, etc. But 
that will be done to them, with their will, without shame and 
grief; for they will be different from what they were. That 
revelation will be made indirectly, with a view to their greater 
praise [credit, honour]. Let us consider this subject more 

§ 1. The words of sacred scripture respecting the remission 
of sins ^e extremely significant. Sins are covered : they will 
not be found : they are cast behind : sunk in the sea : scattered 
as a cloud and as mist : without being remembered. Therefore 
not even an atom of sin will cleave to any, who shall stand on 
the right hand in the judgment. 

§ 2. On the other hand, the expressions concerning all the 
works of all men, which are to be brought forward in the judg- 
ment, are universal, Eccl. xii. 14 ; Eom. xiv. 10 ; 1 Cor. iii. 13, 
etc., iv. 5. 

§ 3. The passage 2 Cor. v. 10 is consistent with these, where 
the apostle from the manifestation of all, whether of those 
going home or of those remaining as pilgrims, before the tribu- 
nal of Christ, infers the TEREOK of the Lord and of the Judge, 
ver. 11, 12, and declares that terror to be the occasion of anxiety 
not only to the reprobate, but also to himself and to those like 

Author seems afterwards to have changed both the order and the meaning of 
the words, such as the Chiomon shows. For the Crit. Not. has hlnifiousrei, 
going home, not being at home ; and the Germ. Ver. reads Wir mdgen in 
der Fremde seyn, (i.e. ex.'inf^.oviiTis) oder heimgehen (i.e. hlyifcovi/rts.) — E. B. 

878 2 CORINTHIANS V. 10. 

himself. Such fear would have no existence in the case of the 
saints if the opinion as to their sins not being about to be 
revealed were assumed to be true. Furthermore Paul says, 
that he, and such as he, would be manifested not only so far as 
they have acted well on the whole, but also so far as they have 
failed in any particular. There is wonderfiil variety of rewards 
among those, who are saved ; and demerits [of saints] have 
effect, though not indeed in relation to punishment [which the 
saints wholly escape] but to loss, as opposed to reward, 1 Cor. iii, 
14, 15 : comp. 2 Cor. i. 14; Phil. ii. 16, iv. 1. That phrase, 
that every one may receive, etc., shows, that the deficiencies in the 
case of the righteous will be also manifested. For thus and 
thus only will it be manifested, why each man receives neither 
more nor less than the reward, which he actually receives. The 
Lord will render to every one, AS his work shall be. 

§ 4. Wherefore we ought not to press too far the words quoted 
in § 1. The sins of the elect, which are past, will not cease to 
be the objects of the Divine Omniscience for ever, although 
without any offence and upbraiding. And this one considera- 
tion is of more importance, than the manifestation of their sins 
before all creatures, though it were to continue for ever, much 
less as it is, in the day of judgment alone, when their sins will 
appear not as committed, but as retracted and blotted out iu con- 
sequence of repentance. 

§ 5. In the case of the elect themselves, their own sins will 
not cease to be the object of their remembrance, although with- 
out any uneasiness attending it. He, to whom much has been 
forgiven, loves much. The everlasting remembrance of a great 
debt, which has been forgiven, will be the fiiel of the strongest 

§ 6. So great is the efficacy of the Divine word with men in 
this hfe, that it separates the soul from the Spirit, Heb. iv. 12, 
and lays bare the secrets of the heart, 1 Cor. xiv. 25. Shame 
for what has been committed and remitted belongs to the soul, 
not the spirit. Men wallowing in gross sins often throw out 
their secrets ; in despair they conceal nothing. But grace, much 
more powerful, renders those, who have received it, quite 
mgenuous. Men truly penitent proceed with the utmost readi- 
ness to the most open confessions of their secret wickedness, 

2 CORINTHIANS V. 10. 379 

Acts xix. 18. How much more in that day will they bear, that 
they be manifested, when the tenderness of the natural affections 
is entirely swallowed up ? Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 9, 11. Such can- 
dour confers great peace and praise. If in the judgment there 
were room in the minds of the righteous, for example, for shame, 
I believe that those sins, which are now most covered, would 
cause less imeasiness, than those, of which they are less ashamed 
at the present time. We are most ashamed at present of the 
sins, which are contrary to modesty. But it is right, that we 
should be more ashamed of other sins, for example against the 
first table. 

§ 7. That Adam was saved, we have no doubt, but his fall 
will be remembered for ever ; for otherwise I do not understand, 
how the restitution made by Christ can be worthily celebrated 
in heaven. The conduct of David in the case of Uriah, the 
denial of Peter, the persecution of Saul, the sins of others, 
though they have been forgiven, have yet continued on record 
lor so long a time in the Old and New Testament. If this fact 
presents no obstacle to the forgiveness long ago granted, the 
mention of sins will be no obstacle to their forgiveness even in 
the last judgment. It is not every manifestation of offences, 
which constitutes a part of punishment. 

§ 8. Good and evil have so close a connection, as well as so 
inseparable a relation to each other, that the revelation of the good 
cannot be understood without the- evil. But since certain sins 
of the saints shall be laid bare, it is fitting, that all the circum- 
stances [aU things] should be brought to light. This view tends 
to the glory of the Divine Omniscience and mercy ; and in such 
a way as this the reasons for pronouncing a mild judgment on 
some, and a severe judgment on others, along with the accurate 
adjustment, axpi^elcf, of the retribution, will shine forth in aU 
their brightness. 

§ 9. I do not say, that aU the sins of all the blessed wUl be 
actually and distinctly seen by all the creatures. Perhaps the 
accursed will not know them ; the righteous will have no cause 
to fear each other. Their sins, when the light of that great day 
discloses all things, will not be directly manifested, as is done in 
the case of the guilty, who are punished, whence in Matt. xxv. 
no mention is made of them, but indirectly, so far as it will be 

380 2 CORINTHIANS V. 11. 

proper ; just as in a court of justice among men, it often occurs, 
that many things are wont to enter into the full view [aspect] of 
the deed incidentally. And in some such way as this also the 
good works of the reprobate wiU be made manifest. All things 
may be known in the light, but all do not know all things. 

§ 10. This consideration ought to inspire us with fear for the 
future ; for it had this effect on the apostles, as this passage 
2 Cor. V. shows. But if more tender souls shrink back from 
that manifestation, on account of their sins past ; when they have 
been duly instructed from what has been said, especially at § 6, 
they will acquiesce [acquire confidence in regard to the manifes- 
tation of all sins in the judgment]. Often does truth, which at 
first appeared bitter, become sweet after closer consideration. If 
I love any one as myself, he may, with my full acquiescence, 
know all things concerning me, which I know concerning my- 
self. We shall judge of many things differently, we shall feel 
differently on many subjects, until we arrive at that point. 

Ko,a;V))ra;, may receive) This word is used not only regarding 
the reward or punishment, but also regarding the action, which 
the reward or punishment follows, Eph. vi. 8 ; Col. iii. 25 ; 
Gal. vi. 7. — i-AasTog, every one) separately. — to, iia toZ ffu/iaros) 
Man [along] with his body acts well or ill ; [therefore also] man 
[along] with his body receives the reward ; comp. Tertull. de 
resurr. carnis, c. 43. to, — ■Trpig a, those inmost thoughts, accords 
ing to which he performed outward actions, bia rou eui//,aroc, 
while he was in the body, ver. 6, 8— iv. 10, comp. dia Rom. ii. 27. 
— I'lTs ayadliv I'ln xay.hv, whether good or bad) construed with hath 
done. No man can do both good and evil at the same time. 

11. ^Helh/itv, we persuade) We bear ourselves so, by acting 
as well with vehemence, as also with sobriety [" Whether we 
be beside ourselves, — or whether we be sober"']yer. 13, that men, 
unless they be unwilling, may be able to give us their approba- 
tion. Comp. what he says on conscience presently after, and at 
iv. 2. — Uilhiv, aia.y%aX,m are opposed ; see at Chrysost. de 

^ To* (po'/3o», the, terror) Eccl. xii. 13— V. ^.—uvipamv;, men). By 
many the things -which God Himself does are not approved ; and how can 
His servants be approved by any with regard to those things which they do ? 
What is the counsel which His servants give r^-t/tfofis*] ? Thou hearest, 
reader, in this very passage. — ^V. g. 

2 CORINTHIANS V. 12, 13. 381 

Sacer, p. 396, 392, 393. — '!npanpii/ii6a, we are made manifest) 
we show and bear ourselves as persons manifest [to God and in 
your consciences]. Those, who have this character, may be 
made manifest without terror in the judgment, [pavE^w^^va/], 
ver. 10. — e'K'jri^w, I hope) To have been made manifest is past, 
whereas hope refers to a thing future. Paul either hopes for 
the fruit of the manifestation, which has been already made ; or 
else hopes, that the manifestation itself will still take place. — 
gvHiStieieiv, in your consciences) The plura,l gives greater weight. 
[It sometimes happens, that a man may he made manifest 
to the conscience even of such, as attempt to conceal the fact. 

12. Vup, for) The reason assigned [aetiologia], why he leaves 
it to the conscience of the Corinthians to form their opinion. — 
hhovTig, giving) supply we write, or a similar general verb, the 
meaning of which is included in the particular expression, we 
commend. There is a participle of a similar kind, vii. 5— xi. 6. 
He says, we furnish you with arguments for glorying in our be- 
half. — xauy^fiiiaToi, glorying) with regard to our sincerity ; so far 
am I from thinking, that there is after all need of any commen- 
dation of us. — e^ti", you may have) repeat, occasion. — sv itpo<sd>ittfi. 
xoci oi) xapdicf, in appearance; and not in heart) The same antithesis 
is found at 1 Sam. xvi. 7, LXX., and in a different manner in 
1 Thess. ii. 17. — xap&lif, in heart) such was Paul's disposition 
[vein] of mind — truth shone from his heart to the consciences 
of the Corinthians. 

13. Em s^ldTti/iiv uTi eco(ppom/i,ev) The former is treated of 
ver. 15-21 : — ^the latter vi. 1—10. The force of the one word is 
evident from the other, to act without or with moderation. Paul 
might seem td be without moderation from the Symperasma,^ 
which he gave in the preceding verse [namely, adorning his office 
with so many encominiums. — Y. g.] — Sip, it is to God) viz., that 
we have acted without moderation, although men do not under- 
stand us. — u/iTv, it is to you) Even godly men bear the moderation 
of their teachers with a more favourable feeling, than their 
ixgragig, excessive enthusiasm; but it is their duty to obey the 

• See App. A brief and summary conclusion from the previous premisses. — T. 

382 2 CORINTHIANS V. 14-16. 

14. Tc(,p,for) The same sentiment is found at xi. 1, 2 ; but 
greatly augmented in force of expression ; for he says here, we 
have acted without moderation [whether we be beside ourselves] 
and the love of Christ, etc., there, in my folly and / am jealous. 
— aya-jTri) love, mutual : not only fear : ver. 11, the love of 
Christ, viz., toward us, in the highest degree, and consequently 
also our love towards Him [That, which the apostle in this pas- 
sage calls love, which m,ay perhaps seem, to go beyond bounds, he 
afterwards calls jealousy, which may be roused by fear even to 
folly, xi. 1-3.— V. g.] — diivix^i, constrains ['distinct' keeps us 
employed]) that we may endeavour to approve ourselves both to 
Grod and you. 

15. Kplvavrai, judging) with a most true judgment. Love and 
judgment are not opposed to each other in spiritual men. — imp 
•jrdvraiv, for all) for the dead and living. — a^a o/ -jravTig, then these 
all) Hence the full force of the wsp, for and the utmost extent 
of the mystery is disclosed ; not only is it just the same as if all 
had died, but all are dead ; neither death, nor any other enemy, 
nor they themselves have power over themselves : they are 
entirely at the disposal and control of the Redeemer. — oi has 
a force relative to -Travnov, for all. An apt universality. The 
teachers urge ; and the learners are urged, because Christ died 
for both. — a.'jriSa.vov, are dead) and so now no longer do they re- 
gard themselves. The generous lovers of the Redeemer apply 
that principally to themselves, which belongs to all. Their 
death was brought to pass in the death of Christ. — xai, and) this 
word also depends on on, because. First, the words, one, and, 
for all, correspond; in the next place, died, and, that they' 
should live. — ol ^£n-ss, they that live) in the flesh. — dXAa, but") 
namely, that they should live, viz., in faith and a newly acquired 
vigour. Gal. ii. 20. — ro) he does not say, wip rou. It is the dative 
of advantage, as they call it ; wsf, denotes something more than 
this. — aat eyipS'evTi, and rose again) Here we do not supply, for 
them; for it is not consonant with the phraseology of the apostle; 
but there is something analogous to be supphed, for example, 
[" that He might be Lord both of the dead and the living"] 
from Eom. xiv 9. 

16. 'A'Trh roD nv, henceforth) From the time that the love of 
Christ has engaged [has pre-occupied] our minds. Even this 

2 CORINTHIANS V. 17. 383 

epistle differs in degree from the former. — obdem, no man) neither 
ourselves, nor the other apostles, Gal. ii. 6 ; nor you, nor others. 
We do not fear the great, we do not consider the humble more 
humble than ourselves ; we do and suffer all things, and oui 
anxiety is in every way to bring all to Hfe. In this enthusiasm 
[exsTccsig, being beside ourselves], ver. 13, nay in this death, ver. 
15, we know none of them that survive,^ even in connection 
with our ministry, — xarA edpxa, according to theflesli) according 
to the old state, arising from nobility, riches, resources, wisdom, 
[so as that from more natural considerations, we should either do 
or omit to do this or that. — V. g.] — ii 8s xai syvdoxa,/ji,iv) olda and 
eyvcaxa,'^ differ, 1 Cor. ii. 8, 11-viii. 1. Such knowledge was 
more tolerable, before the death of Christ : for that was the 
period of the days of the flesh. — xara. eapxa, according to the 
flesK) construed with lyvuxa/nv, we have known. — Xpienv, Christ) 
He does not say here Jesus. The name Jesus is in some measure 
more spiritual than the name Christ ; and they know Christ ac- 
cording to the flesh, who acknowledge Him as the Saviour, not 
of the world, ver. 19, but only of Israel, ch. xi. 18, note : and 
who congratulate themselves on this account, that they belong 
to that nation from which Christ was descended, and who seek 
in His glory poUtical splendour, and in their seeing Him when 
He formerly appeared, and in their hearing of His instructions 
of whatever kind, before His sufferings, some superiority over 
others, and in the knowledge of Him, the enjoyment of the mere 
natural senses : and who do not strive to attain that enjoyment 
which is here described, and which is derived from His death 
and resurrection, ver. 15, 17, 18: comp. John xvi. 7 ; Eom. 
viii. 34 ; Phil. iii. 10; Luke viii. 21. 

17. E/ r/s £11 XpiSTip, if any one be in Christ) so as to Hve in 
Christ. If any one of those who now hear us, etc. Observe 
the mutual relation, we in Christ in this passage, and God in 
Christ, ver. 19 ; Christ, therefore, is the Mediator and Recon- 
ciler between us and God. — xaivn xrltus, a new creature) Not 

* i.e. Those not yet dead with and in Christ, but living in the flesh: 
note on o/ ^ums, ver. 16. — Ed. 

' oii» seems to be used as scio (of an abstract truth well Jmown), or novi 
(of a, person, with whom we are well acquainted), 'iynaxa, as agnosco, or 
cognosco, come to the knowledge of, I perceive, or recognize. — Ed. 

884 2 COKINTHIANS V. 18-20, 

only is the Christian himself something new ; but as he knows 
Christ Himself, not according to the flesh, but according to the 
power of His life and resurrection, so he contemplates and 
estimates himself and all things according to that new con- 
dition. Concerning this subject, see Gal. vi. 15; Eph. iv. 24; 
Col. iii. 10. — TO. af^a/bt, old things) This term implies some 
degree of contempt. See Gregor. Thaum. Paneg. cum annot., 
p. 122, 240. — Tiaprikhv, are passed away) Spontaneously, like 
snow in early spring. — /3oi), behold) used to point out something 
before us. 

18. T(i fie -rdwa, and all these things) which have been men- 
tioned from ver. 14. Paul infers from the death of Christ his 
obligation to God, ver. 13. — ^/iSj, us) the world, and especially 
and expressly the apostles ; comp. the following verse, where 
there is again subjoined [hath committed] unto us. That word 
MS, especially comprehends the apostles ; but not them alone ; 
for at the beginning of ver. 18, the discourse is already widely 
extended [so as to apply to all meri\. Thus the subject varies 
[is changed] often in the same discourse, and yet subsequently 
the mark of the subject being distinct from what it had been, 
is not expressly added. — jj^TV, to us) apostles. — ritv Siaxovlati, the 
ministry) the word [of reconciliation] in the following verse. 
The ministry dispenses the word. 

19. 'Cig on) Explanatory particles. — r,v xaTaXXdgeiav) was recon- 
ciling, comp. ver. 17, note. The time implied by the verb ?» 
is shown, ver. 21.^ — Jv XpierOj, h ti/jlTh, in Christ, in us) These 
words correspond to one another. — xosfiov, the world) which had 
been formerly hostile. — xaraXKdgeur //,ri Xoyi^^o/nvoi, reconciling, 
not imputing) The same thing is generally amplified by afiirma- 
tive and negative words. — ra TrapaTs-w^ara) offences many and 
grave. — Sc/jlivoi;, having committed) as it is committed to an in-^ 
terpreter what he ought to say. 

20. 'TTsp XpiSTou, for Christ) Christ the foundation of the 
embassy sent from God. — ■ffpee^iCo/ SiS/jtiSa, we are ambassadors, 
[we prayl, we beseech) two extremes, as it were, put in antithesis 
to each other, which relate to the words we have acted without 
moderation [whether we be beside ourselves, ver. 13]. In anti- 

' viz. the time when God made Jesus to be Sin for us, etc. — Ed. 

2 COBINTHIANS V. 21. -VI. 1. 3S5 

thesis to these, the mean between those extremes is, we exhort 
[fa.paxdxoijfifv, not as Engl. Vers., We beseech], ch. vi. 1, x. 1- 
which appertains to the giii<ppovouiJ,i)i, we act with moderation 
[whether we he sober, ver. 13]. Therefore the discourse of the 
apostle generally ■jrapaxaXiT, exhorts ; since the expression, 
irpigj3iio//,sv, we are ambassadors, implies majesty, the expression 
de6fti9a, we beseech, intimates a submission, which is not of daily 
occurrence ; ch. x. 2, [comp. 1 Thess. ii. 6, 7]. In both ex- 
pressions Paul indicates not so much what he is now doing, as 
what he is doing in the discharge of all the duties of his office. 
' r-!rep XpidTou, for Christ, is placed before the former verb [though 
after the latter verb], for the sake of emphasis ; comp. the 
preceding verses. Presently after, the latter verb is placed first 
for the same reason. — xaTaXXdytiTi, be ye reconciled). 

21. TJv) Him, who knew no sin, who stood in no need of recon- 
ciliation ; — a eulogium peculiar to Jesus. Mary was not one, 
i) (iri yvouga, who knew no sin. — a,//,!x,pT!a,v ivohiSi, made Him to be 
sin) He was made sin in the same way that we are made right- 
eousness. Who would have dared to speak thus, if Paul had 
not led the way? comp. Gal. iii. 13. Therefore Christ was 
also abandoned on the cross. — ri/^^iii) we, who knew no right- 
eousness, who must have been destroyed, if the way of recon- 
ciliation had not been discovered. — h airu, in Him) in Christ. 
The antithesis is, for us. 


1. ^uvipyounTig, workers together) Not only as the ambassadors 
of God, or on the other hand, as beseeching, we deal with you ; 
but also, as your friends, we co-operate with you for your sal- 
vation. ITMs is the medium between the dignity of ambassadors 
and the humility of beseeching, ch. v. 20. Tliat is, we try all 
means. — Not. Crit.] For you ought to work out your own sal- 
vation, Phil. ii. 12. The working together with them is described, 
ver. 3, 4; the exhortation, ver. 2, 14, 15 [as far as ch. vii. 1. — 



V. g.J He strongly dissuades them from Judaism, as an am- 
bassador, and by beseeching ; as working together witli them, he 
strongly dissuades them from heathenism. None but a holy [ch. 
vii. 1] minister of the Gospel can tum^ himself into all forms 
of this sort. — -/.al, also). — rriv %ap/v, the grace) of which ch. v. 
18, 19 treats, [and ch. vi. 2, 17, 18.— V. g.]— 5l^a<r^a;) This 
word is drawn from the dmrSi of ver. 2 [receive — For this is 
God's season of receiving sinners]. Divine grace offers itself: 
human faith and obedience avail themselves of the offer. 

2. Asyn, He saith) The Father to Messiah, Is. xKx. 8, em- 
bracing in Him all believers. — yotp, for) He is describing grace. 
— SexT^, accepted) the acceptable time of the good pleasure of 
God. Hence Paul presently after infers its correlative, th'Trpoe- 
dsxToc, well^accepted, that it may be also agreeable to us.-' — 
, s-irrixovea 6ou) I have heard thee, viz. praying. — iv ruiipt^, in a day) 
Luke xix. 42 ; Heb. iii. 7. — i&o\i nv, behold now) The summing 
up of the exhortation, ver. 1 ; set before us in the way of a sup- 
posed dialogue.2 

■8. 'Ev //.ridsv!, in nothing) corresponds to h 'ko.wI, in every thing, 
in the following verse. — bibovTig, giving) The participle depends on 
ver.jl. — nrpoexonryiv, offence) which would be the case, if we were 
without ' patience' and the other quaUfications, which are pre- 
sently afterwards mentioned. — )j diaxovia, jilie ministry) The Ab- 
stract. The ministers of God, the Concrete, ver. 4. 

4. Aidxovoi, ministers) This word has greater force, than if it 
had been written 8ia,x,6vovg. — {ir''iiovr\, in patience) This is put first ; 
ch. xii. 12 : chastity, etc., follow in ver. 6. A remarkable gra- 
dation. — mXKrj, in much) Three triplets of trials follow, which 
must be endm'ed, and in which patience is exercised, afflictions 
[necessities, distresses] : stripes [imprisonments, tumults] : la- 
bours [watchings, fastings] : The first group of three includes 
the genera ; the second, the species of adversities ; the third, 
things voluntarily endured. And the variety of cases of the 
several classes of trial should be observed, expressed, as it is, by 
the employment of the plural number. — h i'ki-^ien, h iivdyxan, 

1 The present time is huro; to God: let it be also ivirpoalixra; to us. 

2 Or introduction of an imaginary speaker. See Append. , on Sermoci- 
natio..— Ed. 

2 CORINTHIANS VX. 6-8. 387 

b ert>o^oipia,ie, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses) These 
words are in close relation, and are variously joined with one 
another and with the others, ch. xii. 10 ; 1 Thess. iii. 7 ; Kom. 
ii. 9, viii. 35 ; Luke xxi. 23. In afflictions [^iXl-^^^ieiv, the pressure 
of trials] many ways are open, but they are all difficult ; in ne- 
cessities [avdyxaig], one way is open, though difficult ; in dis- 
tresses [straits, arsvo^tiipluig], none is open. 

5. 'Axarasraelaig, in tumults) either for, or against us. 

6. 'Ev yvutsii) yvojgig often means leniency [sequitas], which in- 
clines to and admits of putting favourable constructions on 
things somewhat harsh ; and this interpretation is consonant 
with the phrase, in long-suffering, which follows ; comp. 2 Pet. 
i. 5 ; 1 Pet. iii. 7, note. — Iv fiiaapoSufulc^, iv ^prigTSrTjn, in long-suf- 
fering, in kindness) These words are also joined together in 
1 Cor. xiii. 4 under the name of one virtue [charity']. — Iv trnh- 
Ihari ayiif), in the Holy Spirit) That we may always have the 
Holy Spirit present, that we may always be active, as also in 
the putting forth into exercise miraculous gifts, 1 Thess. i. 5. 
There immediately follows, in love, which is the principal fruit 
of the Spirit, and which regulates the use of spiritual gifts. 

7. As^iSiv xai apidTipuv) by offensive armour, when we are pros- 
pering ; and defensive, when we are in difficulties. In the case 
of soldiers, xXimv, ayuv, Imnrpifiiv liti Sopv or !«' ^ifog signifies 
towards the right hand; the It! aevlha, Jp sjw'ai' or yaXivh, signi- 
fies, toivards the left hand, just as the left hand is called by the 
French, the bridle hand (main de la bride), and the right hand 
is called the lance hand (main de la lance). Add the note to 
Chrysost. de Sacerd., p. 464. Paul has so placed these words, 
that they might at the same time form a transition ; for he just 
now treated of the armour for the right hand, and he is forth- 
with about to treat of that for the left. 

8. Aogjjs, glory) 86^a and arz/i/a, glory and disgrace are derived 
from those, who possess authority, and fall- upon those, who are 
present; evil report and good report are in the hands of the 
multitude, and fall upon the absent. [Furthermore, glory pro- 
ceeds from those, who recognise the character which the minister 
of God sustains ; disgrace, from those, who do not recognise him 
as such, and therefore esteem more highly others, that in the 
affairs of this world perform any trifling work tohatever. Infamy 

388 2 CORINTHIANS VI. 9-12. 

or evil report proceeds from the ignorant and malevolent ; good 
report from the well-informed in like manner as also the well 
affected. In proportion as a man has more or less of glory or 
good report, in the same proportion has he also more or less of 
either disgrace or infamy respectively. — V. g.J The contraries 
are elegantly mixed together. — dugfiri/iiag, evil report) If not 
even the apostles escaped this evil report, who can ask to escape 
it 1 — iig -trXdmi, as deceivers) men of the deepest infamy. — dX»i^s7j, 
true) in the opinion of believers, and in reality. 

9. ' Ayvoov/isvoi, unknown) [so that we are either quite unknown 
and neglected, or we are considered altogether different from what 
we really are. — V. g.] — Gal. i. 22 ; Col. ii. 1. — knriymaaaoiiivoi) 
well known. — ^ibou, behold) suddenly and contrary to hope. 

10. 'As/) alway, at every time. As often as we had been made 
sorrowful. — irXovTit^ovTB^, making rich) spiritually. — iravrcc xaTs^- 
ovTis [Engl. V. not so well, possessingl, holding fast all things) 
lest they should be lost to others. 

11. TJ tfro/ia, the mouth) A Symperasma,^ by which Paul 
prepares a way for himself, in order that, from the praise of the 
gospel ministry, brought down from ii.\14 up to this point, he 
may derive an exhortation to the Corinthians. — a/euye, is opened) 
hath opened itself. There is truly something very extraordinary 
in this epistle. — KoplvSiai, Corinthians) a rare and very life-hke 
address, expressive, as it were, of some privilege belonging to 
the Corinthians ; comp. Phil. iv. 15, note. — jj -/.apSla,, the heart) 
They ought to have concluded [drawn an inference] from the 
mouth to the heart [of the apostle]. To be opened and en- 
larged, are closely connected. — •jri'trXdrvvTai, has been enlarged) 
is diffused [in a widely extended stream of love], 1 Kings 
iv, 29, 3? nm, largeness of heart as the sand, that is by the sea- 

12. Ou aTivoyupiiiih, ye are not straitened) The Indicative. 
The antithesis is, be ye enlarged [ver. 13]. — Iv ri/iTv) in us. sv, 
in its strict sense, in, as at ch. vii. 3. Our heart has sufficient 
room to take you in. The largeness of Paul's heart is the same 
as that of the Corinthians, on account of their spiritual relation- 

^ ' A-jroh^dKouns, dying) xi. 23. — ^V. g. 

* See App. A conclusion or brief summary drawn from the previous 

2 COKINTHIANS VI. 13-15. 389 

ship, of which ver. 13. — erevoxiopiTdh, ye are straitened) by the 

narrowness of your heart on account of your late offence. 

Ev ToTg eirXa.'y^iiois i/nuV) in your bowels) which have been srieved 
on my account. 

13. Tfiv) supply xara, according to. — aiirfiv) the same; that you 
may have the same feeling, as we. — am/nffdlav, recompense) 
which you owe to me as a father; comp. Gal. iv. 12.^ — iig 
TiKvoig Xiyoi, I speak as to children) He hints in this parenthesis, 
that he demands nothing severe or bitter. — ffXaruv^ijrs, he ye 
enlarged) A double exhortation. Throw yourselves open before 
the Lord, and then before us ; comp. viii. 5 ; be enlarged, that 
the Lord may dwell in you, ver.' 14 — ch. vii. 1, receive us, 
ch. vii. 2. 

14. Mn yiviah, do not become) a soft expression for he not. — 
iTipoZuyoZvTig, yoked with an alien party [one alien in spirit]) \un- 
equally yoked'], Lev. xix. 19, LXX. t&, xrfjvn eou oh xaroxi^sn; 
irtpoZiiyM, thou shalt not let thy cattle engender with a diverse kind. 
The believer and the unbeliever are utterly heterogeneous. The 
notion of slavery approaches to that of a yoke. The -.word 
Ci''1DV3n, Num. XXV. 5. The apostle strongly dissuades the Cor- 
inthians from marriages with unbelievers ; comp. 1 Cor. vii. 39, 
only in the Lord. He however uses such reasons, as may deter 
them from too close intercourse with unbelievers even in other 
relations [besides marriage] : comp. v. 16 ; 1 Cor. viii. 10, x. 14. 
— a«Vro/s, to- unbelievers) heathens. He pulls up all the fibres 
of the foreign root [of foreign and alien connections]. — rig, what'?) 
Five questions, of which the first three have the force of an ar- 
gument ; the fourth, or what, and the fifth, have at the same 
time also the force of a conclusion. — 8ixawsuvri x.a' ai/o^/qt, what 
fellowship is there between righteousness and unrighteousness) 
The state of believers and unbelievers is altogether different. 

15. BiXiap, Belial) The LXX. always express in Greek words 
the Hebrew, ?Vv2 ; but here Paul uses the Hebrew word for the 
purpose of Euphemism [avoiding something unpleasant by the 
use of a term less strictly appropriate]. This word is an appel- 
lative, 1 Sam. XXV. 25, and occurs for the first time in Deut. 
xiii. 14. Hiller, Onom. S. p. 764. JBelijahal, without ascending; 
i.e., of the meanest condition, of a very low and obscure rank, 
Paul calls Satan Belial. Nevertheless Satan is usually put in 

390 2 OORINTHIANS VI. 16, 17. 

antithesis to God, Antichrist to Christ. Wherefore Belial as 
being opposed to Christ, seems here also to denote all manner 
of Antichristian uncleanness. 

16. "SuyxaTaheii) LXX. Ex. xxiii. 1 : oi guyxaTaS^gp fj,STa tou 
a&lxou, thou shalt not agree with the wicked. — /iiroi i/duXiov, with 
idols) He does not say, fjuira vaou t'lSuXuv, with the temple of idols 
(although the Syriac version supplies with the temple), for idols 
do not dwell in their worshippers. — vfLiTg, ye) The promises, made 
to Israel, belong also to us. — homfisca — XaJc, I will dwell in them 
— my people) Lev. xxvi. 11, 12, LXX. Sijcrw rriv gxri\ir,v /j,ou h vfiTv 
— x,ai if/^vepi'jra.T^go) iv v/iTi, xal ieo/j^ai v//,uv Qihg, xal hjj^itg 'iaieii /j,oi 
Xao's : / will set my tabernacle among you — and I will walk among 
you, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people. Paul 
quotes a single verse, he wishes the whole paragraph to be con- 
sidered as repeated. — ij/jirifmaTrtgai, I will walk among [in]) I will 
dwell signifies the continuance of the Divine presence; I will walk, 
its operation. The subject of God's gracious dwelling in the 
soul and body of the saints may be explained from its contrary, 
viz., the subject of [the question' concerning] spiritual and bodily 
[demoniacal] possession ; as every dispensation of evil and good 
may be compared together according to their opposite aspects 
[principles]. — 'iaop^ai, I will he) The sum of the Divine covenant, 
Ex. vi. 7; Heb. viii. 10. — 0£o's* Xao's, their God : my people) There 
is a gradation, [here 0sJs ; but in ver. 18, e/s waTepal in the rela- 
tion of a father ; [again here Xaog ; but s/'s u/oCj] in the relation of 
sons, ver. 18 ; Eev. xxi. 3, 7 ; Jer. xxxi. 1, 9. 

17. 'EpX^srs — iJjYi d'jTTis^i) Is. lii. 11, aviarrirs, avoarrin, s^sXhri 
ixitiiv, xal &xaSta,fiTO\> /iij d-^tjffh- s^tXhTi sx /j^iaou air^j, a(popi(S6riTS, 
x-r.X. — sx (t,£eov avrSiv, from the midst of them^ from the Gentiles. 
— rXsyii Kuplog, saith the Lord) The additional epithet follows [in 
ver. 18, augmenting the force of the words by Epitasis (See 
Append.)], the Lord Almighty. — axaSaprov, unclean) The mascu- 
line. Is. lii. 11, 1 : comp. Is. Ixv. 5. To this may be referred, 
let us cleanse ourselves, ch. vii. 1. — /iri aimah, touch not) To see, 
when it is necessary, does not always defile: Acts xi. 6; to 
touch is more polluting. — tladi^o/iai, I will receive you l_within] to 
me) as into a family or home [Comp. ch. v. 1-10, — ^V. g.J We 
are out of doors, but we are admitted within. The clause, Cotne 
out from, etc., corresponds to this. God is in the saints, ver. 16, 

2 CORINTHIANS VI. 18.-VII. 1, 2. 391 

and the saints are in God. iiBdixo/ioii corresponds to the Hebrew 
word Y^?, Ezek. xx. 41 ; Zeph. iii. 19, 20. 

18. E/'s vhiig %a) Suyaripag, in the relation of sons and daughters') 
Is. xliii. 6. The promise, given to Solomon, 1 Chron. xxviii. 6, 
is applied to all believers. — Kvpwg iffavToxpdrup, the Lord Almighty 
[the Universal Mulerl. From this title we perceive the greatness 
of the promises. Now the word 'jravroxpdrcop, [Universal B,uler'\ 
Almighty, occurs nowhere else in the New Testament but in the 
Apocalypse ; but here Paul uses it after the manner of the lxx. 
interpreters, because he quotes the passage from the Old Testa 
ment. i 


1. KaSapkoiiiiv, let us cleanse) This is the last part of the ex- 
hortation, set forth at vi. 1, and brought out ib. ver. 14. He 
concludes the exhortation in the first person. The antitheses are 
the unclean thing, vi. 17, and Jilthiness in this passage. The 
same duty is derived from a similar source, 1 John iii. 3, Kev. 
xxii. 11. — /j,oXv(S/j,ov, Jilthiness) Filthiness of the flesh, for example, 
fornication, and filthiness of the spirit, for example, idolatry, were 
closely connected among the Gentiles. Even Judaism, occu- 
pied, as it is, about the cleanness of the flesh, is now in some mea- 
sure yife/wness of the spirit. Holiness is opposed to the former ; 
the fear of God, promoting holiness (comp. again 1 Cor. x. 22) 
to the latter. — Tn/ii/i.ans, of spirit) Comp. Ps. xxxii. 2, Ixxviii. 8. 
—ixiTiXovvTis, perfecting) even to the end. It is not enough to 
begin ; it is the end that crowns the work. The antitheses are 
up-j((iiLai, emriXeu, I begin, I finish, ch. viii. 6, 10, 11 ; Gal. iii. 3 ; 
Phil i. 6. — ayicasivriv, holiness) corresponds to be ye separated, ch. 
vi. 1 7. — h, in) he does not say, and [perfecting] the fear. Fear 
is a holy affection, which is not perfected by our efforts, but is 
merely retained. [The pure fear of God is conjoined with the 
consideration of the most magnificent promises, ch. v. 1 1 ; Heb. 
iv. l._V. g.] 

2. 'S.upnea.Ti ijfiag, receive us) The sum of what is stated in this 

392 2 CORINTHIANS VII. 3, 4. 

and in the tenth and following chapter. — ^/tSs) us, who love 
you and rejoice for your sake, receive also with favour our feel- 
ings, words, and actions. — oiidiva n^iiiriea[iiv, ovd'sva sfklpa/Ji,iV, o'ohUa 
£vXiov!XT^aa./iiv) He lays down three things by gradation, the first 
of which he treats from ver. 4, by repeating the very word aSi- 
xiTv, at ver. 12 ; the second from ch. x. 1, by repeating the very 
word (phipiiv, at ch. xi. 3 ; the third from ch. xii. 13, by repeat- 
ing the very word •jr>.£ov£x«;"v, ib. ver. 17. I have marked how- 
ever the beginning of the paragraph at ver. 11 of the chapter 
quoted. ' The point of transition [to the discussion of ■ttXiovs/.tiTv] 
may be referred to what goes before or to what follows after 
ver. 11 [i.e., maybe fixed in the context before or after ver. 11]. 
The discussion of the clause itself, cuBem i'lrXsovey.r^sa/i.ev begins at 
ver. 13. This then is what he means to say : There is no rea- 
son, why you should not receive us [favourably : capiatis] : for 
we have injured no man, by our severity producing an absorbing 
grief [referring to ch. ii. 7, " lest such a one should be swallowed 
up with overmuch sorrow "] ; nay, we have not even made a man 
worse by a too haughty mode of acting : nay, we have not even 
defrauded any man for gain ; in everything we have consulted 
you and your interests : comp. ver. 9 ; and that too, without any 
reward. Whilst he declares, that he had been the occasion of 
no evil to the Corinthians, he intimates, that he had done them 
good, but very modestly keeps it as it were out of sight. 

3. Ou vplg xardnpidiv, not \_for condemnation] to condemn you) 
He shows that he does not say, what he has said at ver. 2, be- 
cause he supposes that the Corinthians dislike Paul and his col- 
leagues, but that he speaks with a paternal spirit, ch. vi. 13 : 
and in order to prove how far he is from entertaining that sup- 
position, he calls it a condemnation, thus humbling himself anew. 
— 'jrpoilprjxa, I have said before) ch. vi. 12. — yap, for) The reason 
why he himself does not condemn them, and why they ought to 
receive the apostle and his associates [ver. 2 " Receive us."]- — 
b xapdia,is, in our hearts) So Phil. i. 7. — el; rJ awa'iroSaviTv xal ffu^jji', 
to die and live with you) ch. i. 6, iv. 12. The height of friend- 

4. na^^jjif/a, boldness of speech) ver. 16, ch. vi. 11. — i-^rip v/luv, 
in behalf of you) to others, the antithesis is vphs Ifiai, to [toward] 
you. — vapaxXfieu, with comfort) concerning which, see ver. C, 7 : 

2 CORINTHIANS VII. 5-8. 393 

concerning joy, ver. 7, 8, 16 : concerning both, ver. 13 : 
comfort relieves ['refreshes,' ver. 13], joy entirely frees us from, 
sorrow. — i'rip'jnfiisgiCo/Mai, I exceedingly [over and above'] abound) 
above [i/^ep] all adversity. — SXl-^^si, in ['tribulation'] affliction) 
of which, ver. 5, 6Xil36fimi, ['troubled'] afflicted. To this belong 
all those trials which he has mentioned at ch. iv. 7, 8, vi. 4, 5. 

5. "Sdpg, Jlesh) This is used in a large sense ; weigh well the 
■word po/3o;, fears. — iXi^o/^im) [troubled] afflicted, viz., we were. 
— 'i^oihv, without) on the part of the Gentiles. — 'ieakv, within) 
on the part of the brethren, comp. 1 Cor. v. 12, 2 Cor. iv. 16. 

6. Toils Tavemou;, the humble [them that are cast down]) for those 
that are exalted and puffed up, do not receive [are not capable 
of] comfort. 

7. ' Ava.yyiXkmv) bringing bach word to us who were waiting 
for him. This is the meaning of the compound verb. The 
nominative [in its construction] depends on itapiKKrjSri, he was 
comforted: the sense also refers to the words, h rri wafouir/iy, by 
his coming. — rijv u/awv im'jroSrieiv, your earnest desire) towards me. — 
rov vf^aiv iSupfJii)/, your mourning) concerning yourselves, because 
you had not immediately punished the sin. — nv 6/iwv ^iiXoi/, your 
zeal [fervent mind]) for saving the soul [spirit] of the, sinner. 
These three expressions occur again, ver. 11. A syntheton' is 
added to each of them : but here he deals with them more 
moderately, and for the sake of euphemism [see Append.] puts 
earnest desire in the first place, and uses the expression mourning, 
not indignation. — ute^ l/ioD, for my sake [not as Engl, toward me]) 
Because the Corinthians showed a " fervent mind," Paul was 
relieved from the exercise of that fervour. — w<r« f^i /i&XKov, so 
that I rather [" the more"]) An imperceptible transition. I 
had not so much consolation, as joy : joy is rather to be desired 
than consolation, ver. 13 [//.aXXov I'^dpriiWiv]. 

8. 'Ev t7} imgroXjj) in the letter, he does not add, my : presently 
after, he removes himself further from it, when he adds, Uilvn, 
that [same epistle.] — i! xal) although : Paul had wished to remove, 
if possible, sorrow from the repentance of the Corintliians. He 
uses this particle thrice in one verse ; also at ver. 12. Observe 

1 See the Append. The combination of two words which are frequently 
«r emphatically joined together. 


his paternal geMleness, he all but deprecates [his having caused 
them sorrow]. — /SXe^tw, I perceive) from the fact itself. — il xal, 
although) in this clause, on ri ImcroX^ hihri el xal Vfhg oifav IXu- 
rnsiv i/ioi;, the words il xal should have a comma either before 
and after them, or else neither before nor after them. The 
apostle explains the reason, why he does not repent of having 
caused sorrow to the Corinthians. The letter, he says, has 
made you sad only for a time, or rather not even for a time. 
Whence also Chrysostom in his exposition repeats the words, 
or/ '!rpog upav sKxivrieiv u/ia,g, in such a way as to omit il xal. The 
particle il xal, put absolutely, expresses much feehng [Valde. 
morata est. See Append.] Sextus <!rpoi aeTfoKoyov, says, Ms^ ^fLspdv 
oudh Tciiv 'ffpoiiprifisviiiv dwarov ien vupaeri/iiioueiai, /iova di, ci xal apa,, 
r&g row rjXlou xiv^diig. By day none of the things previously mentioned 
can possibly be observed, bui^ only the motions of the sun, if indeed 
even those ; wherein s/ xa/ &pa, as Devarius properly remarks, 
tahes away the concession, that had been made, namely, that the 
motions of the sun only can be observed; if only, sayshe, viz., 
even the motions of the sun can be observed. See Devar. on 
the Gr. particles, in the instance, I'l xal, also in the case of aX^' 
6/Vsp and aXX' £/' apa, andBudaei Comm. L. Gr. f. 1390, ed. 1556, 
and, if you please, my notes on Gregor. Neocaes. Paneg., p. 
174, on il put absolutely. Luther very appropriately translates 
it Vielleicht. Others, without observing the force of the particle, 
have wondrously tortured this passage, which is most fuU of 
the characteristic nkg [See Append.] of the apostle. The ohhl 
irphg upav, Gal. ii. 5, is^ a kindred phraseology. 

9. NuK x^-'f^i ^ '^"^ rejoice) The now forms an epitasis ; ' not 
only do I not repent, that you had brief sorrow, but I even rejoice, 
because it has proved salutary to you. — ilg /j^irdmav, unto repen- 
tance) Unto here determines the kind of sorroio. — xarA &ihv, 
[after a godly manner] according to God) according to here 
signifies the feeling of the mind, having regard to and following 
God. There is no sorrow with God; but the sorrow of peni- 
tents renders the mind conformable to God ; comp. xara, accord- 
ing to, Eom. xiv. 22 ; Col. ii. 8 ; 1 Pet. iv. 6. So in Philostr. 

' i.e. He had already said, / rejoiced, in ver, 7 : and here in ver. 9, now, 
added to the same word Z rejoice, augments its force. See Append. — Ed. 

3 dOEINTHIANS VII. 10. 395 

in Heroicis, p. 665, -/.aTa hov n^u, I am come here under divine 
auspices. — h //.ndsvl, in nothing) This is consonant with that 
feehng, under which the apostle also speaks, xi. 9, h ■jravn, in 
everything.— Z,ri/i,ai9iJTi, ye might suffer loss or damage) All sorrow 
which is not according to God, is damaging, and deadly, ver. 10. 
10. Msravo/av — aiMirafjjiXnfov, repentance — not to be repented of) 
From the meaning of the primitive word, ii,ira,mia. belongs 
properly to the understanding ; iLiTaiLWita, to the will ; because 
the former expresses the change of sentiment, the latter, the 
change of care [solicitude], or rather of purpose. Whence 
Thomas Gataker, Advers. misc. posth., c. 29, where he treats 
very accurately of these words signifying repentance, closes a 
long dissertation with this recapitulation : We have thus a series 
not completely, but exactly delineated, by which that feeling from 
its first origin, as it were by certain degrees and advances, is at 
length brought on, as Septimius would say, to its proper maturity. 
In the first place, censure or punishment is inflicted [anim- 
adversio], a proceeding which is termed by the Hebrews d? ytif 
for 2? niC: from this arises acknowledgment of error, and 
(iiTavbia, reformation [resipiscentia, coming to a right state of 
mind\. Aueap'seTriiis or Xu'jdi, dissatisfaction with one's self 
and sorrow, follow this /ji^irdma, that which is explained by 
the Hebrew, Dru, penitence. The consequence of this, where 
it has become eflScacious, xa.> ywjcr/a, genuine, is ^IB*, conver- 
sion, s-!riaTpo(prt, /iEra/iEXs/a, which finishes and crowns the work, 
since it brings in quite a new mode of living, instead of the 
old." Such are his views. Furthermore, on account of the 
very close relationship between the understanding and the wiU, 
fiSTa/iiXeici and /iirdvoia: occur together, and both the nouns and 
verbs are promiscuously used even by philosophers, and they 
correspond in the Lxx. with the single Hebrew word DDJ ; in 
both /iiToi signifies after. Whence Plato in tie Gorgias, raura 
•rpovo^iadi fiiv, duvaroi' (iSTai/o^aasi di, Adivara. These things are 
possible to them that think beforehand, but impossible to those that 
think afterwards. Synesius, Ep. iv., ro3 lm/i^6ii, fmah, rJ /ih 
(isXiiv oix ?v, A 5s /iira/j^sXiiv, iv^v. It is said, that Epimethms had 
no care at the time, but that he afterwards had care.^ Both these 

' Epimethms was fabled, in contrast to Prometheus, to have had no 
thought, but to have had after thought when too late — Ed. 


words are therefore applied to him, who repents of what he has 
done, and of the counsel which he has followed, whether his 
penitence be good or bad, whether it be on account of something 
evil or good, whether accompanied with a change of future 
conduct or not. If we consider their use however, iLira^iAXiia. 
is generally a term midway between good and bad \jiieov, in- 
diferenfl, and is chiefly referred to single actions; but /iirdvoia, 
especially in the New Testament, is taken in a good sense, by 
which is denoted the repentance [regret on account] of the 
whole life, and, in some respects, [loathing] of ourselves,^ or 
that whole blessed remembrance of the mind [the mind's review 
of the past, and of its own state heretofore] after error and sin, 
with all the affections entering into it, which suitable fruits 
follow. Hence it happens, that /isravosn is often put in the im- 
perative, //,iTa//,sK£T<rSai never ; but in other places, wherever 
/itrdvoia is read, furafieXsia. may be substituted ; but not vice 
versa. Therefore, Paul distinctly uses both words in this 
passage, and applies to /iirdvoiav ei; eurripiav the term af/iira,- 
fj/ikriTov, because neither he can regret, that he had occasioned 
this /j^irdmav, repentance, to the Corinthians, nor they, that they 
had felt it. — ilg gcorriplav, to salvation) all the impediments to 
which are thus removed. — xaTipydt^era,!, worketli) Therefore 
sorrow is not repentance itself, but it produces repentance ; that 
is, carefulness {g'ffouSriv), ver. 11. — f} d'i) but the mere sorrow of 
the world, etc., of which I was not a promoter among you. — 
rov xoV/iou) of the world, not merely, according to the world 
(answering to the epithet of Xutjj, viz., i} xarci. hbv). [^Such was 
the sorrow of Ahab iri the case of Naboth. Now and then the 
malignant powers of darkness also mingle themselves with it, as in 
the case of Saul. In such cases, even the innocent cheerfulness of 
children, or the singing of birds, or the frisking of calves some- 
times move their indignation. The sorrow of the world, such as 

' MeTafiiT^sia. is often used of the remorse and rec/ret of such a one as 
Judas. Mereii/oicc of the true penitent Ed. 

' Repentance of ourselves is not English, and does not suggest any very- 
clear idea. I think the author meant to apply it to our original depravity, 
which to believers is the subject of confession and lamentation before God. 
This may be considered as a species of repentance, and seems to agree with 
the qualifying phrase in some respects. — Tk. 


this, is not less to he avoided than the joy of the world. The 
world experiences joy at their social feasts, for the rest of the time 
they are generally under the dominion of sorrow. — V. g.] — ^amrot, 
death) cMefly of the soul, which is evident from the antithesis 
[' salvation']. 

11. 'iSou, behold) Paul proves this from their present expe- 
rience. — u/irv, to you) The Dative of advantage ; comp. ver. 9, 
at the end. — evovBfiv, carefulness) SoroySa/br, is said of whatever of 
its kind is good, sound, and vigorous. A beautiful passage in 
the 2d book of Aristotle's Eth. Nicom. c. 5, furnishes an illus- 
tration, 71 rotj d(pSaXy,oij apirrj rov re o(p6a,X//,hv d'jrovSa/bv -jroisT xat rh 
epyov atiTou- o/io/wj i] rod /Vtou aperri, iVwoi' ri evouhatov -ttoiiT, xai 
ajraSov 8pa//,s/ii, x.t.X. " The vigour of the eye renders both the 
eye and its action excellent, in like manner the vigour of the 
horse renders the horse excellent and well fitted for running," 
etc. ; so that rh g-jrovbawv is rh lu e%oi', and is opposed to rS (pauXw, 
ib. c. 4. Therefore grnvd^ signifies activity, diligence; and in 
the present case expresses the principal characteristic of repent- 
ance, vrhen it seriously enters into the soul, a characteristic 
which xarafpovriTai, despisers, are devoid of. Acts xiii. 41. Six 
special characteristics presently follow this ' carefulness ;' and 
this one is again mentioned at ver. 12. The same word is also 
at ch. viii. 7, 8, 16, 17, 22. — aXXa avoKoyiav, %.r.\., hut, clearing 
of yourselves) But makes an emphatic addition [Epitasis]. Not 
only this, vrhich I have said, but also, etc. Some of the Corin- 
thians had behaved well, others not so well in that afiair ; or 
else even all in one respect had been blameless, in another, had 
been culpable ; from which cause it was that various > feelings 
arose. They had taken up the clearing of themselves [avoKoyiav, 
self-defence] and a feeling of indignation, in respect to them- 
selves ; they had fear and vehement desire, in respect to the 
apostle ; zeal and revenge, in respect of him, who had been 
guilty of the sin. Comp. in this threefold respect ver. 7, note, 
and ver. 12, note. — aitokoyiav, clearing of yourselves [self-de- 
fence'^ inasmuch as you did not approve of the deed. — ayavax- 
rriem, indignation) inasmuch as you did not instantly restrain 
it. — ayccvdxrrigiv is used here with admirable propriety. It de- 
notes the pain, of which a man has the cause in himself, for 
example in dentition ; for E. Schmidius compares with this 

398 2 CORINTHIANS VII. 12, 13. 

passage that from Plato, xvrisig xal ayavKXTfiaie vipl to. oZXa., itch- 
ing and pain about the gums. — po'/Soi/, fear) lest I should come 
with a rod. — Iviito^nf^, vehement desire) to see me. — Z^rikov, zeal) 
for the good of the soul of him, "who had sinned. — dxx' ixdlx-jjeiv, 
hut revenge) against the evil, which he had perpetrated, 1 Cor. 
V. 2, 3. — h irmri) in all the respects, which I have stated. — 
(fmigT^gaTi eavToiig, you have approved yourselves to me) you have 
given me satisfaction. — ayvoii; iTmi, to be clear) To be is a mild 
expression for to have become ; for they had not been quite clear, 
1 Cor. V. 6. A mutual amnesty is expressed in this and the 
following verse. — vpayiian, in the matter) He speaks indefinitely, 
as in the case of an odious occurrence. 

12. Ohx^'ivixiv To\J a,diK^ga.vTog) Whatever I have written, I have 
written it, not for the sake of him, who did the wrong. He calls 
him rhv abmrieavTa, whom he calls, ch. ii. 5, rJv XfXuffjjxoVa. He 
now varies the term because the expression, to make sorry, he 
said concerning himself, ver. 8, 9 ; and he now dismisses this 
very sorrow. Inasmuch as you Corinthians have done what 
was just respecting him, who had committed the sin, by your 
zeal and revenge, I acquiesce. — mh\ hexiv tou adixriSevrog, nor for 
the sake of him, who suffered wrong) The singular for the plural 
by euphemism. The Corinthians had suffered wrong, ch. ii. 5 ; 
and their clearing of themselves, and indignation put it now in 
Paul's power to acquiesce also on their account. Others ex- 
plain it as referring to the offended parent, 1 Cor. v. 1. — r^> 
emuS^v fifiZv, our care) Comp. ii. 4. — hiiviov, in the sight of) 
Construed with (pavipaSnmi, that it might be manifested. 

13. 'Eff/ rji vapax'krisii i/j^uv, on account of your comfort) which 
followed that very sorrow. — -jripigeoTipeiig ^/j^aXkov, more abundantly 
rather [exceedingly the more^ That feeling rather [jLaKkoi] takes 
the name oi joy than comfort; and the joy was, mpiggoTip^ag, 
more abundant, than the comfort. So (iiaXkov with the superla- 
tive, xii. 9 : fiaXXov for di ^[autem], yea and, is put here with 
striking effect. 

* Tischend. and Lachm. stop thus : lid tovto TxpaxsxhTifti^a. M Se rti 
■mpeix'htiaii, etc. The Se is put after ■jripunroTipus by Rec. Text. But after 
M by BOD(A)G/^ Vulg.— Ed. 

^ The omission, however, of the particle Se both in the margin of the 2d 
Ed. and in the Germ. Ver,, is thought to be not quite so certain. — E. B. 

2 CORINTHIANS VII. 14, 16.-Vni. 1, 2. 399 

14. Kexav^ri/iui, ov xarrje^Mrjv, I Jiave boasted, I am not 
ashamed') ch. ix. 4, xii. 6. — irdfra, all things) He suitably refers 
to ch. i. 18. 

16. 'Ell iravrl, in every thing) This is applicable in the antece- 
dent and consequent [in the context which precedes and that 
which follows]. He says, if I reprove you, you take it well ; 
if I promise for you, you perform what is promised. So he 
prepares a way for himself with a view to what follows in viii. 1 
and X. 1, where the very word 6ap^!o, I have confidence, is re- 
sumed. — h iiu,T\i, in you) on your account. 


1. Tvupif^o/j,iv, we make known) This exhortation is inserted in 
this passage, which is extremely weU suited to the purpose, and, 
after the preceding very sweet declaration of mutual love, with 
which it is connected by the mention of Titus ; it is also set 
before them according to the order of Paul's journey, that the 
epistle may afterwards terminate in a graver admonition. More- 
over the exhortation itself, even to the Corinthians, in respect to 
whom the apostle might have used the authority of a father, is 
even most especially liberal and evangelical. — d^v %af /k, the grace) 
When anything is well done, there is grace to those, who do 
it, and also grace to those, to whom it is done. This word 
here is of frequent occurrence, ver. 4, 6, 7, 9, 19 ; ch. ix. 
8, 14. 

2. 0X;4'£ws, of distress (pressurse) \of affliction']) joined to 
poverty, ver. 13, SXi-^ig, a burden of distress. — 'jripiaeiia xal 
'rrru^eia,, abundance and poverty) An oxymoron and hendiadys 
pleasantly interwoven. — Karcb fidku;) Bdhus is the genitive, 
governed by xara : comp. xara, Matt. viii. 32 : also E. Schmid., 
2 John, ver. 3. He quotes his own syntax of Greek particles, 
an excellent hodk.—d-jrXSrtjTos, of [liberality] simplicity) Sha- 
plicity renders men liberal, ch. ix. 11 [aTXoVjjra, which Engl. V. 
renders bountifulnessj. 

•too 2 CORINTHIANS VIII. 3-6. 

3. "Or;, because) Anaphora with epitasis.' — /iaprvpZ, I bear 
witness) This expression has respect to the words, xar&, accordr- 
ing to, and ffaf a, beyond. — avdalperoi) of their own accord ; not 
only not being besought, but they themselves beseeching us. 
See the following verse. 

4. A£0|(i£K);, beseeching [praying']) They had been affectionately 
admonished by Paul, not to do beyond their power. The Mace- 
donians on the other hand besought [prayed], namely, that their 
gift might be received. — rfiv ya^n xal rriv xoivuivlav,^ grace and 
fellowship^) a Hendiadys. 

5. "ESuxciv, they gave) This word mamtains the whole struc- 
ture of the paragraph in the following sense : Not only have 
they given grace and a proof of fellowship, or 5o|U,a, that gift, 
but they have altogether given their own selves. So Chrysos- 
tom, Homil. xvi. on 2 Cor. ; comp. especially Homil. xvii., where 
he repeats vmp duva/nv sSwzav. The nominatives al6a!piroi, Sio- 
(iimi are connected with the same verb 'idaxav ; and the accusa- 
tives x"?"? xoimviav, iauToig, depend upon it, in an easy and 
agreeable sense. The transcribers have thrust in ds^acSai rjfi&g 
after ayiou; ; and those who consider these words as Paul's, give 
themselves great trouble, especially Beza. Different commen- 
tators have used different glosses, which are quite superfluous. — ■ 
•^rpSiTov, first) their own selves, before [in preference and prece- 
dency to] their gift ; comp. Eom. xv. 16. — rp Kuplu, to the Lord) 
Christ. — xa,i iifuv dia kXri/iaros ©sou, and to US by the will of God) 
It is therefore called the grace of God, ver. 1. The Macedonians 
did not of themselves previously determine the amount of the 
gift, but left that to the disposal of the apostle. 

6. E/'s) Not the end, but the consequence is intended [" inso- 
much that"]. — -/.aSSig <!rpoiyrip^aro, as he formerly began) in regard 
to spiritual thing^ ch. vii. 15. To him, who has begun well, the 
things which are beyond turn out easy. He had gone to the 
Corinthians ; he was going to the Corinthians. — kirmXiert, he 

'■ See App. The same ori, already used ver. 2, is again by Anaphora used 
here, to mark the beginnings of sections or sentences. The x.a.ra. iiuetfiif 
makes an emphatic addition or epitasis. — Ed. 

' Rec. Text adds after ayi'ov; the words li^etaPeci tiftHs. But BCD(A)G^ 
Vulg. omit them. — Ed. 

' = their free gift of fellowship to be ministered to. — Ed. 


would finisK) in this matter. [If you have attempted any good 
thing, finish it. — V. g.J — lig !i/, in respect of you) that you 
might imitate the Macedonians. 

7. 'AXK' ugvip, hut as) He says, hut. The things which Paul 
had formerly done with the Corinthians by means of Titus, had 
the force of an injunction, imruyri, vii. 15. Comp. 1 Cor. v. 7. 
He now acts differently : therefore the word that presently after 
depends on, I speak, in the following verse. — wV^rs^, as) The 
Spirit leads to abundance in all respects. — ymeu, in knowledge) 
This is mentioned appositely : comp. ch. vi. 6, note. Its conju- 
gate ymijjnv occurs presently at ver. J.0 : comp. 1 Cor. vii. 25, 
note. — 3ca/ vaerj eiroublp) and in all diligence. ffcroijSjj here compre- 
hends ' faith^ and ' utterance^ (of the heart and of the mouth), 
' knowledge,' etc. And the genus or whole is often subjoined to 
the species or one or more parts, by introducing the connecting 
link, and all; ch. x. 5 ; Matt. iii. 5, xxiii. 27; Mark vii. 3 ; 
Luke xi. 42, xiii. 28, xxi. 29 ; Acts vii. 14, xv. 17, xxii. 5 ; 
Eph. i. 21, ir. 31, v. 3 ; Heb. xiii. 24, James iii. 16 ; Rev. vii. 
16, xxi. 8, xxii. 15. — jca/ tr\ — uyaTcri, and in love) He subjoins to 
the genus [ff^ouS^i] the species [ayaTri] which is most connected 
with the matter in hand [viz. that they should contribute to 
their brethren in needj. — ig, from) He does not say, in your 
love toward us, but he says, in love from you in us [in the love 
which is on your part, and is treasured up in us], because the 
Corinthians were in the heart of Paul, ch. vii. 3. He pleads 
their love as an argument : he does not add, that they should 
give the more on account of Paul, who had preached to them 
the Gospel gratuitously. — 'ha, that) This word depends on Xeyu, 
I speak, elegantly subjoined [ver. 8]. 

8. Aia, hy) Having mentioned to you in ver. 1, the diligence 
of others. — also. This is more powerful than any command- 
ment. — aydviii, of love) nothing is more forward in zeal [refer- 
ring to 6wj&rii\ than love. — doxi/idZ^uv, proving) The participle 
depends on ver. 10. 

9. TivugxiTi yap, for ye know) by that knowledge, which ought 
to include love. — x"'!""} *^^^ grace) love most sincere, abundant, 
and free. — l-rrruxevae, He hecame poor) He bore the burden of 
poverty ; and yet this is not demanded from you : ver. 14. — 
himv, of Him, His) This intimates the previous greatness of 

VOL. III. ^ ^ 

402 2 CORINTHIANS VIII. 10-14. 

the Lord. — araxiicf vXouTrjgriTi, through His poverty ye might he 
rich) So through the instrumentality of all those things, which 
the Lord has suffered, the contrary benefits have been pro- 
cured for us, 1 Pet. ii. 24, end of ver. 

10. Ka;, and) — (Sv/jL<pspsi, is expedient) An argument from the 
useful, moving them to give : So, ver. 16, vvsp. A most pleasant 
paradox. — rh minaai, to do) for the past year. — rh 6sKiiv, [to be 
forward] to be willing) for this year. 

11. Tb minstt.1, the doing) that you may do again. — iaiTiXigart, 
perform) The beginning and especially the end of actions lays 
the foundation of praise or else blame, Gen. xi. 6 ; Josh. vi. 26 ; 
Jer. xliv. 25. — oVws, that) namely, it may be. — Ix mu '^x^iv, out of 
that which you have) not more. The proposition [theme for dis- 
cussion] in relation to what follows. 

.12. jlpoxiiTui, if there be obvious [if there be first]) So •irovri- 
f'lcx, 'jrpoxiirai v/jJiii, evil is before you, Ex. x. 10. — iu'jrposSexTo;, he is 
well-acccepted or viry acceptable) to God, ch. ix. 7, with his gift. 
[Not as Engl. V. " it is accepted ;" ix. 7 confirms this, " The 
Lord loveth a cheerful giver."'] — oi x.a,6h o'm £%£/, not according to 
what a man Jias not) For thus [were God's favour regulated by 
the amount of the gift, not by the willingness of the giver] a 
more humble person would be less acceptable. 

13. Ou yap) for not, viz. the object aimed at is not. The rule 
of exercising liberality. — angis- SXi-^ii) The same antithesis is 
found, 2 Thess. i. 6, 7.^-lf koTrtns, by an equality) in carnal 
things. [Love thy neighbour, as thyself (not more). — V. g.J — 
b rffl M xaipa, at the present [juncture] time) This limitation 
does not occur again in the following verse.— ri — mpiegivfio,, 
abundance) in external resources [means]. The imperative 
yiv'sgSo) is courteously omitted, for he does not command, ver. 8. 

14. Kai rb — mplggiu/ia, that also their abundance) in spiritual 
things.' — y'evriTai I'lg) We have the same expression at Gal. iii. 
14. — rb vfiSiv xigTipniM, your [spiritual] want) inasmuch as ye 
were Gentiles. Their [spiritual] abundance had already begun 
to supply the want of the Corinthians ; he is therefore speaking 

1 As Jews. Eng. Ver. evidently takes it of temporal abundance, i.e., 
that if hereafter ye be in want, their abundance may supply you, as you now 
supply them. JBut Beng. takes both "your abundance" (temporal) and theira 
(spiritual) of the present time. — Ed. 

2 CORINTHIANS VIII. 15-19. 403 

of continuation, increase, and reward [in spiritual things]. Nor 
yet would I venture to deny, that the corporeal abundance also 
of the Jews would sometimes supply the corporeal want of the 
Gentiles ; for the limitation is omitted, ver; 13, note. Although 
[the view that the reference is to] the spiritual abundance of 

Israel is supported by the parallel passage, Eom. xv. 27. 

/'ffoVjjs, equality) in spiritual things. 

15. TiypcarTo,!, it is written) Ex. xvi. 18, oux. ivXiovagfv o ri 
mKv, xa! 6 ri sXaTrov, oux ^Xarroiriffev. The article t-J adds to it 
the force of a superlative [rJ ^oXu, the most; rJ 'iXarTov, the least}. 
— 6 tJ «XD, he who the most) viz. nxx's^ag, gathered. There is 
a similar expression, Num. xxxv. 8, a^J ruv t^ mXXa, 'ttoWo,. — 
ouK sitXiovadi) he had not more than an homer. 

16. xdpig, thanks) There -was earnest care in me [myself] : 
from which proceeded [to which was owing] the exhortation to 
Titus ; but there was in Titus himself the same earnest care, 
divinely inspired ; for which I return thanks to God. See how 
widely this duty of thanksgiving extends. Often in some par- 
ticular case, one person has greater care than others, as was the 
case with Titus. This circumstance ought not to be blamed, 
but to be acknowledged as the gift of God. 

17. UafxixXrim, the exhortation) that which is given at ver. 6, 
namely, that he should go to you. — •■airoubaiortpoi, more forward) 
more active than to require exhortation, ver. 22. 

18. '2tive'7ri/j,-^a{/,ey, we fiave sent along with him) Timotheus 
and I. So ver. 1, etc. This word is repeated at ver. 22 by 
anaphora ;^ and in this passage, where it first occurs, is em- 
phatic with /MTa. — Tov &diX(pov, the brother) It was unnecessary to 
name this companion of Titus, and that ' brother,' who is spoken 
of at ver. 22. See ch. xii. 18. The ancients were of opiaion, 
that Luke was intended ; see the close' of the epistle ; comp. 
Philem. 24. — oS, of whom) He, who is faithful in the Gospel, 
will be faithful also in matters of inferior importance. 

19. XeipoToiirjhts [chosen'] appointed) This participle is not con- 
strued with, he went unto you, ver. 17 : for that construction 
would interrupt the connection, ver. 18, 20, g\iiie'ire/i-<\'a/iiv — enX- 

^ See Append. The repetition of the same word marking the beginnings 
of sections. 

404 2 CORINTHIANS VIII. 20-22. 

Xo/ijvo/, ive sent along with — avoiding. Therefore 05, who, is to be 
supplied, taken from ou, of whom, whose, in the preceding verse. 
The churches had given this companion to Paul, whithersoever 
he might go. Hence they are called the apostles, or messengers 
of the churches, ver. 23 : and Paul declares, that this office here 
also has respect to the present business. From this it is evident, 

that the rights of the churches are mutual [reciprocal] avnx8ri/ji,o;, 

the companion of our travels. Those, who read with Wolfius, 
e\in%hii\[j,oi v/jijSi\i, refer to it by mistake the various reading of the 
pronoun at the end of the verse.'^ — e-jv, with) construed with 
euvixSrifMoc, the companion of our travels. They carried along with 
them the gift of the Macedonians to Jerusalem. — 'jrphg, to) con- 
strued with yiipoTovrjhig, chosen, appointed. — airoD ro\J Kupiov, of 
the [same'} Lord Himself) viz. Christ, ver. 21. — xal 'jrpoSuft.iaii 
^/j,Siv, our ready mind) The proofs for reading ii/jLuv are by far the 
most numerous, and u/iSJv has crept into a few copies, by an 
obvious exchange of the Greek pronoun, which was more 
readily made on account of the alliteration of the u in u/iSv 
with ■ffpohfiiav. The churches had charged the brother of whom 
he is here speaking, the companion of Paul, with their own gift, 
not with a view to the readiness of the Corinthians, which had 
less relation to the churches, but with a view to produce readi- 
ness on the part of Paul and of that brother, i.e. lest for fear of 
that ilame, of which he afterwards speaks, their willingness to 
undertake and finish the business might be lessened. 

20. ' AbporriTi, in this abundance) This term does not permit the 
Corinthians to be restricted [niggardly] in their contribution. 

21. 'EvwOToi/ Kupm, in the sight of the Lord) in private, in 
truth : comp. Kom. xii. 17, note. 

^22. AuToTg, with them) with Titus and the brother. — vivoiiijiici, 
through the confidence) construed with, we have sent along with, 
here and at ver. 18 : comp. v. 23. — e/'s i/^Ss, which we feel 
towards [m] you) concerning your liberality. ^ 

1 Therefore both the margin of the 2d, as well as of the larger Ed. and 
the Germ. Ver., prefer the reading ij^tSj/. — E. B. 

At the end of the verse iifiuu is the reading of all the best Uncial MSS., 
BCG, etc., "Vulg., etc. Rec. Text has ifi.aii with but slight authority. — Ed. 

'' EuZttioii tiiiipii'jraii, in the sight of men) Men are depraved, and are 
therefore suspicious. Hence also it is just, that men of the highest integrity 
should avert all suspicion. — V. g. 

2 CORINTHIANS VIII. 24.-IX. 1-4. 405 

23. 'Tir«^, [pro] in behalf of, for) This gives the motive of the 
confidence^ — T/Vou, xoimvhg, in behalf of Titus, a partner) These 
words are in apposition ; comp. [ch. xi, 28] Luke xxii. 20 [dia6rixri 
h Tifi a'liiarl /iou, rh ivsp v/j,Siii ix'^uvo/iivov], note. — adiXipol, brethren) 
It might have been said for, or in behalf of our brethren, but 
the word xoivui/hs, partner, coming in between as the nominative 
case, brethren is also put in the nominative, and the verb are is 
supplied, i.e., whether they are and are regarded as our brethren 
for the sake of whom we are confident you will be liberal]. — 
avodroXoi) deputies, messengers ; persons who on the public ac- 
count execute a pious office. Again supply are. 

24. "'Evdei^iv evSii^aek) This expression is the same idiom as 
^alpiiv ^apdv." — iig auroOs, I'lg -Trpigca-aov tZv ixxXijeiZv, to them, in the 
face of the churches) The knowledge of the matter was sure to 
spread by means of the messengers [deputies] among the chxirches. 


1. TJ Ypdpiiv, to write) For you will have witnesses presei^t 
with you, and I know, that you are ready without writing letters 
to you. 

2. Kav^u/j^ai, I boast) The present tense. Paul was still in 
Macedonia. — *o i^ u/iuv ^^Xos) the zeal, which was propagated from 
you to the Macedonians. — roig ■jrXilomg) most [not merely very 
many, as Engl. V.] of the Macedonians. 

S."E«e/i-^a, I sent) before me, ver. 5. — h rw t^ipii, in this re- 
spect [behalf]) He makes a limitation. — xa^ug 'iXiyov, as I was 
saying, ver. 2. 

4. 'T/iiTg, ye) much more so [you would feel still more ashamed 
than we]. — Iwodraen, stedfast confidence) [concerning your libe- 
rality], ch. xi. 17. 

* i.e. We feel confident you will be liberal /or the sake o/ Titus. — Ed. 

2 An accus. of a cognate signification to the verb, Manifest a manifesta- 
tion. — Ed. 

» 'Ato vepvai, since last year) owing to the former exhortation of Paul, 
1 Cor. xvi. 1. — V. g. 

406 2 COKINTHUNS IX. 5-9. 

5. 'Ava/jta/oi', necessary) not merely [suitable] becoming. — wfio- 
IffTjyysX/ili'jjv, promised before [But Engl. V., whereof ye had 
notice before]) by me, among the Macedonians, concerning you 
[the liberaHty on your part, which I had vouched for to the 
Macedonians], — ev\oyiav) as im is used for word and deed, so 
ihXoy'ia, a blessing and a benefit ['bounty'], a bountiful gift, LXX. 
Josh. XV. 19. — ihui) for toD sJi/a;, that it may be. — ourwf, so) The 
Ploce is by this word [so] shown in regard to bounty.^ — vXiovi^iav, 
[covetousness] avarice) It is avarice, when men give niggardly, 
and receive [get] unjustly. 

6. ^eido/Ltvus) sparingly. [The reaping corresponds to the manner 
and principles of the sowing. The very words lead to that infer- ' 
ence. — ^V. g.]. — ivXoylaig) The plural adds to the force. 

7. Ka^iis vpoaipifrcti) according as he purposeth [is disposed] in 
his heart, Gen. xxsiv. , 8, iB'Si nptyn, lxx — 'irpoiTXin ■4'>jxJi- Se 
purposeth beforehand : grudgingly : from necessity : cheerful ; 
Four expressions, of which the first and third, the second and 
fourth are opposed to each other.^lg avayxjjs, from necessity) on 
this account only, that he cannot refuse. — iXaphv, cheerful) like 
God, Prov. xxii. 9, lxx., avdpa, IXaphv xa! fioVjji/ aya'j^ (Alex. 
ivXoyef) Qihg, God loves a cheerful man and a cheerful giver 
(Alex, blesses, instead of loves). 

8. Tlaeav x°-f'h '^^^ grace) even in external goods.: — wepiesi^eai, 
to render abundant) even while you bestow. — iVa, that) What is 
given to us is so given and we have it, not that we may have, 
but that we may do well therewith. All things in this life, even 
rewards, are seeds to behevers for the fiiture harvest. — alrapxemv, 
sufficiency) that you may not require another's liberality. To 
this is to be referred the bread, ver. 10. — ayaSh, good) in regard 
to the needy. To this the seed is to be referred, ver. 10. 

9. '^(fxopmsiv. He hath dispersed) a generous word; to disperse 
[scatter] with full hand, without anxious thought, in what direc- 
tion every grain may fall. There is also a metonymy,^ hath dis- 
persed [scattered], i.e., he always has, what he may disperse 
[scatter]. Indeed in Ps. cxii. 9 it is a part of the promise. — 
i} dixaioeuvrt aurov, his righteousness) righteousness, i.e., beneficence; 

1 Ploce, where a word is used, as sixoy/os here, first in the simple sense, 
then to express some attribute of it. — See Append. — Ed. 

' Here the substitution of the consequent for the antecedent. — Ed. 

2 CORINTHIANS IX. 10-12. 407 

see the next verse. The latter Is marked in its strict sense. 
Righteousness is something more. — /isve;, remains) unexhausted, 
uneffaced, unfailing. 

10. 'O is) God. — eviyppi/iym, He tJiat supplies, or ministereth) 
There is [implied an] ahimdance, inasmuch as seed is given ; 
bread, which is a necessary, is therefore given first. Paul hints, 
that, in the promise of the seed, which is denoted by the verb he 
hath dispersed, the promise of bread also is presupposed ; but he 
adds more : for there is in the text a Chiasmus ;^ God, who pre- 
sents seed to the sower, will supply and multiply your seed : God, 
who gives bread for food, will increase the fruits [produce] of 
your righteousness, which feeds the soul. Eighteousness is the 
food of the soul. Matt. v. 6 ; Vi. 31, 33. — Ivi-xfipriyini, to supply, or 
administer, is emphatic ; but y<ifr\j%ii to give or minister, with the 
addition of irXin^lnn, to multiply, implies more. — l.vopog, the seed, 
i.e., resources [worldly means], so far as they are piously laid out: 
ymni^ara, the fruits, [the offshoots], i.e., the growth of all spiritual 
improvement and corporeal blessing, springing from that sowing. 
This mode of pointing has been already noticed in the Appa^ 
ratus, so that the comma should be placed after /3^w<r;v, not 
aft;er ■/opny^'Sii- — xa/ &fTov, and bread) Is. Iv. 10, itas &v Soj 
(i uiThg) ewipiJ^a rp evi'ipovri xal aprov lis ^pudiv, until the rain give 
seed to the sower and bread for food. — yppnyridei, will give) The 
indicative.^ The Corinthians will afford scope [opportunity 
for exercise] to the divine liberality^ and it will evince itself 
towards them. — y£vv^//.ara) so the LXX., yiviriiia.ra, diKaioSuvng, 

Hos. X. 12. 

IX- XlXovTit,6f/,im, being enriched) This depends on, that ye may 
abound, ver. 8. The present here is used to imply; having more 
than a sufficiency [ver. 8]. 

12. "H diaxovia rijs XsiTovpyiag Tavrrig) the administration of this 
service, a becoming appellation. Xiiroiipyla is the function itself, 
[service to be discharged,] diaxovia, the act. — •apoaava'trkripovaa,, still 

1 See Append. 

^ Which is preferred both in the 2d Ed. and in the Germ. Vers, different 
from what had been the case in the first Ed. — E. B. 

BCD(A) corrected later, fg Vulg. (but Fuld. MS. has pr^stavit— mul- 
tiplicavit) Cypr. have xopnyiiaii — v'KnSvuu. G has ^o^jjy^jira; — ■x'KnSvuu.i ; 
and so Bee. Text. C has ir'hnSiiiK — Ed. 

408 2 CORINTHIANS IX. 13-16. 

further supplies [supplies in addition]) a double compound. 
Their wants were also supplied from other quarters. — •sok'Kuv, by 
many) feminine [not " thanksgivings of many."'\ 

13. Aoxi/MTjg) [the experiment^ the proof afforded by this minis- 
tration. — 8o^a.?^ovTi;, glorifying) This depends on thanksgivings, 
ver. 12. Again the nominative case, on the same principle as 
viii. 23j note, [T/Vou, xoivavos — aSsXpo/.J — im rjj V'!roTa'/fi ryjs ifioXo- 
yiccg vfiSiv, for the subjection of your profession) They were about 
to profess by their very acts, that they acknowledged the divine 
bounty shown to themselves in the Gospel, [and had yielded 
[victas dedisse sc. manus) to the word of grace. — ^V. g.] — xat 
E/'s vdvTag, and to all) He, who benefits some of the saints, by 
that very act benefits all ; for he shows, that he is favourable to 

14. Airigii, on account of their prayer) [But Engl. Vers., " by 
their prayer for you."] Construe, glorifying [So^d^ovTi;, ver. 13] 
for their prayer ; for we give thanks even for the prayers which 
have been given to us [which God has enabled us to ofier], 
2 Tim. i. 3 [/ thank God, that without ceasing I have remem- 
brance of thee in my prayersl. — hxi'rokuvTCiiv, greatly desinng) 
construe with ahruv, of them. — iia, on account of, for) construe 
with thanksgivings [ih-)(api(STiuv, ver. 12]. — £p' liiTv) which rests 
upon you, in such a degree as that it redounds to their ad- 

15. Xapig, thanks) This is the meaning : God has given us 
rijv hapicnv, the gift, abundance of good things both internal and 
external, which both is in itself inexpressible, and bears fruits of 
a corresponding description ; comp. ver. 8, etc. (where there is 
an expression [an attempt to express the abundance of the gift], 
but its words are not adequate so as to satisfy Paul's mind), and 
ch. viii. 9, 1, and the full expression of these fruits, by reason of 
the copiousness of the topics, has rendered the language itself 
at the end of the preceding chapter somewhat perplexed. The 
modus' is added, thanks be to God. 

1 See Append. " Modalis Sermo." Here, the modus accompanying the 
simple naked proposition is thanksgiving. — Ep. 

2 COKINTHIANS X. 1. 409 


1. AlrJs 8i iyla UavXog,- now I Paul myself) An expression 
very demonstrative and emphatic. Myself forms an antithesis, 
either to Titus and the two brethren, in reference to what Paul 
premised [viii. 18, 22, ix. 3] : or, to the Corinthians, who of 
themselves were bound to attend to their duty; or, even to 
Paul himself, who was about to use greater severity when in 
their presence [ver. 2, 11], so that aM;, myself, may signify, 
of my own accord. — ■ira,pa,-/,akSi) exhort, advise, for your sake ; 
when I might command and threaten. • The antithesis is bioiLai 
hi, hut I beseech, for my own sake, in the next verse [Engl. 
>Vers. loses this antithesis by rendering both verbs, / beseecli], 
— bi&, by) A motive equally applicable to Paul and the Cor- 
inthians. — Tpcforrin; xal sviiixilag, the meekness and gentleness) 
'xpcf.orni, meekness, a virtue - more absolute : imilxeia, leniency, 
gentleness, is more in relation to others. Each of these is the 
true source of even his severest admonitions [and ought to be 
so in ours also]. — tou Xpiand, of Christ^) This signifies, that he 
did not derive his meekness from nature. Or else, dia, by, is 
used as at Eom. xii. 1 [I beseech you by the mercies of God], 
so that the meekness and gentleness of Christ Himself seem to 
be understood ; but the objection to this view is, that iTiilxsia, 
gentleness, appears to be predicated of Christ Himself in no 
other passage, and this is a usual mode of speaking with Paul, 
to represent Christ as working and exerting His power in . 
him and by him. Comp. the phrase, the truth of Christ [is in 
me], i.e., the truth in Christ, 2 Cor. xi. 10 ; and add Phil. i. 8, 
note. — OS, who) This is a pleasant mimesis or allusion to their 
usual mode of speaking, ver. 10, a figure which is also here 
repeated more than once in the verb Xoy/^o/ia/.^ — rarrsmg) 
humble [lowly. Engl. Vers., base], timid. 

^ i.e. By the meekness and gentleness derived by me from Christ. — Ed. 

* Aayi'^oficti, lam thouffht, Aoyurfiovs, ver. 5|; T^oyi^sada, ver. 7 and II, 
all refer to the "hoyiafMl of the Corinthians (ver. 2, ?^oyi^ofiiiiaus) by Mi- 
mesis. — Ed. 

410 2 CORINTHIANS X. 2-5. 

2. Alo^a/, T beseech) God; as at xiii. 7, or here it is, I beseech 
you. Paul intimates, that, as he may beseech in his letters, so he 
can nevertheless act with severity in their presence. — Xoy/^o^a/, 
I am thought [but Engl. Vers., / think to be bold]) Passive as 
in Eom. iv. 4, 5. — !«' nmi [against] as to, with respect to some) 
construe with to he hold. — roOs Xoy/^o/iEwiuj, thinking) in the 
middle voice. — ws, as if) Connect it with according to the flesh. 
— x.aT&. eapxa, according to the flesh) as if they may despise us 
with impunity. 

3. 'Ev gapxl, in the flesh) with weakness. See the following 
verse. — ''■ erparivSfitSa, we war) By this word he opens the way 
for a transition to what follows ; and the reason of the boldness, 
rou 6ot,pprjgai [ver. 2], is included. 

4. T& y&p S'ffXa, for -the arms [weapons']) From the paternal 
rod, 1 Cor. iv. 21 [shall I come unto you with a rod?], he now 
proceeds to arm,s, with increasing severity ; comp. presently ver. 
6 ; also 1 Cor. v. 5, 13. — ou eapxiKa, aXXSt Suvar&) not carnal and 
weak, but spiritual, and therefore mighty. — rfi) ©sffi [Engl. Vers., 
" through God,"] to God) This is virtually an accusative case." 
So ch. ii. 15, to God. In like manner. Acts. vii. 20; in the 
same way as the preposition ^ is used as a prefix, Jonah iii. 3 
[an exceeding great .city, " lit. a city of God]. The power is 
not ours, but of God. The efficacy of the Christian teligion is 
an argument of its truth. — i^upa/xdrav, of strongholds) A grand 
expression. [The human understanding may here suspect in- 
flated language ; but it is no common force and power, to wit, the 
force and power of those things, which in the case of the soul are 
brought out on both sides (both on the carnal and on the spiritual 
side). — V. g.] 

5. Aoyis/j.ous [imaginations, reasonings] thoughts) those very- 
thoughts of which he speaks, ver. 2.' — xa6aipo\Jvreg, casting down) 
This expression might be construed with ver. 3, but it rather 
depends on ver. 4, the pulling down [x,a6aipeeiv]. Again, the 

' 'Ec aapxl — oil x«tjJ trxpua, inihe flesh — not according to the flesh) There 
is a great difference. — Y. g. 

" As the Accus. is often used adverbially, forming an adverbial epithet. 

' AoyiiT/Mvs alludes, by Mimesis, to the Corinthians, roi); Xoyi^ofuvav!, 
etc., ver. 2.— Ed. 

2 COEINTHIANS X. 6, 7. 411 

nominative is used for an otlique case, as in ch. ix. 13, note. — 
■irav v-^tii/ia, every high thing) Thoughts is the species ; high thina, 
the genus. He does not say, %-^oi ; comp. Eom. viii. 39, note.^ — 
irraipS/ievov, exalting itself) like a wall and a rampart. — xarA 5-^5 
yvueiu; rou ©eoD, against the knowledge of God) True knowledge 
makes men humble [attributing all power to GoD alone. — V. g.J 
Where there is exaltation of self, there the knowledge of God is 
wanting. — a/';^;/iaX&)r/^ow-ES ^rav iio>j/*a) Nd>]|U.a implies the faculty 
of the mind, voog, of which Xoyie/iol, the thoughts, are the acts. 
The latter, hostile in [of] themselves, are east down ; the former 
vanquished and taken captive is wont to surrender itself, so 
that it necessarily and willingly tenders the obedience of faith 
to Christ the conqueror, having laid aside all its own authority, 
even as a slave entirely depends on the will of his master. 

6. 'Ev iToifiiu) e^ovreg) viz., tjf/'ai, he says. We are ready [having 
ourselves in readiness]. We have zeal already; and it will 
be brought forth into action at the proper time. — -jraaav, all) This 
has a more extensive meaning than i/mv, your, presently after. 
— orav, when) lest the weaker should be injured,^ ver. 8. This 
is the principal point of pastoral prudence. [Paul had already 
done something of this sort at Corinth, Acts xviii. 7. On a 
similar principle, GoD exercises so great long-suffertng as lie 
does, in regard to an immense multitude of wicked men, till those 
things which can be gained thereby, Jiave been drawn forth. See 
Exod. xxxii. 34. — V. g.] 

7. Ta x.aTa vpoecamv /SXeitete, do you look on the things accord- 
ing to the face [outward appearance^) The error of the Corin- 
thians is noticed and refdted generally, ver. 7-9 : then, having 
been specially detailed, it is specially refuted, ver. 10, 11. 
Therefore [ver. 7] let him think this [ver. 11], is repeated. — 
xaT& vpodeairov, after the face [outward appearance^) ver. 1. In 
antithesis to, by letters, ver. 9. He says, I can act with severity 
face to face [as well as by letters: ^pieumv being opposed to 
It/otoXcDv]. — £/' rii) if any one of you. — vivaikv) visoUriSis and 
-iriieoiSa,, have been hitherto variously used by Paul in this epistle, 
ver. 2, etc. — a<f iaurou, of himself) before he is in a more 

' S'tpos the primitive, heiffht absolutely : v-^afux. a kind of verbal, not so 
much high, as a thing made Ugh, elevated, elated. — Ed. 
2 Were I prematurely before the time to revenge disobedienee.—ED. 

412 2 CORINTHIANS X. 8-12. 

severe manner convinced of it by ns. The Christian by his own 
feelings can measure his brother. — xcc6iig, even as) The conde- 
scension of Paul, inasmuch as he merely demands an ecjual place 
with those, whom he had begotten by the Gospel ; for he him- 
self must previously have belonged to Christ, or been a Christian, 
by whom another was brought to belong to Christ. This was 
a cause [motive] for modesty [a modest feeling towards Paul] 
in the case of the Corinthians. — xal rifnTg, we also) A fact which 
such a man [one thdt trusts he belongs to Christ] will be able 
to realize by experience. 

8. Tap, for) This word makes an emphatic addition to the 
previous enunciation [epitasis]. — xa! mipieaonpoM n, even somewliat 
more exceedingly [excellently]) for they were not only Christians, 
but apostles, etc. — i^oueias, of the power) ver. 6, xiii. 10. — o 
Kvploc, the Ziord) Christ. — oux ais^uv6rieo/ji,ai, I shall not be 
ashamed) It wiU not be mere flashes of hghtning from a basin ;^ 
I shall not shrink from exercising my authority. 

9. "Iva laii) I say this, lest, etc. — iig av) Apposite particles 
[as thorigh I wouldj. — lx<poStTv v/iag, terrify you) as if you were 
children, with vain terror. 

10. *»!*/) saith he [one], viz. he, who thus speaks : viz. he, 
who is mentioned at ver. 11. The concealed slanderer is in- 
tended, whom the Lord, or even Paul, by the Lord's pointing 
him out, saw. There was such a slanderer also among the 
Galatians ; Gal. v. 10. — ^apiTai, weighty) the antithesis is con- 
temptible. — igy^upal, powerful) the antithesis is weak. — •aapoue'ia, 
his presence) This was an instance of the same truth embodied 
in the saying of the present day : One's presence diminishes 
one's fame. The Aiithologium of the Greek Church for the 
29th day of June has a commemoration of Peter and Paul, with a 
representation of the form o